* Can run avoiding obstacles
* Use preferred hand and have good hand-eye coordination
* Can put on shoes on and zip and unzip a zipper
* Can kick a ball if it is not moving
* Can move ‘sit and ride’ toys with feet and ‘push and pull’ toys with large wheels
* Can make a tower of approximately 6 bricks
* Can see everything an adult can see
* May start to be potty trained
Intellectual development involves cognitive skills and language skills, it is the development of the mind and brain. It is the child’s ability to learn, understand, recognize and reason. This includes imagination, creativity, reading, writing, drawing, memory, concentration, hypothesis (this is predicting what may happen in the future)and understanding concepts. From birth the child will try to make sense of what is happening through using their senses.
How do children learn?
Repetition – Actions, sounds etc. are produced again to aid memory.
Exploration – Using all 5 senses, these are touch, taste, sight, smell and sound.
Observation – Looking at the world in which they live, TV ; books can extend their personal knowledge.
Asking Questions – To confirm or extend their knowledge/ their
understanding of information.
Imitation(Copying)- This may be sounds of letters, words, adult
Things to help Intellectual Development
* Encouragement, support and praise
* Questions answered
* Information explained
* Love and security
* Good health, including good eye-sight and hearing
* Healthy diet
* Contact and communication with people
* Stimulation of all 5 senses
* Opportunities to play
Toys and Games
Toys and games can be used to stimulate the intellectual development of babies and children.
Milestones of Intellectual Development
2 years old
* Make musical instruments and play with them
* Simple cooking and baking activities
* Games of make believe (this is an example of imaginative play)
* Visit the library, play in the park etc.
* Go to a playgroup
Children have to recognise their feelings but also be able to control them; this enables them to behave in an acceptable manner. Emotional development is a very closely linked to social development as it can also be affected by the child’s state of health.
Steps Of Emotional Development
2 years old…
Very egocentric, they believe that the whole world should revolve around them and their needs. They think that they are the most important and should get what they want when they want it and if they don’t they will start a temper tantrum. This can be caused by frustration or defiant and demanding behaviour.
Factors which encourage social development are…
1. Reinforcing acceptable behaviour
2. Encouraging independence
3. The providing of a good role model
4. Praise and encouragement to build self esteem
5. A loving, secure environment
6. Social experiences which provide the opportunity to mix with others and communicate
7. Play opportunities especially with other children and also adults
Milestones of Social Development
2 years old…
Better at feeding themselves
Toilet training has begun
Try to dress themselves
Play near other children, this is called parallel play
May not yet share toys