A play is a form of literature written by a playwright, usually consisting of scripted dialogue between characters, intended for theatrical performancerather than just reading. Plays are performed at a variety of levels, from Broadway, Off-Broadway, regional theater, to Community theatre, as well a University or school productions. There are rare dramatists, notably George Bernard Shaw, who have had little preference whether their plays were performed or read. The term “play” can refer to both the written works of playwrights and to their complete theatrical performance.
Genres Comedy Comedies are plays which are designed to be humorous. Comedies are often filled with witty remarks, unusual characters, and strange circumstances. Certain comedies are geared toward different age groups. Comedies were one of the two original play types of Ancient Greece, along with tragedies. An example of a comedy would be William Shakespeare’s play “A Midsummer Night Dream,” or for a more modern example the skits from “Saturday Night Live”.  Farce A generally nonsensical genre of play, farces are often overacted and often involve slapstick humour.
An example of a farce includes William Shakespeare’s play “The Comedy of Errors,” or Mark Twain’s play “Is He Dead? ” Satirical A satire play takes a comic look at current events and famous people while at the same time attempting to make a political or social statement, for example pointing out corruption. An example of a satire would be Nikolai Gogol’s The Government Inspector and Aristophanes’ Lysistrata. Tragedy These plays often involve death and are designed to cause the reader or viewer to feel sadness.
Tragic plays convey all emotions, and have extremely dramatic conflicts. Tragedy was one of the two original play types of Ancient Greece. Some examples of tragedies include William Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet, and also John Webster’s play The Duchess of Malfi.  Historical These plays focus on actual historical events. They can be tragedies or comedies, but are often neither of these. History as a separate genre was popularized byWilliam Shakespeare. Examples of historical plays include Friedrich Schiller’s Demetrius and William Shakespeare’s King John. 4] Oral poetry is poetry that is composed and transmitted without the aid of writing.
The complex relationships between written and spoken literature in some societies can make this definition hard to maintain. Oral poetry is sometimes considered to include any poetry which is performed live. In many cultures, oral poetry overlaps with, or is identical with, song. Meanwhile, although the term oral etymologically means ‘to do with the mouth’, in some cultures oral poetry is also performed by other means, such as talking drums in some African cultures.
Oral poetry exists most clearly within oral cultures, but it can survive, and indeed flourish, in highly literate cultures. Oral poetry differs from oral literature in general because oral literature encompasses linguistic registers which are not considered poetry. In most oral literature, poetry is defined by the fact that it conforms to metrical rules; examples of non-poetic oral literature in Western culture include some jokes, speeches and storytelling. Emceeing 1. Before The Show: Prepare Yourself. Know what to do and who to contact in case of emergency • Familiarize yourself with the list of announcements so that when you are up on stage, you can quickly reel them off rather than reading them word for word at a ponderous pace. • Think about how you plan to open and close the program 2. At The Performance Site: Get Acquainted
• Arrive early and orient yourself. Make sure that every thing is set up and ready to go (water, timepiece, sound, lights, etc. ). • Introduce yourself to the staff: sound technicians, stage managers, tent monitors, etc. Introduce yourself to the tellers. Let them know where they can find bathrooms, water, tissues 3. During The Program: Be Gracious and Alert. • Welcome the audience. Jay O’Callahan says, “Make the audience feel that this is an event. Welcome them with a sense of warmth, anticipation, bubble and fun. ” Introduce yourself and tell them how the session will progress (number of tellers, breaks, etc. )so that they know where they are headed and can feel comfortable.
Establish the rules (those introductory announcements regarding cell phones, etc.. Be brief and get the ball rolling. • After introducing each teller, stay on stage to assist them in getting settled with tall stools, mic stands, etc. Then, get off the stage. 4. Closing the Program: Thank Everyone Briefly thank everyone (performers, producers, sound technicians, etc. ) including the audience. Give any brief closing announcements necessary (including the date of next storytelling event at the same site) and wish them well on their way. Afterward, thank each of the tellers personally as well as the sound technicians and other personnel.
A manuscript is a set of written information that has been manually created by someone or some people, such as a hand-written letter, as opposed to being printed or reproduced some other way. The term may also be used for information that is hand-recorded in other ways than writing, for example inscriptions that are chiselled upon a hard material or scratched, the original meaning of graffiti ,as with a knife point in plaster or with a stylus on a waxed tablet, the way Romans made notes, or are in cuneiform writing, impressed with a pointed stylus in a flat tablet of nbaked clay. The word manuscript derives from the Medieval Latin manuscriptum, a word first recorded in 1594 as a latinisation of earlier Germanic words used in theMiddle Ages. In publishing and academic contexts, a “manuscript” is the text submitted to the publisher or printer in preparation for publication, usually as a typescript prepared on a typewriter, or today, a printout from a PC, prepared in manuscript format. Manuscripts are not defined by their contents, which may combine writing with mathematical calculations, maps, explanatory figures or illustrations.
Manuscripts may be in the form of scrolls or in book form, or codex format. Illuminated manuscriptsare enriched with pictures, border decorations, elaborately engrossed initial letters or full-page illustrations. Deliver speech according to the training * Memorise the first paragraph and practice it until you know it “by heart” * Likewise, any ‘header’ (main point) needs to be memorised * Never end a sentence or begin a new one by looking down. Read the rest of the text. All quotes to be read out from open to close (if long) and memorised if short * Look up midsentence if you need to ‘connect’ with the audience * All questions in the speech should be short and posed looking at audience. * Speak to individual audience members, not over their heads Speak slowly! The speech is probably being simultaneously interpreted. * Avoid risk of speeding up half-way through speech Extemporaneous Speaking, colloquially known as extemp, is a competitive event popular in United States high schools and colleges, in which students speak persuasively or informatively about current events and politics.
In extemp, a speaker chooses a question out of 3 offered, then prepares for 30 minutes with the use of previously prepared articles from magazines, journals, newspapers, and articles from news Web sites, before speaking for 7 minutes on the topic. There are four speaking events: informative, persuasive, domestic, and foreign. However, some areas have only two events, being foreign policy and domestic policy, and some other areas have three, being foreign policy, domestic policy, and economical.