ACURTAIN CALL FOR OLD THEATERS
The once grand Loew’s Kings theater in Brooklyn, a 3,200-seat
movie palace that opened in 1929, may not be around much longer. The
fate of the theater, abandoned and in a sad state of neglect, hinges on
one last effort by the city of New York to attract interest in its
redevelopment –the building of a nearby parking lot. After repeated
attempts by a community group to develop alternative uses for the
Loew’s Kings, the city recently took over the theater for back
taxes. The new parking lot, designed to serve three adjacent department
stores, will also, it is hoped, drum up interest in the Kings. If not,
the repository of so many romantic memories may become just another
patch of asphalt.
In other cities around the country, however, old movie palaces that
once played movies featuring Valentino and Pickford, Cooper and Davis,
are being renovated after years of neglect. The results: spanking-new
arts centers that offer a variety of musical programs and act as beacons
to attract new businesses into once decaying areas.
A prime example of this type of artistic urban reclamation is the
Circle Theatre in Indianapolis. The Circle Theatre was designed in
neoclassicalrevival style in the early 1900s. Geoffrey S. Lapin, a
member of the Indianapolis Symphony Orchestra cello section, picks up
the story of the early days of the theater: “Called “The
Shrine of the Silent Art,’ it was the first motion-picture theater
west of New York built especially for the purpose of showing
feature-length photoplays. It was a “presentation’ house of
the grandest order, rivaled only by New York’s Strand
The first floor of the theater contained a small lobby, a promenade
and an auditorium. An architectural screen with glass panels separated
the auditorium from the lobby promenade. The mezzanine provided access
to the loges, designed to resemble the famous Diamond Horseshoe of the
former Metropolitan Opera House in New York. Three pairs of staircases
with mahogany rails and gilt posts joined the three levels. Grecian
figures in relief and classical moldings painted in ivory adorned the
walls and ceilings.
“From 1916 to 19818′ Lapin adds, “its repertoire
ranged from world-premiere features, classical concerts and live stage
shows to grade-B and-C motion pictures.’
Martha Karatz, the director of public relations for the
Indianapolis Symphony Orchestra, says that the theater was in terrible
disrepair by the time the original Circle Theatre shuttered its doors in
1981. “Five years ago, to an outsider, Indianapolis might have
looked like one, big war memorial,’ soys karatz referring to the
city’s predilection for huge monuments. “But in 19828 things
really started to change for the Circle Theater.’
The Indianapolis Power and Light Company purchased the property.
The utility leased it to the community-based Commission for Downtown,
which in turn subleased it to the Indianapolis Symphony Orchestra, which
found it the perfect place for a permanent home.
Dalton, van Dijk, Johnson & Partners, an architectural firm from Cleveland, began the renovation in the summer of 1983. “There
were four major structural changes that had to be made,’ says Peter
van Dijk, the architect for the project. “The most critical was to
enlarge the stage for use by the symphony. Since it was originally
built for film and vaudeville use, it was rather small. Luckily, there
was an alley in back of the theater that we could build over. In so
doing, we gained over 14 feet of stage area.’
Van Dijk mounted additional public seating on stepped risers above
the stage. Then he “splayed’ the side wall around this
seating area to aid acoustical distribution throughout the house as well
as among the orchestral members.
Van Dijk found that the inner portal of the proscenium arch would
have hidden 20 percent of the orchestra. “The proscenium arch made
the stage too low and narrow,’ van Dijk continues. “We had to
remove the arch and widen the opening.’ Afterward, van Dijk and
his architects duplicated the neo-Adam Grecian reliefs of the original
portals upon the inner surfaces of the new opening.
The theater’s lobby was reconstructed because, as van Dijk
points out, “There really was no lobby on the orchestra level, just
a curved corridor that was certainly not big enough to accommodate the
patrons of a symphonic hall.’ In addition, the mezzanine lobby,
not separated from the house, permitted unwanted sound infiltration to
the seating areas. “And the cinema-style overhanging balcony
placed a large portion of the audience members in areas lacking presence
and brightness,’ adds Christopher Jaffe, the project’s
acoustical expert. So van Dijk eliminated several rows of seats at the
rear of the theater, reconfigured the slope of the orchestra level and
redid the seating to ensure better sight lines and comfort. Then,
orchestra-level boxes, including boxes for the handicapped, were
integrated into this new plan.
Another major structural problem for van Dijk and crew was the
balcony. “The balcony was on steps that dictated narrow spacing of
the seats. We needed wider steps so we could have more comfortable and
wider spaces for seating. So what we did was build a new balcony over
the old balcony. Because the old balcony was built to hold even more
weight than it originally did, our reconstruction worked,’ says van
The reconstructed and renovated Circle Theatre opened to a
resounding critical and popular success on October 12, 1984, as the new
home of the Indianapolis Symphony Orchestra. It has reenforced the
revitalization of the city of Indianapolis. “We are a positive and
major attraction for visitors to the downtown area,’ says Martha
Karatz. “New restaurants and businesses are moving into the
downtown area to accommodate the increased activity.’
Another of van Dijk’s renovation projects, Playhouse Square,
has had a similar effect in his home city, Cleveland. “As of
today, 90 million dollars and 1,000 new jobs have been pumped into the
city of Cleveland as a result of the development of Playhouse
Square,’ says Lawrence J. Wilker, the president of Playhouse Square
Foundation, organized in 1972. That year, four adjacent movie theaters,
unused for years and located in Cleveland’s former downtown
entertainment section, were threatened with demolition to make way for a
parking lot. Concerned citizens formed the association to save the
halls and to try to bring new life to the neighborhood.
Van Dijk, the designer of the Blossom Music Center in Cleveland,
was selected to restore the Cleveland movie theaters and to prepare a
master plan for the redevelopment of the entire area–“A vehicle
for urban renewal, as well as an arts and entertainment project,’
The sketch van Dijk came up with, which he completed in 1973, was a
comprehensive revitalization of the 60-acre area near the theaters. He
envisioned a performing-arts center composed of the four theaters and
adjacent buildings. To date, it looks as if van Dijk’s plan is
becoming a reality.
The Ohio Theatre, reopened in July 1982, marks the first tangible
phase of the foundation’s redevelopment program. Completely
refurbished with all-new lighting, rigging and sound equipment, the Ohio
is now home to the Great Lakes Shake-speare Festival and a variety of
other performing-arts organizations.
The 3,000-seat State Theatre opened in spring 1984 with a new,
95-foot-deep stage house and support structure. Restoration included
the auditorium, the side boxes and the loge section of the balcony. The
State now houses the Cleveland Ballet and the Cleveland Opera and
provides stages for world-class touring acts and Broadway musicals.
“Playhouse Square is just now coming on line,’ confirms
van Dijk. “We’re also about to start renovations of the Palace
Theatre.’ The Playhouse Square Association estimates that the
Palace could attract one million patrons annually.
“When I was hired to be the architect of Playhouse
Square,’ says van Dijk, “I kept saying it was more than
renovating old theaters. It could be a catalyst for redevelopment of the
The new shops, restaurants and other businesses moving into
Playhouse Square make it look as though van Dijk was right.
And Cleveland and Indianapolis are just two of the “Rust
Belt’ cities creating urban renewal by renovating old theaters in
Until recently, the Grand Avenue section of midtown Saint Louis,
once known as “the Great White Way,’ was a decaying
neighborhood. Things began to change in September 1982, when the Fox
Theatre reopened after extensive renovations. Originally a movie
palace, built in 1929 by William Fox, the theater had become, over the
years, a shell of its former self. In 1981, a limited partnership of
investors, called the Fox Associates, began to restore the theater to
its former splendor.
“For Associates produces a variety series, with entertainers
like Wayne Newton, Sammy Davis, Jr., and Bob Hope,’ says Susan
Moore, assistant special-projects coordinator for the Fox Theatre.
“Also, the Municipal Opera Company of Saint Louis leases the
theater for 15 weeks a year. We’ve also seen touring companies of
Broadway shows, including Amadeus and Zorba, play the Fox.’
And what has been the effect of the Fox’ resurrection on the
surrounding neighborhood? “It’s a slow process of coming up,
but things look as if they’re on the upswing,’ Moore answers.
“Since the opening, there’s less hesitancy by Saint Louisans
to come to our area. There’s an apartment complex being built
across from the theater, a public park being developed nearby, the Grand
Cafe has opened adjacent to the Fox and we’ve opened a gift shop
next to the Fox as well.’
Despite all the positive effects renovations of old movie theaters
have had, there’s been no interest in renovating the Loew’s
Kings in Brooklyn. “You must remember that the Kings is in the
borough of Brooklyn. It’s competing with Lincoln Center and all
the other theaters in Manhattan, as well as the Gershwin Theatre in
Brooklyn College and the Brooklyn Academy of Music,’ Michael A.
Weiss, president of the Flatbush Development Corporation, points out.
Weiss says many performing-arts facilities do not operate at a
profit: “They all require subsidies to survive, and the prospect of
getting that kind of subsidy from the city of New York, or anyone else,
for that matter, isn’t a viable option.’ Weiss says that such
cities as Indianapolis, Cleveland and Saint Louis do not have the
extensive number of theaters–and the corresponding competition for
their renovated facilities–that the Loew’s Kings would have.
“I don’t want to give the impression the city of New York has
been uncooperative,’ Weiss cautions. “The parking lot behind
the Kings will cost $3 million. It might make the Kings marketable. We
need an operation to pay a good part of the freight for the
Will the Loew’s Kings be renovated or fall by the wayside?
Only time will tell, but I have my own bias.
I saw my first James Bond film in the Loew’s Kings, and I also
had my graduation ceremonies at the grand facility. It would be a shame
if it became just another parking lot.
Photo: A relic of 1920s movle mania, the Fox Theater of Saint Louis
had fallen on hard times until a local association came to its rescue in
1981 and restored it to its former gaudy glory. Its renaissance has
been a catalyst for further development in downtown Saint Louis. (Above,
the Fox in 1929; top and left, as it looks today.)
Photo: A total face-lift of Cleveland’s State Theatre has
produced a sparkling new home for the city’s ballet and opera
companies. The 3,000-seat auditorium was stripped (center) and
carefully restored (top and bottom).
Photo: The 1916-vintage Circle Theatre of Indianapolis receives new
paint and plaster (above). The elegant neoclassical-revival auditorium
was reopened in 1984 as the permanent home of the city’s symphony