The ‘method and research patterns in political science’ written by James Jacob and Agaba Halidu is the work which is written by the mentioned authors to help students in political science and other social science to get the basic understanding on how research should be conducted and come out with scientific conclusion in the subject of discourse or the subjection of investigation.
The book, give lucidity foundation in the process of carrying out a scientific investigation in political science and other related social science field. We are ask to review from chapter 1-6, therefore the book will be reviewed chapter by chapter considering each chapter under review to appreciate the good works and criticize where the authors could not provide a clear understanding or where they did mistake i. e. f there is any malapropism or typological errors, but it will be reviewed according to the rules of book reviewing process which is without sentiment. Chapter 1; FOUNDATION OF POLITICAL In this chapter the authors gave vivid articulations on political inquiry, how the subject advances knowledge in political process in societies and how it also require students of political science to have the foundation on how to carry out research endeavors in the sphere of good governance in nation states.
According to the authors “political science is said to be the queen of all other social sciences because of its relevance for all times and seasons, because as long as nation states exist the issue of politics and governance will still remain relevance least nation states slip back to Thomas Hobbes state of nature where life will become nasty, brutish, solitary and short, political inquiry has to do with arriving at dependable solution to problems.
The authors gave student the guideline to follow when carrying out a research which they explained as follows, the research be is expected to put certain things in place to come out with good and acceptable conclusion in the research work to stand the test of time and be acceptable, it must be done then typically in other words, it must follow the scientific process in such a way that the study can be duplicated and almost the same conclusions can be aimed at giving the same available conduction anywhere in the world. The authors also gave clarity on the complexity of the two different sciences which are national science and social science by xplaining what each dose.
The national science by deals with non-living objects that can be manipulated in the laboratory in the experiment process to come out with the same conclusion in any part of the world using the same available facts and figures while social science deals with human beings have the ability to think and make independence decision, and we all know that not all human can be manipulated, but research in social science can also use the scientific methodology in the problems and challenges to find solution to those problems and challenges in the society.
CHAPTER 2 TYPE OT RESEACH In the chapter the authors provided two major types which are classified on research based which they said it includes (a) purpose base research and (b) method based on research.
They did not only mention the two without elaborating on them, they went on to explained them in different ways such as (A) research type based on purpose, on this criteria they explained that research are said to be either (i) pure (basic) or (ii) Applied (i) Pure research: This research according to them is that type of research that is majorly out to expand the horizon, boundary, frontiers’ and gamut of knowledge in the words, the driving force of this research type is to make modest contribution to the existing of knowledge.
In summary of pure research is the source that provides or generate new scientific ideals and ways of thinking about the world. (ii) Applied Research: in this type of research which goes according to the name application, it aimed at proffering solutions to the problems and needs of people, individuals and organization in the society this type of research according to the authors is a solution based research. (B) Research type based on methodology: The authors mentioned the types of research that falls under this typology, which they said are; (i) quantitative vs. ualitative (ii) experimental vs. non-experimental (iii) historical and descriptive research. (i) Quantitative vs Qualitative Research: Qualitative research methods is based on values and not numbers while quantitative is based on numeric and Quantifiable data to generalize in its conclusion.
(ii) Experimental vs Non-experimental Research: Experimental research examine the possible influence that one factor or condition may have on another factor or condition. The experimental research is mostly conducted in laboratory, as it is in physics, biology and other pure sciences. iii) Historical and Descriptive Research: Historical research is base on the study of past events which helps us to understand the present and enables us t o predict the future. In historical research both primary and secondary data sources are employed. While Descriptive research is to describe some phenomenon or to documents its characteristics. CHAPTER 3: WRITING RESEARCH PROPOSAL The chapter three of the book provides measures which the research candidate should maintain when presenting his/her proposal to the research supervisor.
The authors mentioned the major features which should never be avoided which they listed and explained as follows; (i) Background to the study; in this heading, the researcher is expected to explain his interest in this particular area of the study. Also he should be to establish clearly the circumstances surrounding what he has set out to investigate or observed. (ii) Statement of the problem: in this part, the research candidate is expected to state the problems very clearly and express the nature of the problems so that it will be easier for the reader to a clear idea of the research problems. iii) Purpose of study: the research candidate in this part is expected to highlight the major aspect of the study which he intends to dwell on. (iv) Hypothesis; under hypothesis, the research candidate present those fact under the research topic which will be subjected under investigation.
(v) Significant of the study; here, the researcher present those who are to benefit and the economic value of the study. (vi) Limitation; this part, the research candidate state the likely constraints or problems that may limit the project work. vii) Delimitation: here, it is expected that the research candidate give the frame work within which he is to work the research candidate might state bounds he constrained to cover. (viii) Definition of terms; By definition the researcher may chose to use meanings of expression or terms other then choosing those in the dictionary. And this should be made clearly under the definition of terms. The chapter two of the project (literature reviews) in this chapter of a project, the project written should consider what other authors have written on his area of research.
The chapter three of the project (methodology) under this chapter, the research should indicate the step by step order to be followed in carrying out the study. Chapter four of the project (Analysis and presentation of data); the research in this chapter of the project collect data through questionnaire and other source and present them in other to analysis and interpret. Chapter five of the project (summary conclusion and Recommendation); this chapter is the last chapter of a project. Here the candidate should make summary of findings, repetition should be avoided.
The researcher also goes on to recommend precautions and panacea to the problems lastly, the researcher is to present a list of text consulted in the course of presenting the proposal. Abstract; this is short summary of the research work; it is most drawn from chapter three of the project. The authors also advice student on the best way to embark on academic project by advancing them to present one more copies of the report that have already been written to enhance their understanding of the task. CHAPTER FOUR
In this chapter, the authors explain vividly on the researcher reviewing a literature text should follow; this chapter expect the researcher to gather books, journals and other established (printed) materials in particular area of his research. The reason for this is to note other authorities who have established their opinions, facts, acquirement, comments and recommendations through previous research or experience. The authors noted that; literature review must be organized and well directed towards the focus and within the instance.
The project writer is not expected to lift whole passages or chapter from text books or journals as part of his literature review. The authors provided two major sub-topics in this chapter, these include; understanding review of literature and techniques of reviewing literature. Understanding review of literature; the review candidate is advice to be familiar with the library since the nature of literature review includes a revelation of findings and conclusions in detailed from drawn out of patient studies in the candidate research area.
The project candidates need to beware of the following useful hint; (i) An aid of deep understanding of the previous studies (ii) The review reveals method that was adapted in the previous research. (iii) Relevant previous data may be revealed (iv) The review help in generating new ideas (v) It also helps the project candidate to evaluate and compare others effort before concluding. Techniques of reviewing a literature; it is advice that; the project writer reviewing literature to adopt any of the following techniques; (i) According to Jacob (1982)…. (ii) According to Jacob (1982:30)…. iii) In Johnson and Sadau (1997)… (iv) Johnson and Sadau argued that…… (v) Francis (1996) observed that….. (vi) Martins (1987) in his work discovered that….. A good discussion of other authors work is expected from research project writer in order to have facts. CHAPTER FIVE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY In this chapter the authors explained the nitty-gritty of what contained in the chapter of methodology of project, in this regard, they mentioned the following items; (i) Research Design: in this aspect it is expected for the researcher to state in clarity terms the research design that would be adopted for the research.
Whether experimental, quasi-experimental, non-experimental, taxonomical, expose-factor, among others. The design type must have to suit the research problem in order for the aim to be accomplished. (ii) Method of data collection; this method have two major types these are; primary and secondary data collection. The researcher must state what method of data that was used. (iii) Sampling techniques; this is the taking of a portion, of a targeted population, with the mind that the portion represents the entire population. Under sampling techniques the authors listed two techniques which include; probability and non-probability technique. iv) Population size; under this method the researcher is expected to state what constitute the size of the population that was used. (v) Instrument of data collection; these are the tools use in collecting data. (vi) Method of data presentation; data can be presented through tables, frequency distribution, pie-chart, bar-chart, etc. (vii) Data analysis; this could be through correlation analysis, chi-square distribution, among others. CHAPTER SIX SAMPLING TECHNIQUES AND INSTRUMENTS OF DATA COLLECTION In this chapter, the authors discussed two broad topics which both have different sub-topics that made up the discussion.
Sampling techniques according to the authors could be defined as the process of selecting a portion of population with the mind that the selected population represent the entire population. They mentioned two widely known techniques or procedure for selecting or sampling these are; unbiased probability sampling and biased probability sampling Under probability we have simple random sampling, stratified sampling, systemic sampling, cluster sampling and stage sampling. While under non-probability sampling techniques we have quota sampling, purposive or judgmental sampling, convenience sampling, progressive sampling etc.
INSTRUMENT OF DATA COLLECTION The authors stated two general types of data; these are primary and secondary data. Under primary data collection, data can be collected through; observation, questionnaire, interview and focused group discussion. While under secondary data collection data can be collected through; journals, reports, register, maps, photographs and satellite images, census, surveys statistical bulletin, magazines, dailies, annual reports of companies, the CBN publications merchant banks publications, ete.
APPRECIATION AND RECOMMENDATION The authors did marvelous work in simplifying the language of this book and they also did great work in discussing the nitty-gritty of each topic which made the book to be easy to comprehend by students who are ready to learn. I therefore recommend this book to all social science students especially those in political science department and professionals conducting research to a copy of this book.