A Company Prepares Financial Statements And Annual Reports Solely For Their Benefit Accounting Essay

In this essay I have identified four cardinal users of BskyB ‘s fiscal statements. I have discussed the information these users are provided with, and have evaluated if it aids them in their determination devising procedure.

Within this rating, I have considered how the users are affected by the qualitative features of fiscal information, and how the format and diction of the study aids these users in the determination devising procedure.Fiscal Reporting Statements Essay- BSkyB


One could be mistaken for believing that a company prepares fiscal statements and one-year studies entirely for their benefit, but in fact, depending on the administration and some of its features ; it frequently aids many other groups of people, known as stakeholders. A stakeholder is “ those persons, groups or other administrations who have an involvement in the activities of the administration bring forthing the accounting information and/or are in some manner affected by these activities ” ( Upchurch, 2002 p10 ) . In my sentiment, Sky have produced their one-year studies construction which best enables all interested parties to easy see the information of importance to them whilst keeping accounting criterions. These parties require entree to the histories for somewhat different grounds, be it to do an informed determination, or simply to see how the concern is developing.The conceptual accounting model identifies four chief features that make the information provided in fiscal statements utile to users.

The first is understandability: apart from simply puting the information out in a clear format, the company should besides take into history that the users of its fiscal statements will hold different degrees of cognition and ability therefore they must be written in consideration of this ( An employee is less likely to be experienced at understanding fiscal statements compared with a stockholder ) . The 2nd principal is relevancy: information that does n’t hold the ability to act upon determinations is by and large considered irrelevant. Materiality is a cardinal accounting construct which is used to make up one’s mind which information should be included in fiscal statements and whether or non it should be grouped with other similar points: For illustration, the sum spent on air travel by Sky is non likely to be a material sum, and is of no existent relevancy to any of their users. The 3rd is dependability: if the information provided is n’t accurate, faithful, free from prejudice and complete so it is of limited usage to the user.

If Sky provided an unfaithful representation of its histories, the stockholders are one user which could be greatly affected ( they could, for illustration, take to put more in the company, when if they knew the right figures, they would n’t ) . The concluding feature is comparability/consistency: i.e.

being able to measure alterations in figures from one twelvemonth to the following.

Designation and description of users

The first user of BskyB plc ‘s fiscal statements I am traveling to discourse is the direction sector of the concern itself. “ It is direction ‘s duty to use the resources of the concern in an efficient manner ” ( Weetman, 1999 p12 ) .

Without accounting information, it would be far harder for direction to accomplish a high degree of efficiency, as they would fight to separate where the concern is utilizing its resources expeditiously, and where wastage is happening ( particularly in big concerns such as BskyB plc ) . With the usage of histories, the decision-makers within the company are able to do accurate informed determinations based on dependable figures. Such a big company will besides hold statements created at regular intervals merely for direction, but a annual study will still hold usage in that it allows for easy comparing between past and present old ages.A 2nd group which will often utilize BskyB plc ‘s fiscal statements are its investors, both current and prospective. There are several grounds why investors need entree to a company ‘s fiscal statements, the first is that upon seeing the one-year study, both current and possible hereafter investors are able to “ measure the public presentation of the entity and its direction, and assess the effectivity of the entity in accomplishing its aims ” ( Thomas and Ward, 2009 p38 ) . Another ground is to allow the current or possible investor attempt and understand or cipher the company ‘s distant chances – so they can foretell the size of future dividend payments, and forecast their ability to keep them. The purpose for the investor is to infer from the fiscal statements whether the concerns good public presentation is likely to go on or whether it ‘s impermanent ( cyclical fluctuation as a consequence of a tendency is a reasonably common characteristic in the general amusement sector ) .

A 3rd ground is so that investors can measure the “ economic stableness and exposure of the coverage entity including its liquidness, its present or future demands for extra capital, and its ability to raise long- and short-run finance ” ( Thomas and Ward, 2009 p38 ) . An investor would n’t shoot money into a company if it is apparent he/she is improbable to see return, for grounds such as the concern declaring insolvency – hence why it is of import he/she can measure the stableness of the entity before doing any fiscal determinations.A 3rd user group of BskyB plc ‘s fiscal statements is the employees ( including possible hereafter employees, and employee representatives such as brotherhoods ) of the company. The conceptual model of accounting provinces that “ employees and their representative groups are interested in information about the stableness and profitableness of their employers. They are besides interested in information which enables them to measure the ability of the entity to supply wage, retirement benefits and employment chances ” . This does n’t use entirely to current employees, but besides employees who might hold an involvement in fall ining the house in close hereafter.

Potential employees might be loath to use if it is clear that employment chances would be limited, or if it is apparent there might be remuneration issues. Current employees will be interested in the public presentation of the company, due to grounds such as the possibility of increased wage and possibly even a new place in the house if it is for illustration sing growing at degrees which might coerce enlargement. The economic stableness of the house is besides of obvious importance to the current employees as if the concern is heading for settlement ; employees will desire to get down seeking for a new occupation. “ Employee representatives ( merchandise brotherhoods ) will be interested in information for the intent of pay bargaining ” ( Thomas and Ward, 2009 p39 ) . This is n’t a direct involvement from the employee ‘s, nevertheless it is still refering them and is still an active involvement in the company on their behalf.A 4th cardinal user of Sky ‘s fiscal statements will be their rivals.

There will be several factors of involvement to their rivals. Amongst others, there is growing in footings of net income, the velocity of this growing, the figure of new endorsers and any indexs of client satisfaction. Using BskyB ‘s fiscal statements will besides let them to benchmark their ain consequences, enabling them to do comparings of public presentation over the past twosome of old ages.

Drury ( 2006, p15 ) stated the followers: “ Benchmarking is a technique that is progressively being adopted as a mechanism for accomplishing uninterrupted betterment. It is a uninterrupted procedure of mensurating a house ‘s merchandises, services or activities against the other best-performing organisations ” and that it “ hence represents the ideal manner of traveling frontward and accomplishing high competitory criterions ” . BskyB plc is the market leader, and by rather a manner, so for them, benchmarking might be of less usage than for their rivals who are seeking to perforate the market, it could be priceless. Potential rivals would besides hold an involvement in Sky ‘s one-year study because it could help them in set uping how profitable it might be to come in that industry.

It would be seen as a bold move for most concerns to seek and do itself infinite in the same markets Sky operates in, as they have immense budgets for many pay-to-air plans, such as athleticss lucifers. Many of Sky ‘s rivals have complained in recent old ages of merely non holding the same degree of financess to do it worthwhile come ining into a command war. As a consequence of their laterality, the media regulator, Ofcom, interfered on several occasions, teaching Sky to do alterations such as coercing them to offer their HD channels to rivals, and to sell its athleticss channels at decreased monetary values to its rivals.

Discussion of information provided

With respect to the first user discussed in this essay ( Management ) , the conceptual accounting model really takes the position that the report/statements “ should non be prepared with direction ‘s information needs in head ” .

Regardless of this, there are still many ways in which this information can be of usage to them. The layout of the figures in the statements, with present and past old ages being side by side, allows for quick and efficient comparing. There is besides the inquiry of determinations they may do based on their findings whilst making the one-year study, for illustration they might take to increase dividend pay-out per portion in position of augmented net incomes ( it is clear from a well-designed chart that they have been increasing pay-out in line with increased net income in recent old ages ) . Another illustration is that Sky might happen increased investing into one merchandise has led to a possible addition in net incomes, intending that they might take to hike disbursement in that sector in the approaching twelvemonth. Finally, in visible radiation of their terminal of twelvemonth net income, they might make up one’s mind to seek and happen more financess to put in the concern, whether it ‘s by raising stockholder capital or more improbable, through other external beginnings of finance.

Second, the company has addressed the demands of its stockholder ‘s in more than one manner – To get down with, they have clearly laid out cardinal public presentation indexs, with descriptions and analysis ‘ following to each graph. There are diagrams demoing dividend pay-out per portion alterations, each basic plenty for users of all abilities to understand. After reading the encouraging information on show by the company ( Dividend pay-out per portion is up to 19.40p per portion, an addition of 1.80p from last twelvemonth and ?855m adjusted net income for 2010 ) current stockholders might really take to increase their investing in the house, and possible stockholders might be motivated to take the following measure towards puting. There has been some agnosticism late about a possible alteration in full ownership of Sky to News Corporation, which intelligibly would hold been of much involvement to stockholders. Gaining this, Sky included the undermentioned statement in their one-year study, aimed at reassuring its stockholders: ( pg7 ) “ While this procedure continues, the Company ‘s Independent Directors have put in topographic point constructions to continue the involvements of all stockholders ” .

The 3rd user group earlier discussed is the employees ( and their representative groups ) of the house. The one-year study does a good occupation of reassuring its employees of their occupation security ( another invariable rise in net income, 750m to ?855m ) , and states the benefits its employees receive ( free Sky TV etc ) . There is a subdivision dedicated to their employees, in which they to a great extent complement them, utilizing phrases such as “ Our people are critical to our success. Together they make Sky what it is today and what it will be tomorrow ” ( Sky Annual Report 2010, p27 ) . Their significant growing in recent old ages will hold led to many employee publicities which will give current staff hope that they might be one of the ‘lucky 1s ‘ in future old ages, and will lure new workers to the company. Their representative groups will hold looked at the alteration in net income over recent old ages ( which has visibly risen ) , and will be anticipating to see an addition in employee wages as a consequence.

If there has n’t been an addition, and there is no listed ground, it is likely the brotherhood will take action on behalf of the employees ( i.e. Collective/wage bargaining ) .The 4th and concluding user earlier discussed is the company ‘s rivals. Understandably Sky wo n’t hold set out to make a study tailored for the demands of its rivals ; nevertheless, there are still many facts and figures that are of value to them. Two of Sky ‘s chief rivals ( BT and Virgin Media ) , both offer packages which include phone and broadband.

Sky now besides provides these and hence they have included a graph demoing the extra paid-for merchandises per client over the last few old ages. It has increased from merely over 0 in 2004, to about 1.5 in 2010. This is a cardinal figure for their rivals, which can merely be seen as a negative for them as Sky is efficaciously shriveling their client base. They besides give exact figures for 2010, such as adding 421,000 broadband clients, 517,000 telephone clients and 769,000 line lease clients.

Exact figures like these will let the rivals to straight benchmark their ain public presentation, and will greatly back up them in doing determinations about issues such as what to offer in future bundles, and whether it ‘s deserving possibly spread outing their merchandise portfolio.


In decision, after analyzing and analyzing BskyB plc ‘s one-year study, I feel that Sky have displayed the information in an easy apprehensible yet detailed format, leting all users ( inevitable changing ability has clearly been acknowledged ) to expeditiously pull out the pieces of informations they need to help them in determination devising. There are besides no issues sing the four qualitative features of fiscal information. As for how the statements have been prepared, and the legal demands, Sky themselves stated in their one-year study ( 2010, p54 ) : “ The drumhead fiscal statement has been prepared in conformity with International Financial Reporting Standards ( IFRS ) as adopted for usage in the European Union, the Companies Act 2006 and Article 4 of the IAS Regulations ” .

Sky ‘s public presentation has been slightly exceeding over recent old ages, and with many more clients fall ining each twelvemonth, and a deficiency of any ferocious competition, there is no mark of this altering in old ages to come.


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