Human beings depend on culture for survival.
Physical anthropology includes the study of linguistic variation as it relates to climate.
Physical anthropologists assisted with the identification of victims at New York’s World Trade Center after 9/11.
Morphology refers to physical shape and appearance.
Observations of living primates inform our efforts to understand our evolutionary past.
Darwin’s observation that bipedalism frees the hand to hold objects led him to hypothesize that tool use was an important selective pressure on bipedalism.
A recent news article reports on findings from a dig in Mesopotamia.

The researchers report that skeletal populations indicate a decline in stature and likely overall health at this period in time. This reminds you of another study you have read about, the populations of St. Catherines Island. What could be the reasons for the changes in skeletons?

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Health and stature declined with the adoption of agriculture.
Archaeology is:
the study of the behavior and material culture of past human societies.
Physical anthropology:
relies on the scientific method.
The scientific method:
involves empirical data collection and hypothesis testing.
A hypothesis:
is an attempt to explain observations and predict future scientific results.

Forensic anthropology differs from biocultural anthropology in which of the following ways?
applies anthropological techniques to modern crime scenes and disasters
How is biocultural anthropology different from cultural anthropology?
It examines the interaction between genetics and culture in shaping human biology.
Bipedalism is considered one of the hallmarks of hominid evolution because:
it was the first evolutionary development that clearly distinguished us from other animals.
How is a theory different from a hypothesis?
A theory is an explanation relying on careful examination and testing of evidence.
How is culture defined?
Culture is a learned behavior transmitted from person to person.
Franz Boas:
united within American anthropology the study of culture, language, and biology.
Chimpanzees in the wild have been observed to do all of the following EXCEPT:
teach their offspring how to flake stone tools.

Charles Darwin:
was an English naturalist in the 1800s.
You spend a year of your life living with and studying crab fishermen. At the end of this time you document everything that you have learned. This is called a(n):

Physical anthropologists might examine:
brain biology.molecular structure of diseases.primate growth and development.all of the above
Organisms classified in two different biological orders can still belong to the same genus.
Genetic drift is most powerful as an evolutionary cause when operating on small populations.

Mendel’s discrete units responsible for the characteristics in his pea plants are now known as chromosomes.
Natural selection works on preexisting variation in a population.
Darwin’s theory of evolution drew from all of the following scientific disciplines EXCEPT:
Alfred Wallace was:
an English naturalist who arrived at many of the same conclusions as Darwin
Carolus Linnaeus:
developed a classification system for plants and animals.
The idea of catastrophism is attributed to:
Georges Cuvier.
The idea that geologic processes operating today are the same as those that happened in the past is:

The English demographer whose work on population growth greatly influenced Darwin’s thinking was:
Thomas Malthus.
Lamarck proposed an erroneous evolutionary mechanism known today as:
inheritance of acquired characteristics.
The physical expression of an organism’s genetic constitution is called the:
Different versions, or subunits, of the same gene are:
The only possible source of new genetic material is:
In 1962, Watson and Crick were awarded the Nobel Prize for their 1953 discovery that the structure of the DNA molecule was:
a double helix.
Recessive alleles for a given trait will be expressed if they are inherited:
from both parents.
The scientist who coined the name Homo sapiens for human beings and placed them in a higher taxonomic group he called primates was:
Carolus Linnaeus.

All of the following are formal taxonomic categories EXCEPT:
The Human Genome Project is most likely to contribute to an understanding of which disease?
cystic fibrosis
The scientist whose work provided the foundation for later understandings of genetics was:
Gregor Mendel.
DNA replication takes place only during the production of new gametes.
Most human nuclear DNA is coded to produce proteins.
In order for traits to respond to natural selection, they must be heritable.
All mammals have the same number of chromosomes.

Hemoglobin is an amino acid.
Somatic cells include all of the following EXCEPT:
sex cells
The following are complementary bases in DNA:
adenine and thymine.
Gametes are:
Down syndrome can occur:
because of nondisjunction, which yields an extra chromosome.

Mendel’s Law of Independent Assortment:
applies to genes on different chromosomes.
Proteins consist of:
chains of amino acids.
occurs in the nucleus.
RNA differs from DNA in that it uses:
uracil instead of thymine.
Meiosis results in the production of:
four gametes.
An individual that is homozygous at the locus that determines ABO blood type may have any of the following except:
type AB blood.

Individuals whose blood type is A and carry both dominant and recessive genes at this locus have a genotype of:
The presence of a recessive allele:
is usually masked in the phenotype.
The expression of polygenic traits:
is determined by genes at several loci in conjunction with environmental factors.
directs cellular function.
Chromosome number is reduced during:
Evolution can be defined as:
a change in the genetic makeup (allele frequency) of a population from one generation to the next.
The only possible source of new, unique, genetic material comes from what?
According to Charles Darwin, natural selection operates at the level of:
Which of the evolutionary forces is most likely to decrease variation between two populations?
gene flow
Genetic drift is the force of evolution that is most powerful when acting on very large populations.
Reproductive isolation is key to the development of individual species.

The inability to taste PTC indicates a homozygous recessive genotype.
Malaria is caused by:
bites from infected mosquitoes.
Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium assumes:
no gene flow, mutation, genetic drift, or natural selection.
“Fitness,” in an evolutionary sense, refers to an individual’s:
reproductive success.

The substitution of one DNA base for another due to a mistake during replication is called a:
point mutation.
The ABO and MN blood type frequencies of the Dunkers differ significantly from those of current American and German populations due to:
genetic drift.
Mutations to which cells are most likely to have significant evolutionary consequences?
sex cells (gametes)
The best-documented case of industrial melanism involves:
peppered moths.
The mutation known as trisomy 21, in which an extra copy of chromosome 21 is present, is more commonly known as:
Down syndrome.
Functional adaptations in humans during their lifetimes are usually associated with environmental conditions.
Vasodilation is the expansion of blood vessels near the body’s surface in response to excessive cold.

Loss of body hair during human evolution may have resulted from thermoregulatory adaptation to sweating in hot climates.
C. Loring Brace argued that the race concept:
can be traced to the Renaissance, when seafaring travelers observed differences between people from distant lands.
Senecence is:
after the childbearing years.

schedules growth, but environment and events influence actual development.
Most neonatal deaths in the U.S. are caused by:
low birth weight.
Low birth weight can result from a mother’s:
malnutrition.excessive alcohol consumption.smoking.All of the above.

Infancy ends:
at 36 months.
Human brain growth is completed by age:
Puberty is marked by:
menarche in girls.
When epiphyses fuse to the diaphyses:
full adult height is attained.
Osteoporosis is:
a main cause of hip fractures in older women.
Ethnographic evidence from around the world shows that postmenopausal women do all of the following EXCEPT:
not live very long.
The strength and mass of bone:
vary with an individual’s level of physical activity.
Exercise improves physical fitness by contributing to all of the following EXCEPT:
increased cholesterol.

Functional adaptations to high altitude include all of the following EXCEPT:
smaller diameter of blood vessels.
Dark skin, a result of increased melanin production in equatorial peoples, is likely a response to ultraviolet radiation because UV radiation can cause:
follate depletion
Osteomalacia is caused by:
insufficient amount of vitamin D.
Hypoxia has been shown to be an agent of natural selection in that Tibetan women:
with alleles for high oxygen saturation in their hemoglobin had more surviving children.
Primates are notable for high levels of diversity and adaptability.
Suspensory locomotion is characteristic of macaques.
All primates have a projecting nose similar to that observed in dogs that contributed to their decreased reliance on a sense of smell.
Because of the enhanced sense of touch, most primate species have nails instead of claws on the back of the finger tips.

Primates are flexible and not particularly vulnerable to habitat change and hunting.
Anthropoid species have a sense of smell that is more highly developed than Prosimian species.
Unlike apes, monkeys:
have limbs (arms and legs) of relatively equal length.
The presence of five digits on hands and feet is:
a primitive mammalian trait, retained in most primates.

Living lemurs are found only in:
Primate females:
give birth to fewer offspring than do many other mammals.
Anthropoids include:
monkeys, apes, and humans.
Anthropoids differ from prosimians in that they:
have better color vision.
Prehensile tails:
are present only in some platyrrhines.
While observing primates at the zoo, you notice that the particular monkey you are watching uses its hands, feet, and tail to move throughout the trees in its enclosure. This is most likely:
a New World monkey, because many of these species have a tail with grasping abilities similar to those observed in nonhuman primate hands and feet.
A skull with a foramen magnum (which positions the skull in front of the body) belongs to:
an individual that is fully quadrupedal, such as a dog.

The Y-5 molar morphology is present in:
A feature unique only to human teeth and human ancestors’ teeth is:
a canine that shows wear on the tip.
Preadaptation is:
the use of an anatomical feature in a way unrelated to the feature’s original function.
Grooming relationships reinforce social structures and cement social bonds.
Male chimpanzees’ hunting success is greater when they hunt in groups.

Altruistic behavior occurs when both individuals benefit from the behavior.
Humans are the only primates known to use material culture to access food resources.
Jane Goodall was the first to document:
use of stick tools by chimpanzees.predatory behavior of chimpanzees.

enduring nature of mother-offspring bond in chimpanzees.all of the above

Sexual dimorphism in canine size:
is greater in societies where males compete.
Monogamy is characteristic of:
Altruistic behaviors include all of the following EXCEPT:
dominance behavior.

Nocturnal primates communicate through:
Chimpanzee hunting has been used as a model for the origins of human hunting because:
chimpanzees are the closest relatives of humans.hunting has a nutritional basis.hunting is most successful when chimps hunt together.all of the above
Harry Harlow’s experiments on rhesus monkeys showed that infants placed with artificial surrogate mothers:
lacked basic social skills as adults.
Chimpanzees taught by humans to make simple stone tools:
passed this new behavior to relatives.

In studies of primate cognition and tool use, researchers have taughtchimpanzees to crack open nuts with stones. Later in life, these chimpanzees have taught other young chimpanzees and offspring the same skill. This could be considered:
social transmission of learned behavior.a type of “culture” that is learned and passed between individuals.evidence of the cognitive capabilities of primates.all of the above
The Earth is about 4.6 billion years old.

Rapid burial after death usually impedes fossilization.
Historically speaking, scientists were able to provide relative ages for fossils before they were able to provide numerical ages.
The chemical signature of volcanic ash layers can be used to correlate sites across vast regions.
The English surveyor who developed the technique of stratigraphic correlation between regions was:
William Smith.
The study of what happens to an organism’s remains after death is:
The theory that species persist for long periods and then undergo rapid spurts of evolutionary change is:
punctuated equilibrium.

If fossil species A is consistently recovered from geological deposits beneath layers containing fossil species B, then A is considered older than B. This relative dating technique is based on the principle of:
One of the only fossil sites in the world that preserves a great deal of evidence for anthropoid evolution during the Eocene and Oligocene epochs is:
Fayum, Egypt.
Prior to the invention of absolute dating techniques, one of the chemical dating methods useful for establishing the relative age of fossils from a single site was:
fluorine dating.

Biostratigraphic dating relies on:
the first and last appearances of species in the fossil record.
The absolute dating method that involves counting the annual rings visible in the cross-section of a tree is called:
With a half-life of 5,730 years, 14C dating is useful for dating carbon-bearing objects as far back as:
50,000 years ago.
Which dating method would be most appropriate for establishing the age of a volcanic ash layer from an early hominid site in eastern Africa?
40K/40Ar dating
What do geologists call the oldest portion of Earth’s history, accounting for roughly 87% of that history?
Precambrian eon
A diagram (family tree) that proposes hypothetical ancestor-descendant relationships between species is a:

Which of the following has the greatest likelihood of becoming fossilized?
The time it takes for 50% of an unstable isotope to decay to a stable form is called the:
The absolute dating technique that emerged as a result of research into constructing the atomic bomb during World War II is:
14C dating.
The dating technique in which proteins are examined under high magnification using polarized light is:
amino-acid racemization dating.
The first primate fossil ever recorded was of Adapis parisiensis, described by Georges Cuvier in France in 1822.
It is now a desert, but 30 mya the Fayum region of Egypt was a wet tropical forest.

Fossil and living apes exhibit a distinctive Y-5 pattern on the chewing surfaces of their molar teeth.
Which of the following is not a typical primate trait?
sideways-facing eyes
Sivapithecus is widely recognized as an ancestral member of which ape lineage?
During the Miocene epoch of the Cenozoic era, there was an adaptive radiation of which kind of primate?
Apes went extinct in southern Europe (e.g., France, Spain, Italy, Greece) during the late Miocene, probably as the result of:
climate change.
A fossil primate with legs and arms of about equal length would most likely have gotten around using which form of locomotion?
Which of the following is not one of the main hypotheses to explain primate origins?
aquatic ape hypothesis
High, shearing crests on the molar teeth of a fossil primate suggests that it probably ate mostly:
Which fossil group is characterized by an eye orbit fully enclosed by bone?
The space between the canine and the first premolar in the lower jaw of some primates is a(n):
Fossil primates have NOT been recovered from which continent?
Which anatomical feature would you expect to find in the fossil remains of a nocturnal species?
large eye orbits
Both colobines and cercopithecines appear in the late Miocene fossil record, representing the two subfamilies of living:
Old World monkeys.
The earliest hominids had very large canine teeth, similar to a male chimpanzee’s.

Direct radiometric dating of volcanic rocks provides very accurate ages for many East African Rift Valley hominid sites.
Bipedal locomotion preceded the appearance of large brains during the course of hominid evolution.
The fossils from Piltdown, England, represent some of the most important evidence for the evolution of early humans in Europe.
The oldest recognizable artifacts are simple stone tools dating to about 2.6 mya and are referred to as the Oldowan Complex.

The fossil nicknamed “Lucy” is a member of which species?
Australopithecus afarensis
The ravine in northern Tanzania where many early hominid fossils have been recovered, often referred to as the “cradle of humankind,” is:
Olduvai Gorge.
Each of the following traits is found in a bipedal hominid EXCEPT:
a foramen magnum far back on the skull.
At which site would you be most likely to find fossil remains of Australopithecus africanus?
Sterkfontein, South Africa
Among living nonhuman primates, which is Homo sapiens’ closest relative?
The Laetoli site, in Tanzania, is most famous for:
preserving fossil hominid footprints.
The australopithecine lineage went extinct about:
1 mya.
Some australopithecines are referred to as “robust” because:
they possessed very large molar teeth and chewing muscles.

The hyoid bone of the juvenile Australopithecus afarensis fossil suggests that this species probably couldn’t:
speak like a modern human.
The earliest australopithecines first show up in the fossil record more than:
4 mya.
Brain enlargement in the genus Homo coupled with a reduction of chewing muscles is correlated with a growing reliance on tools.
The Zhoukoudian fossils belonged to the species Homo habilis.
Homo habilis used Acheulian hand axes.

Homo erectus had longer legs than those of earlier hominids.
Eugène Dubois found fossils of this species in Southeast Asia:
Homo erectus.
Eugène Dubois was unique among major evolutionists in the nineteenth century in that he sought to test hypotheses about early human ancestors with:
fossil evidence.
Modern human traits including increasing brain size and dependence on material culture first show up in:
Homo habilis.
Relative to Australopithecines, Homo habilis is characterized by:
a smaller face.a bigger brain.

a rounder and larger skull.All of the above.

Relative to earlier hominids, Homo erectus is marked by:
a large increase in body size.
The many stone tools, fragmentary animal bones, and teeth found at Gran Dolina, Spain, indicate that hominids there:
processed and consumed animals and other hominids.
Increased body size in Homo erectus relative to earlier hominids is most likely related to:
increased protein in the diet.

The Acheulian complex:
emerged around 1.5 mya.
Relative to Oldowan tools, Acheulian stone tools:
required more learning and skill to produce.
Homo erectus’s cranial capacity:
ranges from 650 cc to 1,200 cc.
According to the text, the first hominid to migrate out of Africa was:
Homo erectus.
Archaic Homo sapiens are the first hominids to have expanded beyond Africa into other parts of the Old World.
Archaic Homo sapiens display several primitive features found in geologically older hominids (e.g., Homo erectus).
Some Neandertal skulls have cranial capacities that are larger than those of the average modern human.
Stress markers in the teeth that reflect growth disruption due to poor diets or to poor health are called dental hypoplasias.
In terms of mtDNA, Neandertals differ more from modern humans than any one modern group differs from any other.
The first nonmodern human fossil to be discovered, and recognized as such, was the:
Neandertal skull from Germany.
Fossil remains of archaic Homo sapiens:
show a mixture of Homo erectus and H. sapiens traits.
The Neandertals are last recorded in the fossil record about:
30,000 yBP.
Analyses of modern human genetic variation suggest that Homo sapiens evolved approximately:
200,000 yBP.
Anatomically modern humans are characterized by all of the following EXCEPT:
average cranial capacity of 750 cc.
According to the Out-of-Africa model, the transition from archaic to modern Homo sapiens:
occurred only once, in Africa.
All the following traits suggest cold adaptation for Neandertals EXCEPT:
a narrow nasal aperture.
The middle Pleistocene archaic Homo sapiens is credited with inventing:
prepared core “points” that may have been hafted to spear shafts.
The archeological period in Europe starting about 35,000 yBP, marked by a great increase in technology and various kinds of art, is called the:
Upper Paleolithic period.
Middle Paleolithic prepared-core stone tools, usually associated with Neandertals, are called the:
The best fossil evidence to suggest that Neandertals could produce a language like that of modern humans comes from which bone(s) collected at Kebara, Israel?
the hyoid
Human beings first arrived in the Americas approximately:
15,000 yBP.
The hominid skeleton (LB1) recovered from the Indonesian island of Flores:
has a very small brain, less than 400 cc.lived there about 18,000 yBP.stood about three feet tall in life.All of the above
Shovel-shaped incisors are one of the most distinctive features of people from:
east Asia and the Americas.
The distinctive fluted spear points used by early Native Americans (Paleoindians) to hunt large-bodied Ice Age mammals are:
Folsom points.
The idea that cranial shape can change within a human population as a result of dietary change is referred to as the:
masticatory-functional hypothesis.
Osteoarthritis is a skeletal disorder most easily seen on:
joint surfaces
Which of the following is not associated with the initial transition from foraging to agriculture?
lower incidence of dental caries (cavities)
Based on the archaeological record from various areas, what was the initial effect on height of the agriculture’s adoption?
Height decreased.
The great human population increase of the Holocene was probably due to:
decreased birth spacing.
Dental caries increased in some areas where agriculture began, due to an increase in the consumption of:
starchy carbohydrates.
Scientists who study plant remains in the archaeological record are:
All of the following are advantages of agriculture over foraging EXCEPT:
agriculture has led to increased diversity in food.
How many separate centers of domestication exist, according to archaeologists?
Çatalhöyük is an important Neolithic site located in:
southwest Asia.
What effect did the advent of agriculture have on the level of interpersonal violence seen in the archaeological record?
Violence increased.
One of the most important technological innovations that appeared at about the same time as agriculture was:
Modern humans have existed for over 100,000 years, but only over the last 10,000 years has Earth’s population grown three orders of magnitude, from a few million people to over six billion today.
The archeological period between the end of the Upper Paleolithic but prior to the domestication of plants and animals is called the Mesolithic.
In the late 1960s, Lee and DeVore argued that South African food-foraging people actually had more leisure time than early farmers.
Greater reduction in jaw size relative to tooth size during the Holocene has led to greater incidence of:
dental crowding.
The region of the Levant that contains more than fifty archaeological sites documenting the development of early farming villages in the Middle East is called:
the Fertile Crescent.
Regarding the Neolithic, which of the following is TRUE?
It is characterized by small, settled villages where the domestication of plants and/or animals took place.
Biochemist Richard Marlar provided definitive evidence for cannibalism in Cowboy Wash, Colorado, with the discovery of:
human muscle protein in human coprolites (fossil feces).
Archaeological evidence showing a shift from long and narrow skulls to short and wide skulls, as a result of a change in diet linked to domestication, has been found in:
Allergic reactions to food are a signal that the body is responding to something perceived as a foreign antigen.
There is no evidence that natural selection continues to play a role in our biology.
The burning of coal is one of the main contributing factors to global warming.
Reduction of biodiversity:
reduces our ability to produce food.
Anthropogenic forces that contribute to greenhouse gases include all of the following EXCEPT:
movements of the continental plates.
What percentage of the world’s population currently lives in cities?
Life expectancy in the United States has:
increased since 1900, due largely to improvements in medicine and in sanitation.
Hip fractures in older adults are:
more common in modern societies than in previous ones.related to increased longevity.related to reduced activity levels in industrialized societies.All of the above.
Industrialization is associated with:
increase in environmental pollutants.
Of the 6.6 billion people in the world today, _____ suffer from malnutrition.
1 billion

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