Sustainability off off-gridPhotovoltaic-                  Systems forElectrification in CountriesSustainableDevelopment in Construction and Real Estate, Senior Lecture Mr. Eric PollockGaurangGhule, Masters Student ConRemAbstractTheelectrification ratio that the government in India identified was 73%, but only8% of the villages have power supply. A village would be considered electrifiedif electricity is provided in schools, panchayat offices, health centres,community centres etc. Two challenges to electrify household in villages arepoor people cannot afford to pay the cost of connection and other even if theyget the connection, the supply is far from being reliable that is connected togrid.Due to some ofvillages are located in rural areas we have limited access to infrastruces.Also use of fossil fuels can be found to be most expensive, polluting andnoisy.

Thus a Renewable source of energy should be considered. Has Hydro Powerand on grid solar are connected to main grid, a cheaper and reliable source thatis off grid should be considered for areas having less densification and lessusage of infrastructures.A single powersystem is an off grid system that allows electrification for a single customerthrough various electrical appliances. “Accordingto the power dimension, they can be grouped into four categories: portablelights (i.

e. rechargeable & solar lanterns), mini kits (i.e.

pico hydro& pico solar systems), Home Systems (supplied by solar SHS or pico-hydro)and Residential Systems (generally supplied by hydro, wind or solar –withdiesel backup or not)”.Thesereview will make the companies and stakeholders understand the issue andadvantages and dis advantages of systems affecting sustainability for furthermodifications.Keywords: Off gridsystems, rural electrification, sustainable energy, developing countries.IntroductionEnergy in all itsform underpins both past and future growth.

Developing Countries need toaddress energy challenges which cross all sectors and impacts citizen. Energyoffers great development to be reliable, energy efficient, heating, cooking,mechanical services etc. “According to the UnitedNations (UN), Sustainable Development (SD) is not possible without sustainableenergy, such that the issue has been prioritized by devoting a stand-alone SDgoal to sustainable energy, which implies universal access to affordable,reliable and modern energy”.Although there is nouniversal definition of energy access and data are often scarce, theInternational Energy Agency (IEA) defines energy access as “household havingaccess to electricity and to a relatively clean, safe means of cooking”. Forelectricity, the methodology used by the IEA is fixing a minimum annualhousehold consumption of 250 Kilowatt-hours (kWh) in rural areas and 500 kWh inurban areas. According to this definition, 1.2 billion people worldwide arestill lacking access to electricity, especially those from rural areas.Power Grid is a developmentof off grid technology .

One of Technology is photovoltaic which has beendeveloped in many developing countries which provides as a source ofelectricity in rural and dense areas where there are acute problems ofelectrification. Figure 1: Types of Solar PV Systems foroff-grid photovoltaic systems.PV systems would be used in different waysranging from less than 10Wp commonly known as PICO Systems used for Housingappliances such as kerosene lamps, others known as Solar Home Systems rangingfrom 10-130Wp used for battery charging TV etc. and others solar mini gridshaving range greater than 5Wp used in villages for electrification. IndustrialContentThe following PV systems are used by Industryfor rural electrification -1).

SolarPotable Lights: These is a mean of single-light source with orwithout mobile phone charging outlet. These typically consist of a complete in-build unit, comprising abattery, solar panel, wiring, power regulation and lighting bulbs or diodes,most often LED’s. These units are designed to be versatile and very tough tosurvive in remote and hostile conditions without requiring significant on-goingmaintenance.                                                                (a). Solar Portable Lights Source: ARE 2).

Pico Systems: Multi lights sourceapplications with mobile phone charging outlet made of a kit of components.                                                                     (b). Pico PV System Source: ARE      3). SolarHome Systems: They consists of number of components whichneeds to be installed in building such as PV module on Roof , a battery ,acharger and a inverter AC supply.                                         (c)Solar Home Systems (SHS)   Source: ARE                                                      ProblemStatementFailures in ruralelectrification has often been regarded due to failure in laws and appropriatestandards. Also policy changes by government has severe effect on off-grid PVsystems causing uncertainty in money flow. The Cost of Operation andmaintenance over the cycle is increased.

Also since energy consumption isrelated with income of users it is bound to create conflicts within thesociety. Has PV systems has multiple components each components has a separatemaintenance policy for smooth working requires a team to operate that systems.Within this section, provide information on and discuss the problem that yourtopic addresses. The output of solar Module depends on various factors such asirradiation, cleanliness of system, efficiency of system etc. The operation ofsystem is easy as compared to other renewables but care must be taken for PVmodules has they account for 80% of Cost. The Water used for cleaning of PVmodules should be free from any kind of salt so as to avoid salt decompositionon Bus-bar leading to corrosion.

Also areas near to sea coast where systems areinstalled may lead to corrosion on frame due to salty air. Any shadow effect onPV modules may cause hot – spots on modules thus reducing its life and woulddegrade at early stage. Thus all the ill effects related to PV module can beidentified locally and also through proper instrumentation. Approach  In developing countries, data sources foroff-grid systems are often found in agencies or ministries dealing with ruralelectrification or in international development agencies.

However, statisticsoffices often exclude data on sub-MW installations in their data sets, althoughthese comprise the majority of off-grid systems. Many development agencies areinvolved in the development of mini-grids but do not necessarily collect andsupply data back to the ministries or statistical offices. Further analysis showed allocating theresults to the set of indicators associated with the sustainability dimensionsconsidered. It should be noted that,  sustainability has been considered to bethree-dimensional (either in the form of a pillar model, concentric circles oroverlapping circles). KeyFindingsSustainable for off-grid PV systems requirestatutory formal institutions, which are characterized by their stability(durability) and their enforcement.

Prior of rural electrification efforts haveshown that weak formal institutions hinder the compliance with rules due to peoples’expectations of sudden changes or a lack of enforcement.The adoption of a regulatory frame andstandards favours the sustainability of rural electrification efforts based onoff-grid PV systems. The existence of an agency aimed at rural electrificationhas been shown to have a positive effect. A decentralized agency may alsofacilitate adaptability and participative decision-making, thus enhancing thechances of a technology to meet the needs of the population. Although PV technologies for ruralelectrification yield long-term benefits in terms of pollution abatement andclimate change mitigation, the lack of environmental awareness and policies (forexample on ensuring recycling and proper disposal of PV modules and batteries)may also lead to negative environmental co-impacts. Off-grid PV systems offer an alternative forgreater equality, as it can provide energy access to the vulnerable population(e.g., women or indigenous people) where a grid connection is not possible toconstruct.

For an energy system to be sustainable, itmust be accurate (which means meeting the needs of the community respecting itsparticularities and culture); and it must be socially accepted (which requiresthe active participation and engagement of the community in the design, implementationand operation of the project).    BusinessImpacts (A).Economical Sustainability   Cost Effectiveness: – For an electrification to be sustainable economically it should be cost effective in longer run.

Off-Grid systems can be effective in longer run considering lo per capita energy consumptions. However government in most countries favour conventional energy sources over oil, gas, petroleum. Duties were found to be around 50% on PV cells and Modules. These policies favourUnsuitable energy sources, neglecting theinternalization of external costs caused by environmental damages and, in turn,blocking cost-effective solutions. Also due to all these policies for costeffectiveness, they have a larger investment return while lower operation andmaintenance cost as compare to other off-grid renewable system like the dieselgenerator. Therefore low income household peoples neglect buying these kind ofsystems.  Reliability: – These kind of renewable energy systems makes the energy reliable in longer run.

For rural areas energy demands for availability of various spare parts, as well as user should identify the functionalities and technical know-how. The availability of Parts often held up the projects has the parts were located far away from the project locations. However in many cases the spare parts are not available due to requirement in other project location in big countries.

The scarcity ofSpare parts makes off-grid PV systems unreliable, thuscompromising their sustainability. To make the system friendly training havebeen provided to the people.  Initial Investment: – Sustainability also offers affordability in case of Off – Grid systems. The programmes held in rural areas are unprofitable due to low energy demand. In India for instance, given the unequal income distribution, SHS could only be afforded by around 10% of households. Part of the problem is that rural households are mainly socially deprived and not in a strong bargaining position to negotiate conditions for the acquisition of a system. Even if a loan for off-grid PV systems is provided to rural families, this does not imply that the users can meet the repayment rates. In addition to the irregular income of rural families and despite being aware of their instalment rates, these families often have no clear view of their earnings.

Due to all these electrification in rural areas should include policy changes, which means allocating funds for initial investment, operation and maintenance.  Operation and Maintenance: – For off-grid systems require maintenance of around 25 years which is huge in terms of years. The cost of ONM can hardly be estimated and depends on local users, DC Cables etc. The cost can be repaired by subsidizing the electricity traffics.

Therefore, an effective cross tariff scheme that helps the poor and covers ONM cost in longer run should be brought in process. (b).Environmental Sustainability  Environmental Awareness: – Environmental sustainability regulates the society about environmental norms and regulations. Kollmuss and Agyeman define environmental awareness as “knowing of the impact of human behaviour on the environment”. Education is of prime importance in creating environmental regulations. Education only is not responsible in creating the regulation, human nature is also of prime importance how the user takes it and also by external factors such as economic factors.

Also lack of policies and recycling of batteries and PV modules if not properly understood results in devastating effects such as lead of batteries would contaminate nearby rivers and lakes if not properly recycled.   Positive Environmental Impacts: – As the impact due to Off-Grid systems is low, the systems helps in less pollution and climate mitigation. In reply to these the fossil fuels emit large amount of pollution and toxics causing serious climate issues producing black carbon. The effect of black carbon is not only produced by heating or cooking but also due to lightning.

It has been found that that worldwide, approximately 500 million households consume 77 billion litres of kerosene and other liquid fuels for lightning. The environmental impact considering the same is significant, as 7%–9% of fuel from kerosene lamps converts to almost pure Black Carbon. Indeed, 270,000 tons of Black Carbon are currently emitted by these lamps, which is roughly equivalent to the forcing that 230 million tons of CO2 exerts over 100 years after its emission.  Negative Environmental Impacts: – As these kind of Renewable source of energy are helpful in reducing negative impact on environment due to lighting in remote areas, they do harm the environment if not properly used. One of the major disadvantage is battery disposal. People often throw their Lead Acid battery as regular waste. Also they are given as a toy for small children. These cases show that even presumably clean technologies may become environmentally unsustainable in the context of a scarcity of environmental awareness and regulations, weak enforcement and lacking incentives.

However all these can be avoided if proper rules and regulations are enforced and adopted. Battery recycling policy should be introduced by government for battery retailers to recycle the used batteries.  (c).Social Sustainability  Accessibility: – Accessibility is often driven by social justice, which determine equality among various people of different caste and religion. Off-Grid provides a good equity among people as it’s provide clean source of energy where light is not viable. Household electrification is important not only because women are the main users of residential electricity, but also because they have to carry the burden of collecting biofuels (leading to physical exhaustiveness and a significant loss of their time that could be used for productive uses); girls cannot attend school because they have to help their mothers collect biofuels; without electricity, women do not have access to information through telecommunication on modern family planning, their rights and empowerment; and women are mainly exposed to indoor air pollution. Despite a huge boom of SHS systems, women didn’t have jobs as entrepreneur in Renewable Energy Sector, which was due to male dominant Industry. The gap between urban and rural electricity consumption in India has tripled in 25 years.

The situation is often aggravated due to higher electricity tariffs in rural areas.   Accuracy: – To determine accurate capacity of system is challenging since the models used in developed countries are not suitable in rural areas. New models should be developed but lack of data is challenging factor for same. In many countries the unavailability of data is biggest barrier in development of systems in rural areas.

Inaccurate systems often lead to unsatisfied users and in turn unsustainable solutions. For instance, in Indonesia, users were dissatisfied with the SHS, because they expected them to run applications, such as TVs or radios, refrigerators or rice cookers, as they had been used to from diesel generators. Moreover, adaptation of system to locals can be challenging as who the users are and how they would be using same. Women’s necessities are indeed often ignored in the design of the project/technology despite their substantial importance for accurate solutions as principle energy users. SHS did not provide sufficient energy for family meals, and cooking with solar cooking stoves did not match with the eating time of many cultures. These issues occurred because the energy systems were designed according to men’s prospects, although women were the principal energy users, resulting in inaccurate solutions for the users and ultimately in the system’s abandonment. Understanding Rural accuracy is important to improve the accuracy of same and thus reducing rejection and disappointments.  Conclusions These paper hasbrought an overview about challenges, improvements and methods for off gridrenewable energy.

In terms of off grid systems, specifically in mini gridDiesel Generators are quite dominant in Industry. Looking forward to thesethere are many sudden changes of growth in off grid renewable energy expectedin near future. Significant market exits to succeed the common mini grid DieselGenerators.

The rapid growth of same in developing countries is slowly butpicking the pace to outperform on-Grid Renewable Source of Energy.The Data suggestslarge amount of work is required to bring data in a single sheet .As percurrent market scenario these is rejected.

There is a need also to develop dataconsistency among off grid renewable systems and also comparability among minigrids. Until all these happens it will not be possible to track the progress ofoff-grid systems and also Operation and maintenance and investment in same willbe limited. For example, the RockyMountain Institute (RMI) has used a software programme called HOMER to evaluatewhen off-grid, solar PV deployment of renewables will become economically moreadvanta­geous than staying connected to the grid (RMI, 2014).

The Reiner LemoyneInstitute has also developed some techno-economic optimisation models toevaluate hybrid mini-grids (Huskens and Blechinger, 2014), and the IEAPhoto-voltaic Power Systems Programme (IEA PVPS) has developed some life cyclecost assessments for solar-based water pumping (IEA PVPS, 2012). To quickly address all theissues following methods needs to be adopted:- Categorization off off-grid systems across application and resource areas. In simpler terms how off-grid differ from on –Grid renewable systems, renewable power generation. The Categorization should be in terms of uses of system, its system components and size means in KW or MW. This paper also proposes a categorisation of mini-grids, micro-grids, nano-grids and off-grids with as­sociated, clearly defined indicators and upper limits.The renewable power generation capacity connected to such off-grid systems could be the primary indicator for tracking progress; however, it is important to use additional indicators to provide a clearer understanding of the impact of off-grid renewable energy systems for individual users, grid services and productive use.

The statistics for each country should improve for off-grid renewable source of energy but will need help of end users, technological experts and local agencies. The declining cost and improved performance is helping them to be more effective on islands and in developing Countries.References 1. Kaygusuz, K. Energy for sustainable development: Acase of developing countries. Renew. Sustain.

Energy Rev. 2012, 16, 1116–1126. [CrossRef] 2. Kirubi, C.; Jacobson, A.; Kammen, D.

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[CrossRef] 3. International Energy Agency (IEA). ComparativeStudy on Rural Electrification Policies in Emerging Economies;International Energy Agency: Paris, France, 2010. 4. Assembly, U.

G. Transforming Our World: The 2030Agenda for Sustainable Development; Resolution Adopted byThe General Assembly on 25 September 2015; UnitedNations: New York, NY, USA, 2015. 5.

Sarah Feron1, 21 Department de Fascia Universidad de Santiago de Chile,Ave. Bernardo O’Higgins 3363, 9170022 Santiago, Chile; [email protected] [email protected] Institute for Sustainability Governance, LeuphanaUniversity Luneburg, Scharnhorststraße 1,21335 Luneburg, Germany 6.

International Energy Agency (IEA). World EnergyOutlook. Electricity Access Database. 2015. AvailableOnline: on 16 December 2015).

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; Shepherd, A.Energy for All: Harnessing the Power of Energy Access for ChronicPoverty Reduction; Energy Policy Guide No. 3; theChronic Poverty Advisory Network: London, UK, 2013.         


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