Grimsby is a coastal town located on the South side of the river Humber in North East Lincolnshire. Grimsby was founded in the 9th century AD by the Danish settlers, who found the natural port a useful asset.
In the 12th century AD, Grimsby became a fishing and trading port. Grimsby used to be, in the 19th and 20th centuries, a booming fishing port, which traded with Scandinavian countries. But now Grimsby has changed its function as a town and is now a car port and has several fish processing plants where the old docks used to be. Grimsby has a large market in its town centre. This is a major trade hub and it is where Freshney Place, the focus of our investigation lies.The main high street of Grimsby used to be, up until Freshney Place was built, on Freeman Street.
This street is very close to the docks, and provided a marketplace to sell the freshly caught fish. But when the demand for Grimsby fish declined, Freshney Place was built on Victoria Street, which is the modern high street of Grimsby, which has recently been regenerated with a fountain and new pavements and walkways.Freshney Place is located where the old docks were situated, and occupies an area next to the current high street of Grimsby. Freshney Place is very close to the river Freshney- hence the title of the shopping centre. Freshney place was the brainchild of a partnership of the local council and Hammersons UK, which saw hundreds of millions of pounds spent in designing the shopping centre, which features a glass roof topping the mall.Freshney Place is an enclosed shopping area, which features one multi- storey car park, complimentary toilet and seating facilities; and extensive features for the disabled. Improvements for children include small go- karts which can be hired.
In Freshney Place, there are 93 shops in total. Most of these shops sell middle order clothes and fashion items. There are few high order goods outlets, and even fewer low order goods shops.In my investigation, I am trying to find out the pedestrian flow of each of the entrances/ exits of Freshney Place; the sphere of influence Freshney Place has in the surrounding areas; and the prevailing shop type- be it selling high, middle or low order goods.I am going to find out the pedestrian flow of each of the doors by tallying how many people go in and out of the centre.
The sphere of influence will be calculated by politely questioning the public and asking them to fill in a questionnaire about where they live in relation to Freshney Place. The dominant shop type will be calculated by looking at a map of Freshney Place, and deciding which shop sells what.Grimsby is located on a dry site, which has relatively flat land, which is easy to build on. The river Freshney was a major selling point to the Scandinavian settlers, as a little further upstream, fresh water could be found. Also, the river provided good access to the river Humber, which harbours the city of Hull- a major trading post.
The river leads out to the North Sea- which was the largest reason for building a settlement where Grimsby is, as the North Sea provides rich fishing grounds to profit from.The Burgess Model (above) shows the general layout of a large settlement in a More Economically Developed Country (MEDC). The Burgess model depicts a typical large settlement in a More Economically Developed Country. Each one of the concentric rings depicts a “zone” in the settlement.In the middle of the Burgess Urban Model is The Central Business District (or CBD). It is the central part of a settlement, which contains mainly offices and shops, but few houses as the cost of land in the CBD is extremely high in comparison to all other areas of a settlement.
This is because the companies who want to build shops or office buildings are in competition with each other. This therefore increases the prices of land as lots of companies want a share of the usually small CBD of a settlement.The next ring in the Model is the Zone of Transition. This area of a settlement is where many factories and most of the industry are built. In Grimsby, this area is around the far north and far south ends of Victoria Street, which is the main high street of Grimsby. There are a lot of warehouses that follow the main roads. The land use patterns along roads are shown in the Hoyt Urban Model which is shown further on in the Introduction.The next concentric ring stands for the inner city.
This area is usually, in the UK, riddled with cheap terraced housing from the Victorian era, which offers low cost, low quality housing. These houses were built for the people who worked in the fish warehouses and mills in the Zone of Transition in Grimsby- so they could be very near their place of work. Although this was good for the owners of the factories (their workers could get to work quickly and on time), it was not so good for the actual workers. Initially, it would have sounded fantastic to the poor and dirty workers- they would have loved the idea of a new home, and not having to travel in some cases for miles to their workplace.
But afterwards, when they had experienced the cramped, claustrophobic conditions of the terraced house, plus the smell that the fishing industry produces, then the workers would have been sick to the teeth that they lived in that house.The latter ring is known as the Outer Suburbs. This ring consists mainly of semi- detached, medium value housing. This area, when looked upon in a map, shows different road patterns to the Terraced housing in the Inner City.The images above show the iron grid patterned terraced housing, compared to the circuses of the Outer suburbs. These are not just architecturally different streets, but socially different streets. The cramped, dirty conditions of the terraced houses made a large amount of people work together to survive.
This provoked a sharp rise in community spirit- one of the key items that kept Grimsby together in times of hardship. But as the larger houses of the Outer Suburbs came into play, the community spirit slowly declined, and people slowly stopped working in the fishing industry, and moved on to jobs that were not as physically and mentally demanding.The last zone in the Burgess Urban Model is the Commuter Zone, or literally the countryside. This zone is where the largest, most expensive and generally best housing is. There is lots of open space- unlike the CBD and The Zone Of Transition. This is caused by the cheapest land prices in the whole of a Town or City like Grimsby. The road patterning is different to other zones depicted in the Urban Model. The roads are known as “Cul- de Sac’s”.
They are roads that end in a dead end. This is the typical road pattern for modern day housing. The green area at the bottom of the map is a park- an open space not found in the inner parts of Grimsby, but on the outskirts- nearer Humberston.The Hoyt model shows an advanced view of the Burgess Model. The various segments within it depict the roads that go in and out of the CBD.
This allows you to see how a modern settlement is arranged, as the Hoyt Model was formed many years after the Burgess model. The principals of the diagram are the same- the zones are roughly in the same Place and order. Whereas the Burgess Model shows all of the industry in the Zone Of Transition, the Hoyt Model shows the industry travelling along main roads in and out of the CBD. This is more logical then the Burgess Model, as most forms of industry need good access to roads to transport goods in and out.
This is precisely the case in Grimsby, where the fish warehouses had very good access to the main roads leading out of Grimsby, and into other settlements.In The Hoyt Model, High class housing is shown along another road, on the other side of the industry. This is also the case in Grimsby, where the larger, more expensive homes follow a road far away from industry.
This is understandable, as the more well- off people would not want to live near the smelly docks and warehouses. Freshney Place is found in the Central Business district of Grimsby. There are several main roads leading to and from it.
This leads to good access and accessibility for all.The diagram above shows the Central Place theory put into practice. The city is the Central Place, and trades with the market towns, towns and villages to become a distribution centre for the goods. The diagram also shows how the trade integrates seamlessly between the settlements.The small malls and or high streets in towns provide a service for the locals and some villages, as explained in the Central Place Theory. This shows that the sphere of influence of Freshney Place in Grimsby will be approximately 10 miles.
Freshney Place sells a variety of goods. The goods that I hypothesize to be dominant in the shops are clothes (middle- order).There are three main types of goods. These are:-1.
High order goods- they are expensive and rarely bought e.g. Televisions.2. Middle order goods- infrequently purchased as they are long lasting items e.g.
clothes and books.3. Low order goods- cheap, consumable and are bought a lot e.g. milk.Pedestrian flow is the amount of people that go in and out of a specific place or building.
In our case, this meant going into Freshney Place, and tallying how many people go in and out of each exit simultaneously.When tallying pedestrian flow, you have to make sure that all counts are done at the same time on the same day. This is because factors such as rush hour, weekends or bank holidays may affect the results you get- either lowering them or increasing them. In Grimsby, many office workers may go to lunch at certain times. This would increase the pedestrian flow, as Grimsby is a working class town.All in all, Grimsby is a town that has a range of geographical variety, and is the setting of our project to find the sphere of influence, shop type and pedestrian flow of the different exits in Freshney Place.