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Biology Midterm Review Sheet Essay

This is a general review sheet. It covers the main concepts from each chapter. You should also review your notes, vocal notepads, quizzes, tests, and labs to thoroughly prepare for this exam. The midterm will consist of 80 multiple choice and 8 free response questions. Note: For the midterm you will need a blue or black pen, a pencil, and a calculator. What you should focus on from the textbook: Unit 1- Introduction to Biology (Chi. 1) Independent vs. dependent variables Steps of the scientific method

Hypothesis generation Designing a controlled experiment Graphing techniques Characteristics of life Metric System Unit 2- Chemistry in Biology (Chi. 6) Structure of the atom Determining the # of protons, neutrons, and electrons in atoms, ions, and isotopes Covalent vs. Ionic bonding Reactants vs. products Enzymes and activation energy Water’s polarity- cohesion, adhesion Heterogeneous vs. homogeneous mixtures pH and buffers organic chemistry- proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids (monomers vs. polymers, examples, functions)

Unit 3- Cellular Structure and Function (Chi. 7) The Cell Theory Microscope diversity Why are cells small? Prokaryotic vs. eukaryotic cells Plant vs. animal cells- organelle function and location Cell membrane structure and function Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport, endometriosis, cytosine Osmosis- hypersonic, hypotonic, isotonic environments Unit 4- Cellular Energy (Chi. 8) Laws of Thermodynamics Metabolism- Anabolism vs. catabolic Formation of TAP Photosynthesis Chemical Equation Structure of a chloroplast Chlorophyll a vs. accessory pigments

Light dependent reaction- reactants and products Calvin Cycle- reactants and products Cellular Respiration chemical equation Structure of a mitochondria Glycoside Krebs Cycle Electron Transport Chain Fermentation- Lactic acid and Alcoholic Unit 5- Mitosis and Meiosis (Chi. 9, 10. 1) The Cell Cycle- Enterprise, Mitosis, and Cytokines Stages of Mitosis- Prophesy, Metastases, Anapest, Telephones Cancer Potatoes Homologous chromosomes Haploid vs. diploid Meiosis 1 & Meiosis II Mitosis vs. Meiosis Crossing over Asexual vs. sexual reproduction

Unit 6- Madeline Genetics (Chi. 10. 2-11) The inheritance of traits Mender’s Laws of Segregation and Dominance Monophonic Crosses and the Test Cross Recessive and dominant genetic disorders Pedigrees- analyzing and constructing Complex Patterns of Inheritance- Incomplete Dominance, Codename, Multiple Alleles, Sex-linkage Eukaryotic Genetic Disorders Unit 7- Molecular Genetics (Chi. 12) Discovery of the Genetic Material (Griffith, Avery, Hershey and Chase, Watson and C I k, Franklin, W Skins, Charge) Chromosome Structure DNA Replication Structure tot D

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