Each species has a characteristic number of chromosomes per cell
chromosome number is related to the size or complexity of an organism
•One member of the homologous pair comes from your Mom -the other comes from Dad. They are not identical, but they DO carry similar sequences of DNA!
Haploid cells in the body include gametes, or sex cells.
•Egg producing cells in females are found in the ovaries.
•Both of these cells undergo meiosis in order to produce haploid (N) egg and sperm cells.
•Each of the cell’s chromosomes has 2 chromatids. During metaphase II, chromosomes line up in the center of the cell. In anaphase, the paired chromatids separate.
*meiosis results in haploid cells; mitosis results in diploid cells
a). a zygote.
b). a diploid cell.
c). a cell with a new genetic combination.
d). All of these are correct.
a). prophase I
b). anaphase I
c). prophase II
d). telophase II
a). homologous pairs of chromosomes separate and migrate toward a pole.
b). homologous chromosomes exchange chromosomal material.
c). homologous chromosomes become closely associated.
d). the daughter cells contain half of the genetic material of the parent cell.
a). homologous chromosomes pair along their lengths.
b). sister chromatids pair at the centromeres.
c). homologous chromosomes pair at their ends.
d). sister chromatids pair along their lengths.
a). anaphase I
b). prophase I
c). metaphase I
d). metaphase II
a). Chromosomes cluster at the two poles of the cell.
b). Crossing over occurs.
c). Chromosomes align down the center of the cell.
d). One version of each chromosome moves toward a pole.
b). sexual reproduction.
c). asexual reproduction.
d). binary fission.
a). somatic cells
b). metaphase (mitosis)
c). metaphase I (meiosis)
d). metaphase II (meiosis)
b). 112 chromosomes would be present in mitotic cells at metaphase. Prior to metaphase, the chromosomes replicated and so every chromosome is a pair of identical sister chromatids. So, 56 x 2 = 112 chromosomes.
c). 112 chromosomes would be present in meiotic cells in metaphase I. Prior to metaphase I, the chromosomes replicated and so every chromosome is a pair of sister chromatids. So, 56 x 2 = 112 chromosomes. These chromosomes have also undergone crossing over during prophase I so the sister chromatids are no longer identical as in metaphase of mitosis.
d). 56 chromosomes would be present in meiotic cells in metaphase II. During metaphase I and anaphase I, homologous pairs of chromosomes were separated so that the resulting cells contained one chromosome of a homologous pair still paired as sister chromatids.
e). 28 chromosomes would be present in the gametes. Each gamete would contain one chromosome from each homologous pair. During fertilization, the chromosome will be matched up with its homologue.
a. sex cell
b. germ cell
c. somatic cell
d. haploid cell
a. 22 pairs of homologous chromosomes and an X and Y chromosome
b. 22 haploid cells and an X or Y chromosome
c. 23 diploid cells and an X and Y chromosome
d. 22 autosomes and an X or Y chromosome
a. occurs in body cells
b. results in genetically identical cells
c. happens only in haploid cells
d. produces haploid gametes
a. They retain half of their chromosomes.
b. Half of the cells copy their DNA twice.
c. Their nuclei fuse to form one nucleus.
d. One becomes an egg, and one becomes a sperm cell.
a. They are exact copies.
b. They contain the same genes.
c. They divide during meiosis II.
d. They connect to each other.
a. duplication of paired chromosomes
b. fusion of sister chromatids
c. division of homologous chromosomes
d. creation of two diploid cells
a. They duplicate.
b. They are divided.
c. They remain together.
d. They do not take part.
a. the production of gametes.
b. the fertilization of eggs.
c. the development of polar bodies.
d. the movement of sperm.
a. polar bodies
d. germ cells
b. hair style
c. eye color
d. regional accent
determine that variations among offspring were the result of (3)
a. random mutations.
c. genetic uniformity.
d. his crossings.
white-flowered, the resulting offspring all had purple flowers. When allowed to self-pollinate, this F
generation gave rise to white-flowered plants as well as purple. As a result, Mendel determined that
individual traits are (3)
a. inherited as discrete units.
b. diluted in offspring.
c. merged with successive generations.
d. lost in the pollination process.
chose to study traits that (3)
a. were always dominant.
b. tended to be recessive.
c. could be diluted.
d. had only two forms.
a. Organisms that give rise to purebreds are genetically superior.
b. Organisms that have intermediate features are self-pollinating.
c. Organisms inherit two copies of each gene, one from each parent.
d. Organisms that self-pollinate do not have “either-or” features.
a. the genetic makeup of a chromosome
b. the genes that make up an organism
c. the location of a specific set of genes
d. the sum of an organism’s physical traits
a. recessive traits.
b. dominant alleles.
a. T t
b. T T
c. t t
d. t T
a. expressed and the other allele is not.
b. a very common allele in a population.
c. the stronger of the two alleles.
d. more desirable than the other allele.
a. phenotypes of parents
b. genotypes of offspring
c. testcrosses of offspring
d. chromosomes of parents
and a heterozygous parent will be homozygous recessive? (5)
a. homozygous cross.
b. test cross.
c. monohybrid cross.
d. dihybrid cross.
dihybrid crosses? (3)
a. Dominant traits are inherited together.
b. Different traits are inherited separately.
c. Similar traits are inherited in pairs.
d. Recessive traits are inherited unpredictably.
DNA is not replicated between meiosis I and meiosis II.
A) non-homologous chromosomes
B) homologous chromosomes
C) non-sister chromatids
D) sister chromatids
E) the two nuclei
A) two haploid cells, with each chromosome containing two sister chromatids.
B) two haploid cells, with each chromosome consisting of a single chromatid.
C) four haploid cells, with each chromosome containing two sister chromatids.
D) four haploid cells, with each chromosome consisting of a single chromatid.
E) four diploid cells, with each chromosome consisting of a single chromatid.
A. identical diploid cells
B. unique diploid cells
C. identical haploid cells
D. unique haploid cells