Effectiveness of Alternative Washing Detergents Using Readily Available Household Products Fruity Four: Natalie Yeo (L) Xie Qiuyang Yap Ching Yit Zhang Jingyuan CHIJ St. Nicholas Girls’ Secondary School Introduction Ever since the first synthetic detergents were developed following World War I, chemical detergent has become a household necessity. There are various types of laundry detergents. However, most of them cause severe harm to the environment, as well as human beings. According to Stumm, W (1985), soaps and detergents belong to the category of mass-produced chemical substances.
Worldwide, the thirty million tons produced each year pose substantial potential for harm to the aquatic environment. Cemal et al. (2008) said oil and detergent pollutions are a problem in the last decade. It contains almost thousand components which are aliphatic and aromatic. Especially aromatic compounds are very toxic for biota and habitat. Something as ordinary as cleaning your clothes in a washing machine can have serious repercussions. In fact, many of them contain cancer-causing chemicals and other toxins.
One such common chemical found in laundry detergent are petroleum distillates, or napthas. It has been linked to cancer, lung damage and/or inflammation, and mucous membrane damage. Olson, W et al(1994) said that many groups and agencies promotethe use of alternative household cleaners because of the belief that they are environmentally preferable to commercially formulated hardsurface cleaners. These alternative cleaners include food products such as vinegar or baking soda. Townsend, J (2007) mentioned that vinegar has versatile properties which can remove stains from many types of fabric.
Baking soda is a leavening agent, enabling it to remove stains too, as stated by Lansky, V (2005). Lemon juice is natural and it contains citrus juice which not only removes stains, but also whitens the white clothes. Objective: To find out alternative products other than chemical laundry detergent to reduce its harm to the environment and human beings. Thus, we are conducting an experiment to see which of the three alternatives will best replace chemical laundry detergent. Hypothesis: Our hypothesis is that lemon juice will have the best effect among the three alternative products.
Procedure Apparatus: 1. Four 500cm? beakers 2. 4 glass rods 3. 1 teaspoon 4. 4 pieces of 15cmX15cm cloths 5. Curry sauce 6. 150cm? of lemon juice, vinegar and baking soda powder 7. 350cm? water X4(1400cm? ) 8. 1 dough shaper 9. 1 ice-cream stick Variables: Control group: No detergent (plain water) Independent variable: Types of alternative products such as baking soda powder, lemon juice, vinegar Dependent variable: The area and colour intensityof the curry stain when usingdifferent types of alternative products such as baking soda powder,lemon juice,vinegar Method: . Scoop the curry sauce using a teaspoon and level the curry sauce with an ice-cream stick. 2. Scrape the curry sauce off the spoon onto the center of a 15cmX15cm cloth using an ice-cream stick. 3. Place a dough-shaper(square-shaped,metal) on the cloth, surrounding the curry stain. 4. Leave the curry stain to dry for 10 minutes. 5. Fill the beakers with 350cm? of water each. 6. Add 150cm? of lemon juice into one beaker, use a glass rod to stir the mixture in a clockwise direction for 10 rounds. 7.
Submerge the piece of cloth in the mixture completely and place it stationary for an hour. 8. Take out the piece of cloth after one hour, observe the intensity of the colour. 9. Repeat steps 1-8 for baking soda powder, vinegar and plain water (150cm? each). 10. Repeat steps 1-9 three times for all four products in order to get accurate results. 11. Collate the data by drawing a bar graph- x axis represent the type of detergent while the y axis represent the intensity of colour of the stain. Reference Cope , H(2002). The History of Detergent…Retrieved from http://www. hem. shef. ac. uk/chm131-2001/cha01hc/dhistory. html Cemal, et al (Guven, K. , Cubukcu, N. , Iptes, M. , Ozyatvac, M. , Cumal? , S. , Nesimigil, F. , &Yalc? n, A. ) (2008). Oil and detergent pollution in surface waters and sediments of the Istanbul Strait, Golden Horn, Izmit Bay (Sea of Marmara), Canakkale Strait, Ali Aga (Aegean Sea) in 2005-2007. Journal of the Black Sea/Mediterranean Environment, 14(3), 205-220. Elizabeth, J(2008). Laundry Detergents’ Harmful Side Effects for Humans. Retrieved fromhttp://articles. ubmityourarticle. com/laundry-detergents-harmful-side-effects-for-humans-40610 Townsend, J (2007). Vinegar, Versatile vinegar,Home and DIY,2. Stumm, W (1985). Environmental Science ;amp; Technology, ACS Publications. Editorial: Clean shirts and clean water. Lansky, V (2005). Baking Soda, What (it is, how it works, how we use it and how it came to be so popular), 124. Olson, W et al (Vesley, D, Bode, M, Dubbel, Pand Bauer, T) (1994). Hard Surface Cleaning Performance of Six Alternative Household Cleaners Under Laboratory Conditions.