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Li Bing Ning (2008) New socialist countryside constructionis an important historical task in Chinese modernization process; economicdevelopment is the necessary material basis of new socialist countrysideconstruction. Deqing county party committee and government have transformed governmentfunctions timely and effectively, identified development as top priority, andinnovated the model of new rural industrial development in view of the actual underdevelopmentof the mountains economic, making economy and society develop rapidly andhealthily and raise the people’s production and living standard.YANG De-wei (2008) This paper aims to compare three modelsin terms of development policies, development potentials and operationalmechanism by evaluating, identifying and choosing the best one to meet theneeds of tourism development and management in the nonoptimal tourism districts(NTDs). The methods of Participatory Rural Tourism Appraisal and AnalyticHierarchy Process are employed to collect the necessary data and analyze thekey issues of three models. According to the analysis, market-oriented ruraltourism development model and resource-oriented rural tourism development modelare suitable for Moutuo community at the beginning stage of tourism development,while industryoriented rural tourism development model is potential andbeneficial to its further development.

Some effective management practices fordifferent models are recommended to overcome the barriers of nonoptimalcharacteristics and balance the interest of tourism stakeholders. Andsustainable development of rural tourism in NTD could come true with theguidance of rational models and polycentric management.Vincent Van A cker (2013) A key input to any responsibleenergy development project is the current state of energy consumption in thelocal community as well as the associated expenses. This information can beused to guide the design of the system and to plan for the project’s long-termfinancial viability. This paper describes residential energy use and costs inMuhuru Bay, Kenya. The results are based on a 2013 household energy survey with69 respondents as well as two focus groups.

The survey included questionsregarding the use and cost of kerosene, batteries, candles, price to recharge mobilephones, along with demographic information. It is demonstrated how the resultsof the survey are incorporated into the development of a sustainable businessplan of a community charging station microgrid project at a school in MuhuruBay, Kenya. Best practices of conducting energy surveys and lessons learned areprovided based on experiences in Kenya and elsewhere. Chaudhuri Manoj KumarSwain (2015) In this paper, an empirical path loss model is proposed for aWiMAX network operating on a carrier frequency of 2.63GHz for a rural terraincondition. This model is developed by means of real time measurements which areconducted on a deployed BSNL WiMAX network at Kuchinda, Sambalpur district,Odisha. The real time data like received signal strength indicator(RSSI),Carrier to interference plus noise ratio (CINR) are collected atdifferent locations of that network and with the help of those data, a new realtime path loss model is proposed using MATLAB simulation software.

The proposedpath loss model is compared with existing path loss models for identifying theone which closely approximates with it.The value of path loss exponent, pathloss due to shadowing are calculated. Also, the relationships between RSSI,CINR and distance between base station (BS) and customer premise equipment(CPE) are formulated.Uzzal Kumar Prodhan (2016) In this paper we have developed aTelemedicine model with portable tool kit for remote patients to collect vitalsigns of patients which are used for Telemedicine services. This developedsystem is low cost, portable, and easily maintainable and can be integratedwith any complex health system. We have used the GNU health where local doctorscan communicate with a low cost terminal. Expert doctors can also take partthrough this terminal and deliver treatment to the patients.

The patient’smedical history is stored in GNU health database and accessed from the remoteterminal. We have successfully designed the system and collected the patient’sdata. Through our developed android apps, the data will be stored in thestaging server. From the staging server, any health system can collect the dataand give the services to the rural people. Finally we can conclude that, Telemedicineservice can be given effectively by using our portable tool kit in a costeffective manner which improves the quality and accessibility especially inrural areas.Gustavo Rostirolla (2016) As a result of rural and suburbanmigration to the cities, urban life has become a significant challenge forcitizens and, particularly, for city administrators who must manage thesustainable use of resources such as energy, water and transportation. Smartcities are the biggest vision to efficiently address these challenges through areal-time monitoring, providing an intelligent planning and a sustainable urbandevelopment.

However, to accomplish them we need a tightly integration amongcitizens, city devices, city administrators and the data center platform whereall data is stored, combined and processed. In this context, we propose ElCity,a model that combines citizens and city devices data to enable an elasticmultilevel management of energy consumption for a particular city. As designdecision, this management must occur automatically without affecting the qualityof already offered services.

The main contribution of ElCity model concerns theexploration of the cloud elasticity concept in multiple target levels(smartphones from citizens, city devices involved in the public lightning anddata center nodes), turning on or off the resources on each level in accordancewith their demands. In this way, this article presents the ElCity architecture,detailing its modules distributed along the three data sources, in addition toan experiment that uses city devices and citizens data from Rome to exploreenergy saving. The results are promising, with an Energy Monitor module thatallows the estimation of the energy consumption of elastic applications basedon CPU and memory traces with an average and median precision of 97.15% and97.

72%. Moreover, we proposed a reduction of more than 90% in the energy spentin public lightning in the city of Rome which was obtained thanks to ananalysis of geolocation data from their citizens.Joanna Zukowska (2017) Warmia and Mazury still belongs tothe areas with the smallest transport accessibility in Europe. Unsatisfactorystate of road infrastructure is a major barrier to the development of theregional economy, impacting negatively on the life conditions of thepopulation. Also in terms of road safety Warmia and Mazury is one of the mostendangered regions in Poland.

The Police statistics show that beside a highpedestrian risk observed in the capital of the region the threat occurs also atthe rural area. This indicates the growing role of speed and unforgivingroadside as a cause of accidents. In this article analysis of road safetytrends together with short term forecasts of possible future changes arepresented based on time series modeling techniques. The results may serve as atool of road safety management at the regional level.Yong Liu (2017) With the accelerating process ofurbanization, rural migrant workers flood into the cities. Research projectsthat aim at resettlement and employment promotion of these workers, socialstability, as well as economic development have drawn attention of governmentand scholars alike. With respect to the matching problems of urban employmentof rural migrant workers, grey incidence analysis and two-sided matching theoryis exploited to establish a novel two-sided matching decisionmaking modelbetween rural workers and their jobs.

In this paper, first, grey incidenceanalysis is used to describe and measure the preference information andsatisfaction degree of both rural workers and their jobs; from the perspectiveof satisfaction degree of matching subjects, stability of the matching plan andequality, a multi-objective optimization model for twosided matchingdecision-making problem between rural workers and their jobs was constructed,based on minimum matching distance and minimum deviation of matching distance;then linear weighting method is exploited to convert the multiobjectivematching model into a single-objective optimization model to determine thetwo-sided matching plan between rural workers and their jobs; finally, the realproblem of urban employment of rural migrant workers is discussed.Guodong Zhang(2017) Based on the field research data of morethan 20 counties and cities in Anhui Province, the empirical test is carriedout for the utilization status of different groups of medical services byseemingly unrelated regression model. The study shows that there is a highsimilarity between the agricultural registered population and the urbanflexible employed population in the medical service utilization but there is agreat difference between urban formal employed populations in the medicalservice utilization. Therefore, it shall be started from strengtheningawareness of health maintenance and investment for rural residents, improving theincome level of rural residents and breaking the restrictions of resourceutilization and allocation difference such as medical caused by householdregistration system to gradually achieve urban and rural integrated medicalsecurity system and promote the sustainable development of medical securitysystem and the establishment of harmonious society.H. Wasajja (2017) Gasifier-Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC)-Microturbine system is a potential modern biomass energy supply system whichwill not only meet cooking and electrical energy demands of rural remote andisolated communities of tropical countries but also provide solutions to othermajor challenges such as water and food shortages faced by these communities.This article describes a backcasting experiment that is used as a tool toevaluate the social, technical and economic feasibility and potential barriersfor implementation of Gasifier–SOFCMicroturbine systems.

Thus the steps whichcould lead to their full implementation and realization in the nearby futureare identified and characterized. Modeling with software package “Cycle tempo”is used to generate models that give an insight in the technical feasibility ofsuch systems. A Bounded Social Technical Experiment (BSTE) is designed forKodur community in India as a pilot project to initiate this modern technologywith the goal of stakeholders’ involvement and capacity building such that theycan fully support and contribute to the technology’s future development,implementation and extension.J. M. Lujano-Rojas (2016) Renewable energies are in constantgrowth and evolution, being a clean way to provide the energy required for thesustainable development of human society. In this context, energy storagesystems are a key factor in the integration of renewable generation, becausethrough them, the flexibility of the power system can be increased.

Lead-acidbatteries have been extensively used to provide electricity in isolated andrural locations, and could be integrated to the smart grid in order to improveits performance. However, this is a complex element due to its workingprinciple, specifically during charging periods. In this paper, a generalpurpose model is formulated from a probabilistic point-of-view in order todetermine the range of possible values of state-of-charge due to theuncertainty and to estimate the battery efficiency. A case study is analyzedand the results are compared with Monte Carlo Simulation approach in order toevaluate the proposed model.

Sheng-Tsung Hou (2017) Recent studies of “regionalinnovation system” (RIS) are mostly on technology- driven clusters, butfew on demand-driven “rural-based RIS”. From the perspectives ofvalue co-creation, there are still few discussed on the rural-based RIS byculture and creative motives. To integrate such theoretical gap, this studygrounds on RIS and PPP (publicprivate- partnership) from qualitative researchapproach, to interpret the case of Yilan— a rural northeastern county inTaiwan— dealing with poverty and financial burden, held a flagship localfestival since 1996 International Children’s Folklore & Folkgame Festival,to transform its value creation into local economic and social development inthe following decades. From the case of Yilan, this study examines the valuecreation amongst stakeholders from different sectors, and thus induct to theprocess, approaches, and model of rural-based RIS. Finally, this researchelaborates the theories through rural-based RIS, and thus contributes thetheoretical and practice implications.

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