Biology is the study of life Living organisms share a set of characteristics that collectively set them apart from non-living matter Living organisms use molecules that contain instructions for building other molecules Living organisms gather energy and material from their surrounding to: Build new biological molecules Grow in size Repair their parts Produce offspring All organisms are composed of the same macromolecules (proteins, fatty acids/lipids, crabs and nucleic acids) All organisms engage in metabolism Marinating internal balance in response to the environment is known as homeostasis
The cell is an organized chemical system that includes many specialized molecules surrounded by a membrane The cell is the smallest until with the capacity to live and reproduce independently or as part off multicultural organism. A virus is not a cell A virus is an infectious agent that contains either DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coat. Prokaryotic (Bacteria, Architecture) Eukaryotic (Plant, Animal, Fungi, Protests) Prokaryote are the most diverse of cells EXTREMITIES- live in very inhospitable environments. Methanol’s (convert ICC to CHI) Acidophilus (live in low pH)
Thermopiles (live in extreme temperatures) Cells are the lowest level of biological organization that can survive and reproduce, many single cells, such as bacteria and protozoan’s exists as unicellular organisms. Classification System: Humans (Homo sapiens) Eukaryote Domain Kingdom Mammalian Phylum Chordate Class Mammalian Order Family Genus Species Primate Hominid Homo Sapiens First name is genus, second name is species. Three domains are Bacteria, Archie and Eukaryote Bacteria: Unicellular, prokaryotic organisms Archie: Unicellular, prokaryotic organisms, live in extreme environments.
Eukaryote: eukaryotic organism, including plants, animals, fungi and protestant. Classification includes information from DNA sequences. Biological Evolution helps us understand that all populations change throughout time, all organisms are descended from a common ancestor and evolution has produced the diversity to elite. Epigenetic is the study to changes in gene expression or cellular phenotype. Scientific Method: Observe Hypothesis Make Predictions Test Predictions Analyze results Scientific theory is a framework which explains observed fats and be able to predict future observations
Biochemistry is the study of chemical processes within living organisms Atomic number is the number of protons Atomic mass is the number of protons + neutrons 1 Dalton = mass of 1 hydrogen Electrons move in orbital’s around the nucleus Electrons that move in orbital’s are called electron cloud and energy levels Orbital’s can hold up to two electrons Two main types of bonds are ionic bonds and covalent bonds Covalent bond is sharing of electrons and ionic bonds are the transfer of electrons Valence is the number of single covalent bonds an atom can form Non polar covalent nod are the equal sharing of electrons Polar covalent bonds are unequal sharing of electrons Chemical equations: Reactants Products Molecule: unit of matter in which two or more atoms of the same element or different ones are bonded together Compound: Molecules composed of two or more different elements in unvarying proportions Acids: Donate H+ when dissolved in water High [H+], LOW pH<7 Bases: Accepts H+ when dissolved in water High [OH-I, LOW [H+] pH>7 Most complex molecules based on carbon are known as organic molecules All other absences are inorganic molecules (ICC) Organic compounds: contain carbon and at least one H atom Hydrocarbons: consist of only hydrogen atoms covalently bonded to carbon Methane (CHI) colorless and odorless gas is the simplest organic compound of all Functional groups are small, reactive groups of atoms which give larger molecules specific chemical properties Functions groups are linked by covalent bonds to other atoms in biological molecules, usually carbon atoms, represented by the symbol R Hydroxyl Group (-AH) Carbonyl Group (C=O) carbonyl Group (-COHO)
Amino Group Alcohols have the ending -LO in their names Isomers that are mirror images of each other are called storerooms Structural isomers are two molecules with the same chemical formula but atoms are arranged in different ways A single polymer with a mass of 1,000 Dalton or more is called a macromolecule The breakdown of polymers into monomers occurs by hydrolysis Crabs function as energy storage Glucose is the main product of photosynthesis Lipids are water insoluble Common types of lipids: Neutral lipids- used as energy Phosphoric- form cell membranes Steroids- serve as hormones that regulate cellular activities Basic unit of most lipids is the fatty acid When 3 fatty acids are Joined they create triglycerides Saturated means they are full or saturated with hydrogen’s Unsaturated means that there are double bonds between carbons taking place of hydrogen’s Phosphoric have two fatty acids Phosphoric are a major component of cell membranes Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins Misfiled protein is known as PR Two main types of nucleic acids are RNA and DNA Nucleotides are the basic units of DNA and RNA TAP are the energy carriers
Nucleotides are linked by phosphoresce bonds Potential energy are stored energy Kinetic energy is there energy of motion Thermal energy is energy that releases heat Chemical energy are potential energy stored in molecules Sun is the source of energy Thermodynamics is the study of energy and its transformations. Also the study of energy flow during chemical and physical reactions 1st law of thermodynamics: energy in the universe remains constant 2nd law of thermodynamics: disorder in a system and its surrounding always increases Entropy: the degree of disorder in a system Cells need energy for chemical work, mechanical work and electronic work Exercising reaction G is negative with a spontaneous reaction Undergoing Reaction: G is positive and non-spontaneous reaction.