According to research done by O

According to research done by O?Leary, Wharton and Quinlan (2009), an attitudinal variable that reflect towards how people love their job is generally known as job satisfaction. Employee health and job performance appear to have the positive relationship with job satisfaction. In addition, a good relationship with office colleagues and friends, control over annual leave taken, sufficiency of resources and clinical autonomy are those that job satisfaction depends on, as viewed by many physicians. Moreover, in order to better meet the needs of doctors and patients, reliable measure of physician job satisfaction clarify the physicians’ behaviours in clinical, economic and organizational domains together with re-engineering the medical workplace.
Meanwhile, increase in physician turnover or leaving the career, decrease in continuity of caring for the patients, increase in cost of medical system and increase of patient dissatisfaction were the result that brings to dissatisfaction (O?Leary, 2009).
According to Crossman and Abou-Zaki (2003), there is an impact of demographic characteristics for example age, gender, tenure and education on job satisfaction based on many studies conducted by researchers. The result of relationships between demographic characteristics and job satisfaction tend to be mix of positive and negative relationships or an interaction between the variables.
According to Groot and Brink (1999), women and men have different experiences of job satisfaction. Women tend to be happier when compared to men in doing their job. After controlling a number of variables, women appear to have high job satisfaction compared to men. According to Droussiotis and Austin (2007), for business owners and also top managers, the most crucial factor that relates to job satisfaction is dissatisfaction among the employees which consequently give rise to high absenteeism and high employee’s turnover. Therefore, the most important factor that relate to the issue of job satisfaction is the organization commitment itself.
According to the research by Singh & Loncar (2010), among the three of pay satisfaction, job satisfaction and intention of turnover, study show the main influence on the turnover among the nurses are both the pay satisfaction and job satisfaction itself. Thus, the study indicates that every angle of the salary level, structure benefits and raises are to be taken into account in addressing this issue.
Referring to study by O?Leary (2009), cultural and organization differences are the reason that are particularly difficult of international comparison in job satisfaction. The strong predictors of satisfaction tend to be the professional relations, opportunities for continuing medical education, patient care and intellectual stimulation whereas the strong predictors of dissatisfaction were time available for family, friends or leisure, workload, administrative burden and work-related income and prestige.
Referring to the study done by Linz (2003), job satisfaction relates to worker’s performance among the United State workers but in Russia, in order to improve the performance of the firms without having to incur large additional costs, the managers of the firms whether domestic or foreign need to find ways to encourage job satisfaction among their workers. Firms will gain among the Russian workers, if the job satisfaction among the Russian workers is interpreted into high labour productivity or lower labour turnover.
According to Crossman and Abou-Zaki (2003), health of an organization depends on job satisfaction which known as one criterion that needs to take into account. The effective of the service totally depends on human source. Therefore, job satisfaction reported by the workers produce the quality of service by the workers. In addition, according to Linz (2003), generally a positive job evaluation derived from job satisfaction brings along a positive effect. This is a positive emotional state which derived function of a person works appraisal or working experience (Linz, 2003; Crossman and Abou-Zaki, 2003). A study has been done among the Russian workers where the aim was to measure the factor that increases probability of high job satisfaction among the employees (Linz, 2003).
The study put on focus on four specific things which are firstly, using the multiple measures to see the different dimension of job satisfaction in order to recognize Russian workers reported level of job satisfaction. Second is capturing the difference in employee’s characteristics where this includes both objective and subjective factors in order to detect the variation in job satisfaction. Third, determine the relation between job satisfaction together with selecting intrinsic job characteristics and also extrinsic job characteristics. Finally is to evaluate the link of job satisfaction with organizational commitment alternative measures (Linz, 2003).
Next, in the study done by Linz (2003), among the United State of America workers, the intrinsic and extrinsic job characteristics tend to highly correlate with job satisfaction.
Factors that influence the feelings or perceptions of the employees together with motivating them to work better every day is an intrinsic job characteristic. For the Russian employees, the positive correlation tends to appear if there is high probability in experiencing the intrinsic job characteristics at their current workplace. In addition, the outcome that created by fulfilling a job for example, job security, pay and promotion are the reflection of extrinsic job characteristics (Linz, 2003).
According to Crossman and Abou-Zaki (2003), interaction of variables for example task characteristics, organisational characteristics and individual characteristics that influences job satisfaction is assumed by situational theories. In addition, before commencement of employment, individual appraise the situational characteristics while the situational occurrences are appraised afterwards. The combination of both situational characteristics and situational occurrences is a function of overall satisfaction.
Based on the research by Crossman and Abou-Zaki (2003), factors such as work itself, pay, promotion, supervision and co-workers are the key factors in job satisfaction and are commonly proposed as the situational characteristics. Employee involvement and organisational commitment are the other variables that also give an impact on job satisfaction.
According to the examination done by O?Leary (2009), in term of physician’s job, rewards, other people, nature of job and organizational context were the facets commonly accessed in research even though multidimensional construct is a physician’s job satisfaction. The concept of job characteristics was the main theoretical framework of the study. Affective and behavioural job outcomes were related to the skill variety, task significance, feedback, autonomy and friendship opportunities for the model. A positive relationship between job characteristics and job satisfaction are showed by the meta-analysis by Loher et. al (1985) whereas mean correlation between overall job satisfaction and job performance were estimated to be 0.30 as showed by meta-analysis of 312 samples by Bono et. al (2001).
Some studies showed the relationship between job satisfaction and performance where it is imprudent to believe that high job satisfaction leads to high performance. The relationship is still questionable. Some studies suggested a weak link between satisfaction and performance where others tend to indicates potential relationship. However, it cannot be ascertained whether high performers satisfied with their works or job satisfaction leads to high performance because the cause and effect determinants are still not clear.
According to study done by Oshagbemi (2000), the concept of job satisfaction is a general attitude towards an object which is a job. Job satisfaction is viewed as an emotional state that is positive that came from a person’s evaluation of job experience (Oshagbemi, 2000). The leadership and high job satisfaction are known to be related between the supervisor and co-workers defined in positive team member interaction as shown by the previous research that done by Bartolo and Furlonger, 2000.
According to Carmeli, Shalom, Weisberg (2007), career is viewed as a stage that reflects from one phase of life to another. It is also defined as design of work experiences of a person (Carmeli et. al, 2007). A high in career performance could be achieved by implementing a career plan accordingly. The relationship between career strategy and career satisfaction are the professional enhancement which mediates it (Lee, 2002).
According to Shain (1999) in his study, absenteeism, high insurance claims, loss of efficiency and, productivity are the results that are related to the stress in the workplace.
According to the study by Fairbrother and Warn (2003), work load and role-based factors such as role ambiguity, role conflict and lack of power may be aspects that are linked towards stress in working life. The occupational outcome of job satisfaction, organizational commitment and employee withdrawal behaviour have been associated with the stress itself. This will at the end cause negative relationship such as the intention to leave the job and thus contribute to high employee turnover. According to the O?Leary (2009), based on the Canadian oncology physicians, they believe that major sources of job stress seemed to be the increasing workloads whereas patient care and contact are meant to be the greatest source of job satisfaction (O?Leary et. al, 2009).


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