When we exercise, there is an increase in the blood flow which provides the muscles with a constant supply of oxygen and nutrients and all the toxic waste products are removed from the body by this metabolism.
There are many instances where an athlete has used a drug to enhance the desired output in an unfair and illegal manner. Such a practice is termed as “doping”. Eventually in the long run, the effect of drug taking leads to other mental disorders and even death. Certain drugs such as psychomotor stimulant drugs include amphetamines (namely, amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, and methamphetamine) and methylpenidate hydrochloride (Ritalin).The most common name for these drugs is “speed”.
Other used names include bennies, dexies, greenies, and pep pills. Amphetamines can be taken orally, but chronic users often inject the drug as it produces a more immediate and stronger effect. The effect of this drugs increase heart rate, respiration and blood pressure. It increases the activity of the central nervous system. These drugs affect the brain making the athlete feel more alert, confident and strong.
There are certain drugs which aid in the treatment of various problems in the treatment of hyperactive children. The use of amphetamines is illegal and their use in sports is prohibited. They cause many adverse physical and psychological reactions in sports such as dizziness, insomnia, heart palpitations, sexual impotence, irregular heartbeat and tremors.
Uses and problems of anabolic steroids, narcotics and stimulants:NameUsesProblemsAnabolic steroidsIt is used in bodybuilding,Weightlifting and male and female athletics.It is used in treating delayed puberty, impotence, HIV, anemia, osteoporosis and bilary obstruction. In case of controlled use of this drug, it can help boost the body’s performance for a certain period of time and then the body returns back to the normal production of hormones, but the incase of non controlled use it can accelerate the production of the body’s hormones to an extent which may lead to the collapse of the internal organs of the body.NarcoticsIt is mainly used to relieve pain in the body and to induce euphoric dream states. It also can produce intense pleasure and general calmness.
There are certain problems which include drowsiness, tranquility, or sleepiness. It gives a feeling of temporary well being. Users often develop serious physical, mental and social health problems that could affect their families.Stimulants•Amfetamine•improve reaction time when fatigued•increase muscular strength and endurance•increase acceleration•raise lactic acid levels at maximal exercise•increase aerobic endurance capacity•stimulate metabolism by inducing a loss of body fat.•CocaineIt is used in sport to induce a dreamy state of mind wherin an athelete feels like he or she is invincible.The side effects of using amphetamine are headaches, insomnia, anxiety as well as other major health risks such as heart strokes and cardiac arrests.
The long term use of cocaine can lead to loss of concentration, irritability, loss of memory, paranoia, loss of energy and anxiety. The joint misuse of alcohol and cocaine is extremely cardiotoxic. These practices increase the risk of sudden death by cardiac arrest or seizures followed by respiratory arrest.Control of drug usePharmacists need to take part in various drug testing and different doping control programs.
They play an important role in deciding whether or not to permit the use of drugs for a certain situation. Many new drugs and medication have to be reviewed and categorized. Pharmacists have to provide information about the content of the drug and its effect on the body of an individual. They have to undergo training and are certified to be drug testing collectors for various sports organizations, including the NCAA, NCDFS, Olympics, USADA, International Doping Tests & Management (IDTM), and professional sports organizations.
A network of trained pharmacists in local areas would be a great help to the society.Pharmacists with expertise in drug testing and doping control programs can serve as resources for universities, colleges, high schools, and other institutions that are interested in establishing their own in-house testing programs. Pharmacists can provide presentations and information to athletes, coaches, and athletic trainers on drug and supplement use at all levels of competition. Pharmacists can develop or participate in educational and rehabilitation programs for athletes that seek assistance or who have been referred due to a positive drug test.
Colleges and other organizations can do self-testing as well.Illegal use of a drug in a named sport.During the nineteenth century, drug abuse became a great problem. Caffeine, strychnine, alcohol, cocaine, opium, and oxygen were used by swimmers, runners and cyclists to increase performance. During the Second World War, amphetamine consumption started by the troops to reduce their fatigue.
Reported deaths from amphetamine abuse was in 1964, the Danish cyclist knut Jensen at Rome Olympics died on the opening day of the games. In 1967, the British cyclist Tommy Simpson, at Tour de France, died from amphetamine abuse. After Simpson’s death, the International Olympic Committee took an action and the first list of banned substances was published in 1968. In 1950s, a new class was misused by athletes and weightlifters to increase muscle size and strength and this class named anabolic steroids; in 1964, there was suspect for use of anabolic steroid in Summer Olympics in Tokyo due to the increase in muscle mass of the athletes.Doping classes and methodsexamplesAnabolic steroidsTestosterone, nandroloneBlood Dopingblood transfusionStimulantsAmphetamine, ephedrine, cocaine, caffeineNarcoticsMorphine, Methadone, CodeinePeptide and glycoprotein hormonesHuman growth hormone, corticotrophin, human chorionic gonadotrophin, erythro poietinBibliographyhttp://library.thinkquest.org/C005038/sports.htmhttp://menshealth.about.com/cs/fitness/a/anab_steroids.htmhttp://www.ukessays.com/essays/sports/drug-abuse-in-sport.phphttp://www.healthcommunities.com/narcotic-abuse/overview-of-narcotic-abuse.shtml http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2657493/http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/487473_5