Diabetes One of the recent interests in arsenic-related research is its association with diabetes. Reports suggested that the occurrence of type 2 diabetes in obese individuals has associations with inorganic arsenic exposure. The incidence of diabetes has been reported to be higher (about 2 to 5 times) in individuals taking in arsenic contaminated drinking water than unexposed subjects. However, there are studies that contradict such conclusions. Therefore, elucidation of the potential mechanisms of inorganic arsenic- induced diabetes is one of the potential areas of research.

  [44,45] [46] Effects of Arsenic on skin Recent reports evolving from studies conducted in Bangladesh have revealed the occurrence of keratosis and melanosis in 36 out of 167 residents subjected to arsenic exposure via drinking water (<=10 ?g/L). Additional studies conducted in Bangladesh revealed increasing value of Ors with increased concentration of Arsenic in drinking water. From these data, it is evident that the incidence of skin cancer increases at varying concentration of arsenic, with most of the symptoms observed are related to the prodromal phases of the disease.

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    [47] [48] Cardiovascular disorders Effect of arsenic of thrombocytes was reported by Lee et al. Thrombocytes has been found to play an important aspect in cardiovascular diseases. Presence of thrombin accelerates the agglutination of thrombocytes by the action of trivalent arsenite. Studies in animal models also reveal that thrombus formation in the arteries tends to increase due to intake of arsenic in drinking water. Long-term intake of arsenic via drinking water can also agglutination of thrombocytes and induction of cardiovascular diseases ( Lee et al.). however, further studies are required to validate this hypothesis in humans.

    [49] [49] [18]. Effects of Arsenic on the reproductive system There are available reports on the association of arsenic exposure with complications related to pregnancy. Moreover, incidence of preterm birth and fetal mortality has also increased with arsenic exposure. There are reports available on effects of arsenic on urine excretion and metabolite distribution during periods of pregnancy. Exposure of arsenic and the effects produced by it are also determined by the stages of pregnancy.

Studies on animal models have revealed that apoptosis, necrosis and loss of fertilized eggs as the underlying factors for the development of these observed effects. Hopenhayn et al. suggests that impaired growth of placenta in the uterus and low birth weight may be caused due to chronic exposure of arsenic at low levels (<50 ?g/L), although additional data is required to validate this hypothesis.   


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