material is easy to read. Cases of soil erosion in different countries were
compared. I agree with this paper that soil erosion is really a serious problem.
Soil is amongst the most precious resources to humankind. However, this
resource would be greatly affected by climate change. With extreme weather
events like super typhoons, soil will become softer and rate of erosion will
increase. The amount of rainfall is a factor in the occurrence of soil erosion.
 Steep slopes are greatly affected due to
population pressure. Soil erosion
reduces soil productivity by physical loss of topsoil, reduction in rooting
depth and loss of water. Thus, crop productivity is affected so
as food security.

on the material, human and physiographic variables contributing to soil erosion
are complex which is the reason why there is no single theory on soil erosion.
This is the reason why the equation of soil erosion is not accepted in some
disciplines. Rainfall, slope, elevation and soil property are also important
variables to consider to determine soil erosion rate.

 Since population is increasing, there is a
need for modern agricultural practices such as mechanization which hastens soil
degradation. In the case of Rwanda, deforestation, shortened fallow and
overgrazing threatens soil fragility. However, other factors like soil
compaction, loss of soil structure, nutrient degradation and soil salinity were
barely mentioned in the material. Land conversion also leads to soil
degradation. All of these anthropogenic activities will lead to desertification
which can be intensified by climate change and lead to irreversible damage in
the ecosystem. The effects of soil erosion go
beyond the loss of fertile land. It leads to increase sedimentation in bodies
of water which can lead to clogging which in turn declines biodiversity.
Flooding will also worsen. 

the other hand, soil conservation practices were also mentioned such as crop
rotation, fallowing, and terracing. The concept of land-use was stated also.
Change of land use practices and soil conservation were emphasized. The
political-economic context in which land-users find themselves is very
important. Social factor now comes in. Again, the values of people when it
comes to the use of natural resources and technology influences resource use.
There is strong need to educate the farmers on how to use soil in a sustainable
manner. Sustainable agricultural practices should be promoted. Their indigenous
knowledge on how to do this should also be incorporated.  In the advent of climate change, reducing the
impacts of soil erosion is very essential because it threatens food security.

livelihoods of farmers depend on the health of the soil which in turn affects
the global community. Thus, it is a challenge to humankind to conserve the soil
and protect biodiversity which springs from it.



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