The functional surface area Essay

Title of programmer: Introduction to Biology and Essential Clinical Skills Number of words: 2605 Introduction to Biology and Essential Clinical Skills (VIBES 2) c) Effects of posture on blood pressure (week 12) Introduction: This laboratory report will discuss the effects of posture on blood pressure carried out in class. It was analyses the blood pressure of 10 individuals. Blood pressure was obtained in sitting posture (at rest), sitting (immediately after exercise), lying spine (after 5 minutes) and standing quickly from a spine position.

Through these different hypes of posture I could detect the effects of posture on blood pressure. Blood pressure is the contraction of the heart with each beat and contraction of blood vessels when blood passes through them. Blood pressure increases with each heartbeat and decreases when the heart contracts between beats. When the heart muscle contracts taking blood to be oxygenated in the lungs this is called systolic pressure and the diastolic pressure occurs when there is a relaxation in the heart muscle, this is the oxygenated blood coming from the lungs returns as degenerated blood to the arteries (Hales, 2011).

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At lying spine position the highest value was 140/70 and the lowest value was 108/70 meg. The average for this position was 116/65 meg. The last position was standing quickly from a spine position and the highest value according with the table was 160/85 meg and the lowest value was of 125/72 meg. The average for this position was 125/70 meg. Discussion: Heart is a muscular organ about the size of a person’s fist and is located in the center of the thorax. The heart is divided into the right and left side, the division protects oxygen reach blood from mixing with oxygen pure blood.

Together the heart and the blood vessels comprise the cardiovascular system which circulates blood and oxygen around the body. The heart walls are composed tot three layers, pericardium which is a fibrous layer that helps to protect the heart, another layer of the heart is the myocardium, this layer is the heart muscle and makes the contraction of the heart to pump blood around the body. The last layer of the heart is the undecorated; this layer lines the chambers of the heart. The heart has four chambers, two atria and two ventricles.

Each of these chambers is lined with undecorated, which makes blood flows easily through the heart (Marine, 2010). The heart carries blood to all parts of the body in vessels called arteries (Deadline and Coolant, 2010). Blood Pressure is the pressure in which the blood uses against the inner walls of the blood vessels and it is the force that makes blood circulating continuously between heartbeats (Marine,2010). Blood pressure is considered normal when its 120/80 meg. Values above 140 meg for the systolic indicate high blood pressure and values under 90 meg for the diastolic indicate hypertension.

Low blood pressure might be a sign of good health in people that do not show a complex symptom of disease indicating that their heart, lungs and blood vessels are tot well conditioned and working in harmony. However can also mean that the body is able to regulate the blood pressure levels . Blood pressure can suffer a constable variety from moment to moment, from respiration, exercise, stress, emotional, use of alcohol or smoke and temperature; in addition the blood pressure can be influenced by race or sex. High blood pressure or hypertension is more often in men rather than in women, and in elderly people than young people.

The effects of hypertension are: heart attack, kidney failure, congestive heart failure, eye damaged with loss of vision, and stroke. The causes that induce high blood pressure can vary with age group, family history of high blood pressure, being of African or Caribbean origin, a high amount of salt in food, a lack of exercise, being overweight, smoking, drinking large amounts of alcohol and stress (Sherwood, 2011). The posture can also affect the blood pressure with a tendency for an increase of position from lying to sitting and from this one to a position of standing.

In the table results there was an individual with highest value for the systolic pressure of 140/60 mm/Hug at sitting at rest, and the reason for this is because this individual had temperature. Temperature in general cold has a big effect in raising the blood pressure; this because the skin feels cold in a winter day and cold weather activates the nervous system, which controls how the body responds to stress (Hogged, 2 At sitting immediately after exercise the highest value was 162/70 mm/Hug and the reason for increase is because the heart works harder to receive blood all over the body.

When exercising the blood works harder to provide muscles with more oxygen. During exercise, systolic pressure increases because the cardiovascular system livers more blood to the functioning muscles; diastolic pressure however remains the same or decrease slightly because the dilated blood vessels in the functioning muscles let heat escape (Gangs and Walsh, 2004). At lying spine position blood pressure decreases for all the individuals, this because the body is not working too hard to pump blood around the body.

When standing quick from a spine position, the blood pressure normally stays the same or may increase a bit because blood needs to pump harder to reach the brain and this happened to 7 of the individuals according with the table. Although 2 of the individual’s blood pressure decreased, this is called postural hypertension. Postural hypertension it is a feeling of fainting when standing abruptly from a sitting or reclining position.

It is a failure in the vascular system in maintaining blood pressure after changes in the posture, which points to low blood pressure and loss of body fluid (Homo, 2002). The behavior of the blood pressure during the different postures have changed based on the values cited above in the results table, it can be seen that at the beginning the blood pressure was normal, then increased by sitting down immediately after exercise. Macrame et al (1998) assert that as the intensity increases, blood pressure also increases.

By comparing the resting values with the exercise, it can be seen a drop in the blood pressure at the lying spine position with a subsequent decreased to levels below the rest, analyzing the behavior described by Macrame et al (1998), resulting in a higher blood absorption by the muscle capillaries, therefore, minimizes the blood pressure. Conclusion: In conclusion, the laboratory report identified the behavior of blood pressure at four different stages.

Systolic blood pressure have raise immediately after the exercise ND diastolic blood pressure also behaved in a similar manner, one linking to another, also as in the systolic blood pressure in relation to the magnitude which was different. In the period after exercise, systolic blood pressure fell quite sharply to values lower than those measured at rest before the exercise session. T is important to keep pressure under control because telling well does not always means that we are not at risk, because many people may not have any symptoms all their live and then they present with a stroke or heart attack.

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