Adult Education and Training Essay


This paper work presents the sum-up of the most good known grownup larning theory – Andragogy. explains how it accounts for the features. forms of acquisition. and motive adopted by grownup scholars. Furthermore. reflects on my ain qualities and circumstance as an grownup scholar ; critique the strengths and failings of Andragogy.

Key Wordss

Andragogy. teaching method. grownup acquisition. instruction. preparation. grownup scholar. features. motive


All these old ages. the specialised field of instruction has generated a figure of theoretical accounts and theories of grownup acquisition. included transmutation larning theory. experiential larning theory. informal larning theory…etc. And the most of import 1 with which to be familiar is Malcolm Knowles’ Andragogy. Andragogy was described as the “art and scientific discipline to learning grownups to learn” ( Knowles. Holton. & A ; Swanson. 2005 ) . It besides interpreted the foundation and construction of grownup acquisition. the construct of andragogy has been worldwide used in different times with different intensions and seem as a Bible of grownup instruction.


The impression of andragogy has been around for nearby two centuries. It originally formulated by a German instructor. Alexander Kapp. in 1833 ( Nottingham Andragogy Group 1983 ) . He used “andragogy” to depict instruction theory. Andragogy literally means “man leading” . which contrasted with teaching method ( Since andr- is Latin for “man” . peda is Latin for “child” and agogus is Latin for “leading” ) . And subsequently on. twosome pedagogues had used the term of “andragogy” in their article. It included Rosenstock in 1921 ; Lindeman wrote “The Meaning of Adult Education” in 1926. The impression of “Andragogy” was good developed. widely discussed and used in 1980 by Malcolm Shepherd Knowles. a title-holder of andragogy. Knowles foremost introduced the construct of in the US in 1968. With his old work on informal grownup instruction. Knowles used those elements of procedure and puting to build the form and way of grownup instruction.

The construct he used to explicate the theory of grownup instruction was the impression of andragogy. “Malcolm Knowles. Informal grownup instruction. autonomy and andragogy” ( Jay-D Man. 2009 ) . Knowles applied the thought of andragogy as the foundation of grownup acquisition. he marked it as a new Born engineering which moderates the development and public presentation of grownup acquisition. He posited six premises related to the grownup scholars: 1 ) Need to cognize. 2 ) self-concept. 3 ) experience. 4 ) preparedness to larn. 5 ) orientation to acquisition. and 6 ) motive to larn ( Knowles. 1980 )

Need to cognize

“Adults want to cognize why they need to larn something before set abouting to larn it” ( Knowles. 2005 ) . Adults are realist. they want to happen out what is the advantage and the loss before they make determination to make something. The “why” . “what” . “how” . “when” . “where” will first came to their head before they doing picks. For illustration: A adult male find he needs to better his academy criterion to acquire a publicity at work. which is “why” he wants to go on acquisition ; he will choices a topic related to his present calling to larn. he knows “what” he needs to larn and “what” is expected of him ; in order to accomplish his end. he knows “how” he traveling to make and be after ; beside plants and take attention his household. he needs to cognize “when” he surveies ; after behaviors research. he knows “where” is a best topographic point for his go oning acquisition.


“Adults have a self-concept of being responsible for their ain determinations. for their ain lives” ( Knowles. 1998 ) . Adult scholars are independent. they expect and enjoy independency. like to take control in everything and see themselves as autonomous. They don’t want grownup pedagogues use a pedagogical theoretical account to learn them. They think larning is a procedure of sharing with the instructor and one another. for illustration. they prefer interaction instead than formal capable issue. So teacher has duty to promote and advance the procedure of autonomy. That is why Knowles emphasizes that grownup pedagogues must “make attempts to make learning experiences in which grownups are helped to do the passage from dependent to self-directing learners” ( Knowles. 1998 ) .


For those big scholars. they are single differences in their background. business. instruction criterion. learning manner. involvements. ends and motive will do different experiences than young person when semen into an educational activity ( Knowles. 2005 ) . Upon the grownup learners’ anterior experience. Knowles ( 1998 ) point out four waies that grownup experience acquisition: A wider scope of single differences will be established. Offer a richest resource for acquisition.

Create divergence that can keep. or sculpt new acquisition.
Provide country for adults’ self-identity.

Since the grownup scholars have many experiences. instructor must pull on scholar experiences. Everyone in category could portion their experiences through experiential techniques ( simulations. group treatments. or problem-solving activities. etc ) . Furthermore. sometime the grownup scholars may hold more experience than the pedagogue in some country. The communicating and cognition sharing will non merely bound between teacher and pupil. besides lead to 2 and 3 manner interactions: between teacher and scholar. scholar and scholar every bit good.

Readiness to Learn

Adults learn in order to get by efficaciously with real-life undertakings. They usually come to category motivated. and ready to larn things they need to cognize. Knowles observes that “adults by and large become ready to larn when their life state of affairs creates a demand to know” ( Knowles. 2005 ) . Anticipate the adults’ preparedness to larn is really of import in big instruction. it determine how to continue the preparation. and what schemes and activities should use to run into a learner’s preparedness. Surveies of scholars prior to get downing a class. or some debut class before the advanced classs are the ways to recover the stuff and aware the learner’s preparedness.

Orientation to larning

Learning is a procedure of increasing competency to accomplish full potency in life. Harmonizing to Knowles. grownups are problem-centered in their orientation to acquisition ( Knowles. 2005 ) . They prefer a job work outing orientation to acquisition ( job centered ) . instead than content-oriented. This orientation relates to their experience. undertaking or jobs in mundane state of affairss. The sense of grownups is that larning will let them to put to death undertaking or trade with jobs faced in life. When they confront real-life state of affairs. they want to larn what will assist them to lend their effectivity. and they learn best in this position.


Motivation is the last nucleus of Andragogy premise. but non the least. Knowles emphasizes the grownup learner’s motive can be blocked by preparation and instruction if disregard of grownup larning rules ( Knowles. 2005 ) . “Adults tend to be more motivated toward larning that helps them work out jobs in their livers or consequences in internal payoffs” ( Knowles. 1998 ) . Adult scholars are antiphonal to some incentives. And usually those incentives can be divided into external ( e. g. . better occupation. higher wages ) and internal ( e. g. . desire of occupation satisfaction. self-pride ) . And the andragogical theoretical account assumes big scholars tend to be more motived by the internal incentives than the external 1.


Base on the six premises of Andragogy. let’s see how big scholars and pedagogues began to implement the practical applications:

Adult scholar
Need to cognize

Have a demand to cognize what they expect to larn before puting clip in a learning event Make sure that the scholars know the purpose. end and intent of preparation every bit early as they can. Self-concept
Must uphold the construct of self-directing. responsible their ain growth. Coach scholars to happen their demands and steer their ain acquisition experience.


Come to a learning juncture with richest of experience and tradeoff to lend. Create and keep a acquisition environment to construct on and do usage of learner’s experience.

Readiness to larn

Continue a strong preparedness to larn those things that they set abouting to larn. Ensure developing relates straight to state of affairss adult face in real-life undertaking


Dedicate their energy to larning things that help them get by with day-to-day life or work out a job. Identify learner’s demands and involvements. develop content based on the their demands.


More antiphonal to internal incentives than external incentives. Make a safe acquisition environment and do certain the internal motive will non barricade.

Features of Adult scholars

Harmonizing to the Andragogy. Malcolm Knowles practiced a word picture of the shaping characteristics for grownup scholars. and shown as followers: Adults have identifiable end – they clearly understand what they need and cognize how to accomplish their end ; Adults are independent – they are expect and enjoy independency. like to take control. and should let to show themselves freely ; Adults have wealth of experience – demand others to acknowledge their old experience. including both positive and negative ; Adults want immediate utility of their acquisition – they want to use what they learn to work out and manage jobs faced in their day-to-day life ; Adults fear to the educational procedure – usually graduated from school old ages and do non familiar with those procedure ; Adults are difficult to alter – with their anterior experience. their behaviors go a wont. and some even though became their character already.

Andragogy V Pedagogy

Since the Andragogy is a larning theory for grownup scholars. and which is contrast to Pedagogy. The following tabular array summarizes the premises and procedures of andragogy and teaching method:

Assumption / Processes
Teaching method
Need to cognize
Clearly understand why they need to cognize before choose to larn. Merely need to cognize what the instructor Teachs.
Raise of self-directedness
Learners are a wealth resource for larning
Tiny worth
Readiness to larn
Developed from life’s experience
Directly related to age degree and course of study
Problem centered
Self centered
Motivated by internal final payments and wonder
Motivated by external inducements and penalty
Time position
Immediacy of application
Postponed application
Learning clime
Common self-diagnosis
By pedagogue / teacher
Formulation of aims
Common dialogue
By pedagogue / teacher
Teaching schemes
Experiential techniques
Transmission techniques
Common measuring of plan
By pedagogue / teacher

Barriers of larning

Comparison with kids and adolescents. grownup scholars have different functions and many duties in their day-to-day life. they must equilibrate against the demands of acquisition. Those duties will do barriers against their pick to return to school or take part in workplace preparation. Normally. those barriers can separated into three classs: 1 ) Attitudinal barriers ; 2 ) Time and fiscal barriers ; and 3 ) Education barriers. We need to place those barriers and get the better of them and take control of our ain acquisition.

Attitudinal barriers

Knew already – Peoples with “I already know” attitude to reject acquisition. He believe it does non necessitate preparation in that country. because he may already develop or believe himself had plenty knowledge in that facet. And properly people has this attitude are come with good instruction degree ; Previous experience – Generally people are used to larn in a traditional manner. teacher Teach with transmittal techniques. With this experience. they may experience the acquisition is irrelevant or deadening. so they reject. Lacks of trust – Students attend a category with different backgrounds and ends. Do non swear the other participants will do some of them do non take part actively in category for nervous and diffident. Problems of motive – people come to larn without enterprise. they were forced to larn. Hard to actuate people if they don’t have ain motive.

Time and fiscal barriers

Lack of clip – No affair the continuance of a class. grownups need to put clip to fall in it. They need to “sacrifice” from other activities and concern of its being. Lack of money – Free preparation is minority. Therefore. money ever is a chief barrier to entree grownup instruction services. Family responsibilities – Caring for kids. the duty of accompany partner. will do deficit of survey clip. Forming agenda – You need to alter or give the survey timetable because of the household and work duties.

Education barriers

Excessively old to larn – Generally can be find in older and low instruction degree people. The behavior of cull acquisition is because they don’t familiar with the new engineering or specialized linguistic communications. and their reaction clip is frequently slow. Lack of assurance – Low self-pride. past failures experience mark the grownups. forestalling them to get the better of defeats and frights.


First of all. I would wish to present myself. and the brief of my background are shown as below:

Male. 42 old ages old. married with 2 kids ( 12 Yrs & A ; 7 Yrs ) . I’ve been functioning the Hong Kong Police Force for 22 old ages. working in operational field but non-frontline. Besides operation planning. I’m besides involved in a “Diploma in Police Search & A ; Venue Security Programme” . which was held by Hong Kong Police and granted accreditation from HKCAAVQ. I’m one of the teachers of this programme. I am F. 5 graduated. so granted a sheepskin of Police Patroling on 2002. and that was my last academic certification.

Harmonizing to my profile. I am a typical grownup scholar and faced most of the barriers that I had mentioned antecedently. I would wish to review the strengths and failings of andragogy with my ain circumstance.


As an grownup scholar. the motive of acquisition is really of import. is core factor of grownup instruction. Adults have different undertakings and demands in their day-to-day life ; they will set their demands in orderly with the senior status. If the demand is related to larning. they will hold a great motive. and larning go the precedence in their life. so no any barriers can barricade them. and they study best in this state of affairs. However. the construct of “motivation” is non the strength of andragogy in my position. Upon my sentiment. I will take the construct of “need to know” . because it’s the factor that cause “motivation” . With the “why” . “what” and “how” . I will explicate the rule of “need to know” on my circumstance.

At the beginning. I come to category for my ain publicity and seem as calling investing. I like my current calling. and seem to be my life business. In order to heighten my competitory advantage and assist myself stand out in my on the job topographic point. I choose to go on larning. That will offer chances for farther development and lead publicity. My position have alteration during this preparation. I find out I know more about the grownup preparation theory. which help me to learn the trainee in my programme ; heighten the communicating accomplishment with my kids and people around me. The most of import is I know myself more. I am shortage non merely in academic criterion but besides in day-to-day cognition. I enjoy survey and hungriness for the cognition. My motive of larning becomes stronger and stronger. because I clearly understand why I need to larn. what I need to larn and how I need to larn.


During this minute. I will state the construct of “Orientation” is the failing of my ain acquisition. Since I come for acquisition is non for a job solve intent. and the topic I study besides non associate to my day-to-day undertaking.


Knowles introduced and develop the andragogy as nucleus rules of grownup acquisition. It help the pedagogue designing and carry oning grownup acquisition. and construct more effectual acquisition procedures for grownups. Andragogy works prefect in pattern when it is adapted to suit the particular character of the scholars and the acquisition organisations.

Adams. N. B. ( n. d. ) . Andragogy. Andragogy. Retrieved March 1. 2014. from hypertext transfer protocol: //www2. southeasterly. edu/Academics/Faculty/nadams/etec630 % 26665/Knowles. hypertext markup language Ana. B. ( 2013. October/November ) . Features of grownup acquisition. Features of Adult Learning. Retrieved March 1. 2014. from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. slideshare. net/aliceproject/39-ana-badea Andragogy how grownups learn. ( 2013. October/November ) . Andragogy How Adults Learn. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. slideshare. net/xilo24/andragogy-how-adults-learn Aspell. D. D. ( n. d. ) . Retrieved August. 2003. from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. umsl. edu/~henschkej/andragogy_articles_added_04_06/aspell_Andragogy % 20- % 20Adult % 20Learning. pdf Crawford. S. R. ( n. d. ) . Retrieved March 1.


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