Education and training in South Africa needed to be transformed and normalized. Some reasons for the transforming of the South African education system include: Under-utilization of existing human resources. Separation of formal education and vocational training (I. E. Education and training). Qualification structures linked to types of institutions. No qualification structure for education and training outside formal education. Formal education inaccessible to large numbers of learners. Serious disparities within the system.
No recognition of prior experiential learning. Education and training outside the formal system is demand-driven, that is, focuses on low level skills training and cannot adapt to changes in labor market. World trends as well as events in South Africa initiated this rethink. These trends included . The age of instant communication – accessing and applying information. The new service society requires problem-solving skills. Moving from big to small – thinking skills, experimenting and openness to change and opportunity.
The changing shape of work – people now work as their own managers, marketers and communicators. People are not only life-long learners, but also life-long earners. The face of business is changing owing to the presence of women in leadership positions. The decade of the brain – utilizing the full potential of the brain, using your dad, not mere memorizing. Making use of the active ageing population – utilizing over-ass’s as an employment resource. The do-it-yourself boom – people take responsibility for their own lives (e. G. Health).
These changes and trends resulted in the educational initiative known as Curriculum 2005. As a general tutorial letter will reach you shortly informing you briefly what Curriculum 2005 entails, we will not go into any detail surrounding the topic. We will concentrate on one aspect thereof and that is lesson planning and presentation. Three questions arise from this aspect and will be dealt with in the following arcographs What outcomes should learners achieve? What learning activities can be planned so that learners achieve the set outcomes? How can we assess whether learners achieved these outcomes?
A lot of material is taken directly from the publication Curriculum 2005 and in many instances will be given word by word. In such cases, text will be in italics. 6 In Unit 3 of our study guide we referred to the move towards outcomes-based education (OBOE). In short, OBOE emphasizes not what the teacher wants to achieve, but rather on what the learner should be able to know, to understand, to do and to come. This implies that learners acquire not only knowledge, but that they understand what they learn and develop appropriate skills, values and attitudes during the learning process.
Teachers and learners now focus on certain outcomes (or predetermined results) that are to be achieved by the end of each learning process. Outcomes-based learning processes encourage pupils to investigate, to work in groups, to solve problems, and to use less passive learning strategies (learners do not passively sit and listen to the teacher). It goes without saying that each lesson must have certain learning outcomes. In the general tutorial letter, we give an example how certain essential outcomes are realized in the classroom.
Although the planning and writing of learning outcomes are still in progress, we can say that each learning experience will have certain learning outcomes that should be achieved. Certain learner outcomes should therefore be stated at the beginning of your lesson preparation. The following sentence should precede your lesson: At the end of the learning process, learners should be able to: 1. 2. 3. ? (knowledge) ? ….. (skills) ………………………………………. Values/ attitudes) Ideally, these aspects should be achieved by learners at the end of the learning experience.
By using short, concise sentences, you can stipulate those aspects of knowledge, skills, values/attitudes which learners should be able to acquire. Each sentence must therefore contain a verb (doing word) which denotes the specific action. The critical student will now ask: What, then, is the difference between learning outcomes and learning objectives? Without going into too much debate surrounding this topic we can state that, whereas learning objectives focused more n what the teacher wanted to achieve at the end of the lesson/learning experience, learning outcomes focus on what the learner wants to achieve.
The attainment of these outcomes will obviously entail learners doing certain activities. 4. 3 The planning of learning activities As was mentioned, OBOE intends making learners active participants and not passive learners. In achieving this aim, teachers must utilize all the resources they can lay their hands on to make learning enjoyable and participatory. The publication Curriculum 2005 (1997: session 5, resources) gives a few guidelines for recognizing good educational materials.
Please note the following in this regard: 7 Good educational materials should. Encourage a love of lifelong learning. Promote critical thinking and problem-solving as essential life skills. Approach to learning. Recognize that all individuals learn at their own pace. Acknowledge that there are diverse cultures in our society. Ensure that emotional and social development is promoted. Take into account that there are differing views about most issues. Allow for the learners’ knowledge to develop over time.