Throughout the history of humanity. there are many illustrations of atrocious and wholly horrid offenses. While many of the offenses committed were pushed by the desire for power of some individuals ( largely work forces: Adolf Hitler. Pol Pot. Josef Stalin and Idi Amin Dada are good illustrations ) . others were realized in the name of God. as the 1s who planned them say ( all the wars among different faiths and. more late. Osama Bin Laden ) . It is good known that the “big names” of these offenses had a really strong ability to pull strings people. I think that one of the things they were really good at is that they could pull strings many 1000s of people to do them accept to be complitely submitted and believe that what they were approximately to perpetrate was non a offense but something that had to be done.
In this essay. we will discourse two offenses that are really similar in the manner that the governements in control were really good at directing the population into the thoughts they wanted them to believe in. and in holding them move the manner they wanted them to. The first state of affairs is the enchantress tests of Salem that took topographic point in the 1690s ( as reported by Arthur Miller in The Crucible ) . and the 2nd is the monolithic anti-communism motion that took topographic point in the United-States between 1947 and 1954. By looking at the facts found in the drama. and by looking at the history of the anti-communism motion. we will do the parrallels between these two major offenses against freedom of look.
Arthur Miller’s drama is written in a manner that truly shows the parrallels between the Salem enchantress tests and McCarthyism of the mid 50s. This is because Miller wrote this drama during the crisis that created a mass-hysteria against the communism. Both the drama and the McCarthy period started after a long period of uncertainness among the two populations. As the settlers ( in The Crucible ) landed in America. they feared many things. They were frigthened of the Natives because they were said to be barbarians and able to pass on with the Satan. The new Americans were besides terryfied by the elephantine woods of the North America continent because they thought that the Devil was populating in it: “…the Salem common people believed that the virgin wood was the Devil’s last preserve. his place and the bastion of his concluding base. [ … ] [ It ] was the last topographic point on Earth that was non paying court to God. ” ( 15 )
In the 1950s the Americans were merely acquiring out of the World War II and the Cold War and communism were what made them waver. There was besides some sort of race to be the dominant economic association between the USSR and the United-States ( as an illustration. the race for the Moon that took topographic point shortly after this state of affairs ) . The USSR found the recipy for their ain atomic bomb. and their was the fright of a atomic war between the two ace powers. There was besides a fright of holding a war between a democratic state and a communism state. More and more states were falling for the communism ( such as China ) . and the democratic governements had to do Sur that they would win the “war” against communism.
This is why they decided. at that point. that everything that had to make with communism had to be hidden or had to vanish wholly. Everything that had to make with communism frightened the population and the thought itself of communism became “evil” in the head of the population. This is when Senator Joseph Raymond McCarty created the House of Un-american Activities Committee. So. like witchery is what created the clime of fright and craze in 1690s in Salem. the force per unit area coming from the Soviets. the war against communism and the fright of a atomic war is what created the clime of fright in the 1950s.
The manner that the governments present in those times used to maintain the power is that they created a menace from inside the several populations. In the Salem enchantress tests. some of the people were get downing to believe that the Devil was no longer in the woods because they had been in America for every bit long as 40 old ages. and they ne’er had a individual mark of a enchantress or of a Satan. The theocracy in topographic point had to happen a manner to maintain power. They therefore took advantage of the state of affairs when a twosome of misss did something they should non hold done: they had merriment. What the people in charge did is that they told the population that the Satan was among them. so that it would make the craze cited above. The HUAC did the same thing when Senator McCarthy went before the media with a file that contained about 200 names ( the figure was different every clip he came before the journalists ) of individuals who worked for the governement and who were supposed to be Communists.
Because the dainty was from inside of the governement. the population agreed that actions had to be taken in order to halt this motion. The action program they decided to follow is that they would clearly run the Communists one by one until there would no longer be any and they would besides keep fright among the population. so that no 1 would be tempted to go a member of a communist organisation. Something that helped maintain the fright in the heads of the population is a Television show in 1953 that was called “I Led Three Lives” . In the Television show. they would state the narrative of person accused of being a Communist and get down with a sentence like: “This is the fabulously true narrative of Herbert A. Philbrick. who for nine scaring old ages did lead three lives- mean citizen. member of the Communist Party. and mole for the FBI. For obvious grounds. the names. day of the months and topographic points were changed. but the narrative is based on fact. ” ( Pink Monkey ) The map of a show like that was to demo the population that the Communists were everyplace. and that they were really dangerous…In other words they manipulated the populations’ sentiment.
Another of the parrallels that can be made between The Crucible and the McCarthy period is that in the point of position of the governments present in those times. a individual was either with the commissions or against them. So anyone who was back uping any of the thoughts of the communism ( it certainly can’t be all bad… ) was considered as a dainty to the democracy. For illustration. Miller. because he wrote the drama The Crucible and that the drama showed that the manner that the HUAC was covering with the “communism problem” was stupid. he could hold been blacklisted and non been able to happen any work nor been able to sell a book because none of the publishing houses would hold to print the work of a Communist in fright of being blacklisted themselves. In The Crucible the same thing is go oning. as Dantforth himself says: ” But you must understand. sir. that a individual is either with this tribunal or he must be counted against it. there be no route between. ” ( 85 ) Every individual character in the drama watches what he is making in order to stay pure in the eyes of the theocracy. They had to populate a really serious life. without any merriment. any sex. or anything that could be considered as sinful.
Both the tribunals and the commission were unstructured. illegal and non serious at all. McCarthy and his commission were impeaching individuals with really small or no cogent evidence. The lone thing they had to give as a cogent evidence is every bit mentionned in “The Rise of Joe McCarthy” : ” a severely out-of-date commission file. ” ( Worthen 875 ) So they had no existent and/or existent cogent evidence to reprobate many of the people they managed to “blacklist” . They besides condemned people for being Communists while they were non Communists but something else that these people had the right to be or to believe ( as an illustration. homosexualism ( Worthen 874 ) . but the commission did non like. The exact same state of affairs was happenning at the Salem enchantress tests.
For illustration. when they accused Tituba of being a enchantress. they said that she led the other misss into imbibing chiken blood. This action was seen as witchery. but it could hold been many other things. she came from the Barbados. so it is normal that she knows some redresss that they don’t. To turn out the complete stupidity of the tribunal in the enchantress tests. here is a quotation mark from Danforth stating to John Proctor that he will be hang if he does non squeal the truth. but Danforth knows that the truth is non that Proctor is a ace: “Is that document a prevarication? If it is a prevarication I will non accept it! What say you? I will non cover in prevarications. Mr! You will give me your honest confession in my manus. or I can non maintain you from the rope. ” ( 124 ) Miller even tells in the expository notes to the Act 1 that “one could shout enchantress against one’s neighbor and experience absolutely justified in the deal. ” ( 17 )
There was besides no given of artlessness in both tribunals. In the instance of the Salem enchantress tests. if person said you were a enchantress. you were a enchantress and the lone two options that were possible were to supply a public confession and to call the names of other people that you “saw” or to be hanged. John Protor and Rebecca Nurse were faced with these two picks and they decided that they would decease before they would lie in forepart of the other member of it’s town and in forepart of God. The absolute antonym would be Abigail. who could stand for Joseph McCarthy in The Crucible.
She is the 1 that initiates the form of accusals and naming of names in Salem. She begins by stating that it was Tituba who led them into witchery. because she saw this as an flight from the incrimination placed on her. Then she goes on and names the name of Sarah Good before stating that person she truly wanted to be out of her sight is a enchantress excessively. Elizabeth Proctor. She named her merely for her ain and selfish concerns. because she wanted her dead so that she would be able to get married John Proctor. The same thing was present with the McCarthy commission and the cited above file ( homosexualism etc. ) . All they had to make was to call names and they were about already condemned.
In the 50s. the lone manner to acquire your name off of the black book created by the HUAC was to travel before the commission and state the names of other Communists. If the commission thought you had interesting information for them. they would so reconsider your position and possibly let your name to be removed from the black list. A good illustration of where they would blacklist many people is in the film industry. because the films have an impact on many individuals at the same clip. They were besides forced to call names in The Crucible with the inquiries they asked to the “witches” . At the terminal when Proctor is about to squeal a “crime” he has ne’er committed. Danforth asked him “When the Devil came to you did you see Rebecca Nurse in his company? ” ( 121-122 ) . He did so with the names of Mary Easty and Martha Corey before he asked him if he saw anyone with the Devil ( 122 ) .
In both instances. people could besides be judged guilty merely because person else was guilty or because they were friendly with individuals who were “communists” or “witches” . For illustration. when Giles Corey presents his cogent evidence that Putnam’s girl accused George Jacobs merely because Putnam wanted to purchase the land of Jacobs at the auction. In Miller’s clip. there was many guiltless people who were accused of Communist Party afflication merely because they were at a party with Communists.
Both of the commissions were discontinuated shortly after the events described. In the book. it is said that “Twenty old ages after the last executing. the authorities awarded compensation to the victims still populating. and to the households of the dead. ” ( 123 ) The test in Salem was besides the last enchantress test. McCarthy. and the motion he started. besides died shortly after the last hearings they had. refering the US Army. The individuals who were accused became members in good standing once more: ”In solemn meeting. the fold rescinded the exclusions – this in March 1712. ” ( 123 ) The McCarthysm consequence faded off and in 1960 the first films by people who had been blacklisted appeared on the large screen ( as an illustration. Spartacus ) .
Another amazing parrallel between HUAC and The Crucible is that Proctor asks himself “…what is John Proctor. what is John Proctor? ” ( 120 ) and Miller himself wanted to happen person who could be the tragic hero of his existent universe.
In decision. the parrallels that can be made between The Crucible by Arthur Miller and the House of Un-american Activities Committee are that they both began during a clip of uncertainness among the population ; both The courts and the commission used a menace from within to keep their power ; in both instances one was either with the commission or against it. there was “black-listing” in the instance of the HUAC and hanging if condemned by the courts. the tribunals were a gag ; there was no given of artlessness. and one had to call names in order to be free. There was guilts by association. and the two commissions disappeared shortly after the events describded. Let’s merely hope that after holding witnessed as many offenses against humanity with a governement that has manipulated his population. we as members of a society that invariably evolves and where the adult females are get downing to presume their rightful topographic point. ( have we of all time seen a race murder planned by a adult females? Possibly they should make full more of import musca volitanss ) allowing less entry occur for them. we will halt being every bit naive as we were. and we will wake up ( even if it does non look to be the instance looking at the military actions of the United-States in the last twelvemonth ) .
123HelpMe. com. “Search Results for Crucible” 95 essays.
Miller. Arthur. “The Crucible” Toronto: Penguin Classicss. 2000.
PinkMonkey. com. “The Author and his Times” Barron’s Booknotes on The Crucible by ArthurMiller. 5 pars.
Bigsby. Christopher. “Introduction. ” The Crucible. Arthur Miller. Toronto: Penguin Books. 1995. VII-XXV.
Worthen. W. C. The HGB Anthology of Drama. Toronto: Harcourt. 2001. 872-87.