Brett Whiteley was born in April of 1939 in Sydney’s north shore. From a very young age his drawing talent became noticeable and he won his first art prize at the age of seven. He was born into a middle class family and his parents appreciated the arts and encouraged Whiteley to continue his interest in drawing and painting. In 1948, Whiteley attended the prestigious Scots Collage boarding school in Bathurst. Whiteley spent a part of his teenage hood at the boarding school but dropped out in 1954 to work in advertising. He also attended a night drawing class at the Ashton Art school in Sydney.
At the age of sixteen, Whiteley’s passion and appreciation of art was firmly established. He discovered a book on Van Gogh and recorded the experience; “I picked up the book and studied it – it completely changed my way of seeing. The immediate effect was a heightening of reality in that everything I looked at took on an intensity . . . I remember having this very, very powerful sense that my destiny was to completely give myself to painting”. The young Brett Whiteley felt a strong connection to the art world which was of a very serious nature and mature for his age.
In 1959, Whiteley left advertising to concentrate on painting. That year he won the Italian Government Travelling Art Scholarship and began travelling to places such as Naples, London and Paris. By the end of the 1960’s, Whiteley had become widely known as one of the leading Australian artists and was renowned for leading the Avant Garde movement. Whitely had a deep interest in painting beauty which is expressed in his works. He had the ability to capture the emotions of the life experiences of himself and other people.
He was fascinated in painting his perceptions of the world in a very surreal and abstract manner. This can be seen in the works; “Christie” (1965), “Art, Life and the Other Thing” (1978) and “Wendy” (1984). The influence of drugs and alcohol heavily impacts his life and art making practice. Many of his artworks encompass aspects of his addiction that took control of his mind. The combination of a passion for beauty and addiction led to the creation of some of his most famous masterpieces. These works intrigued the public and led to Whiteley gaining a reputation as one of the most celebrated artists of Australia.
Structural Brett Whiteley incorporates aspects of the structural frame in the works “Art, Life and the other thing” and “Christie”. Whiteley evidently has a strong use of the elements of design which is expressed through the technical composition of the works. The work is a self-portrait presented in the form of triptych; each panel reveals a different persona within himself. Each panel holds the same colour scheme which represents a wholesome view of Whiteley’s nature. The work shows Whiteley’s personality in different states.
The panel to the left represents Whiteley as a wolf that seems to be out of control. There are symbols of a cigarette and syringe which alludes to his drug addiction. The middle panel is the largest and portrays Whiteley’s link to the art word as an image of himself as a painter. The size and placement of this panel is representing the importance of painting as the centre of his life. This panel shows a contrast by pairing a well known traditional form of art evident through the inclusion of William Dobell’s controversial portrait with a modernised abstract figure.
The third panel is a physical self-portrait photograph of Whiteley himself looking quite normal. The work is initially very unbalanced as it is a form of asymmetrical triptych with each panel a different size. However, Whiteley cleverly disguises the balance within the work by rebalancing it through the warm colour palette and image repetition. The colour scheme is repeated with warm colours of an overall light orange with areas of darker tones. Each persona has been painted with similar colours which it represents a wholesome view of himself by binding each persona as one.
There is a flow of the viewer’s eyes, which beings in the smallest image of the photographic portrait and moves down the arm of the persona in the middle panel, which leads to the wild beast, The eyes wander when it comes to the image of Dobell’s portrait due to the dark tones and stark contrast. Whiteley cleverly composed the work so the eyes would draw this image as it is an important idea addressed in the work. There is a use of negative space in the centre panel which plays a part in the directional flow of the work. The blank area allows the viewer’s eyes to maintain the vectors and ultimately read the work.
If that space were to be filled it would seem claustrophobic and would lose the flow. There is a faint outline of a head in the middle panel that faces this area of the work. There is a second, unnoticed area of negative space which is the area above the panel of the wild beast. This space if not painted but left blank yet the eyes are still drawn to complete the square shape of the work. Whiteley uses signs and symbols to present the meaning of “Christie”. This work shows the story of a murderer from the United Kingdom during the 1950’s known as John Christie.
The murderer’s portrait is placed at the bottom of the page among the face of many of his victims. The direct use of these images links to Christie’s horrific actions. There is a section of newspaper in the bottom right of the work which is symbolic of the intrusion and role of the media. Thus, showing that Christie’s story was written about and was well known to the public. Whiteley has composed the work with basic colours of a pale “off yellow” contrasted with subtle hints of dark blue that are hidden in the chaotic line work.
The colours were applied with a layering of oils and added charcoal that creates the darker tones to present Christie’s portrait. Whiteley has used fragmenting in the work which roughly divides the piece into eight outlined rectangles of different sizes that include the subjects. The fragmenting is caused by the unpredictable vertical and horizontal lines which create barriers between the subjects. Cultural: Whiteley’s work includes images of sex, violence and social themes. This can be seen through many of his works which incorporate the cultural framework.
This is evident in the works “Christie” and “A Portrait of Wendy”. “Christie” reflects the culture of the time by linking to a relevant news story of the 1950’s regarding the murderer John Christie. Visual communication through the form of painting was a way that Whiteley told the story of other people such as Christie whom was specific to a certain period of time through history. Whiteley painted “Christie” which presented cultural themes of sexual desire, violence and gender roles. The displays of nude females draped across the work acts as a symbol of how women can be dominated by people such as Christie.
The nude figures allude to the results of sexual desire and rape that was the fate of his victims. The issues of gender roles is addressed in the work as it touches on the idea of male dominance which is evident through Christie himself against the women who seem entrapped and are portrayed as the “victims”. The way the women become captured by Christie is displayed through the line work and fragmentation of the work. Whiteley comments on John Christies actions with negative connotations.
Christie was an evil man and Whiteley captures this view as he paints Christie with dark, rough tones with charcoal and sketchy line work. In the bottom squares it seems as though the image fades as it moves to the left, Christie is placed at the bottom of the work, this is symbolic of how he was seen. Whiteley included the article of a newspaper regarding Christie’s murder case. This is a form of a direct link to the culture of the time as it has been drawn directly from the media. “Portrait of Wendy” presents Whiteley’s view on gender, particularly women.
He does this through the portrait of his wife as she poses for him in nude. Whiteley addresses the image of women by painting the subject, in this case Wendy, with elongated, exaggerated and obvious curves and he approaches the shape and figure of the nude women. Whiteley makes a very subtle comment of his view on the women’s figure by displaying a sense of beauty and sensuality. Subjective Whiteley focussed on painting the image of beauty and was widely known for capturing the personal intimacies of his private life. This provided insights into his life through the personal experiences which he painted.
Relationships between himself and his subjects were revealed to the audience through the way he painted which took viewing his work to a new level. Aspects of his life experiences, news on beauty and a range of feelings are touched upon within his works and painting style. This is evident in the work “A portrait of Wendy”. “A portrait of Wendy” provokes feelings of his infatuation with his muse; Wendy Whiteley which is expressed through the image of her curvaceous body. Whiteley paints an intimate emphasis of her beauty which reflects his emotional; connection with the subject.
Whiteley presents a range of uncontrolled emotions of turbulent passion, graceful allure and desire. The work is a visual expression of the female body. Whiteley has exaggerated many of Wendy’s features such as the elongated limbs and piercing blue colour of the eye in order to portray Wendy’s beauty. This emphasis shows the audience the love that Whiteley felt for his wife. The artwork is a tool used to draw the audience into his world. The work shows that wendy sat for him whilst he painted her which implies a strong emotional connection between Whiteley and his subject.
The work was painted and released to the public in 1984 therefore showing that the Whiteley’s were not afraid of expressing their intimate lives. This expression of feelings and emotions of passion he had for her allowed that emotional connection between himself and his audience. Whiteley expresses his personal story and the stories of others through his paintings. His personal voice comes through the work as he paints with such passion and emotion that his views are expressed within each layer of the work.
This can be seen in the work “Christie” in which Whiteley offers his own take on the story. When Whiteley was living in the United Kingdom during the 1960’s he became fascinated with the murderer John Christie. Christie had committed murders in an area near where Whiteley was staying at Ladbroke Grove. Whiteley’s emotional attachment to the area sparked a fascination with the murderer’s story. However it can be argued that Whiteley’s feels toward the subject were taken to the extreme due to his apparent “obsession” with Christie.
Whiteley’s personal beliefs are presented in the Christie series as it touches on his obsession with the pathological murderer. Whiteley’s work provokes a sense of fear in the 1964 work “Christie”. The pairing of the identifiable portrait of Christie and his circular glasses with images of reclined female bodies over the page sets an unnerving mood throughout the work. The bodies symbolise the eight victims of Christie whom were all women that were brutally raped and murdered. The bodies are placed unpleasantly over the canvas which gives an eerie impression of disturbance.
The work provokes feelings of sympathy for the victims lost to Christie’s attacks which is evident through his painting style in order to make a harsh judgement toward Christie by painting his well known portrait with erratic line work. Whiteley expresses the different stages of his victim’s fate in the work. This is evident in the comparison of the photograph of the victim that is sided by two images of washed out faces which comments on the unfortunate fate of the victims and sparks a solemn sense of sympathy for the audience. Post modern Art life and the other thing” is considered post modern as it is an appropriation of William Dobell’s controversial portrait of Joshua Smith. Dobell’s portrait was a finalist in the 1944 Archibald and was considered a risk within the art world and was a turning point in traditional art making. Whiteley’s reference to this work had immediate impact due to the sensationalism and lack of subtlety of Dobell’s work. The idea of Dobell had been recontextualised and was reintroduced into the art world at a different time in art history. The world was experiencing the postmodern movement where artists were experimenting with pushing boundaries.
Dobell’s portrait was very similar to this idea which added meaning to Whiteley’s choice of recontextualisation. “Art Life and the Other Thing” challenged tradition of art through the method of asymmetrical triptych, use of heavy brushstrokes of orange, black and white and the intertextuality of collaged images of syringes and cigarettes. Whiteley used drugs to intensify his works and represented this as symbols in the first panel of the work. Tradition is challenged by the varied use of technology in the work. This challenged tradition as previous to this time, drug use that influenced the artists and rt making practice was unheard of. Whiteley acknowledged this in his work by painting the objects themselves. Whiteley uses the advancement of photographic technology in one of the panels which is juxtaposed with the two paintings that represent a more traditional style of art making. Therefore, this broadened the range of mediums that artists could use and veered away from the original means of using only one style. Whiteley also uses appropriation in the work “Christie”. He appropriated the theory of the murderer John Christie in his work.
Whiteley challenged tradition of art as it was not deemed conventional to be obsessed with something such as a brutal murderer. To revolve a series of works around a figure such as Christie is not traditional. Whitely recontextualised the idea of Christie by taking relevant event in history and formed into a painting. The role of the audience is to interpret the reference of the subject in order to fully appreciate the meaning behind the work. A lack of knowledge behind the subject world resulting in confusion as the work is chaotic and completed through a number of disordered layers.
Whiteley purposely placed a section of newspaper regarding the murder in order to educate unknowing viewers. World Whitley was greatly influenced by the world around him. Particular people and places had an obvious effect on his work through his concepts which ultimately impacts on his perceptions of the world that surrounded him. Whiteley was very observant and successfully portrayed his views in a range of different forms. Whiteley was very well travelled and lived in places such as New York, London and Fiji. He picked up on the culture and environment of these countries and painted these with his common theme of beauty.
Whiteley was constantly reflecting his persona; experiences within his works which provided insights into his world. “Art Life and the Other Thing” and “Christie” are example of how he presents particular views of his world. Particular events that influenced Whiteley’s approach to creating the work “Art, Life and the other Thing” include his addiction to drugs and the controversy within the art world triggered by Dobell’s portrait. The image of the wild wolf represents the out of control nature of the drug addiction that influenced Whiteley’s life and art making practice.
This is a view of his own world that was shared with the audience. The value of art history that influenced Whiteley’s intentions within the work was the reference and appropriation of Dobell’s portrait. He pushed boundaries and challenged the values of traditionalism within the art world. Whiteley made the choice to represent himself as an enraged beast which symbolically portrayed this view of himself as a self portrait. John Christie himself is the greatest influence for Whiteley’s work. Christies story , including victims and the way they were treated are evident in Whiteley’s work.
Naked bodies of the women are subtlety included throughout the work that reference the rape and murder of the women. Whiteley presents the audience with his perceptions of the world by intentionally abstracting the subject. The inclusion of the well known murderer impacted the audience as it was still a harsh topic within the society. For Christie to be a subject of many of Whiteley’s works was considered very odd as it was such a brutal story and was an odd choice of misleading idealisation. Whiteley uses both traditional and advanced forms of materials in the artwork including charcoal, photography, oil paints and pencil.
Whitely uses a style of “visual journalism” due to the range of material used to create the work including elements of the media such as the newspaper article. The use of the newspaper articles reference the role of the media and journalism. It shows that there is a story in relation to the figures within the work. The blocked out faces portray blunt expressions and the warped bodies suggest a negative story associated with the subjects. Audience Whiteley gained himself a reputation within the artworld. He had a vast audience that viewed his work both critically and with appreciation.
His popularity and ability to win awards and scholarships proves how celebrated he was as an artist. The audience that is being targeted in the work “Christie” is anyone who had knowledge of the alarming stories of John Christie. Whiteley’s intention for the audience was to evoke fear by presenting the audience with the violent and destructive nature of Christie. Sandra Macgrath stated “Whiteley wanted to take something as bad as the human condition could get and try and define evil” (1995). Whiteley achieved this through the portrayal of Christie in the series.
Whiteley encapsulated the detailed and momentous actions of the senseless murderer John Christie and presents his belief that sex was the driving power for evil and destructive actions. He achieved this through the linework and tone of the subjects. The audience does have a role in deducing the full meaning of the work. Whiteley does hint aspects of the story within the work, such as; the newspaper articles, the well known portrait of Christie and the images of the victims. However, the audience’s role is to view the figures and acknowledge the eerie moods in order to understand Whiteley’s intentions and beliefs that are subtly portrayed.
The intended audience for Whiteley’s “A portrait of Wendy” does not have to be in the art world and understand the significance of Wendy Whiteley in Brett Whiteley’s life in order to understand and appreciate the intention of the work. However, it is argued that the intended audience is Wendy Whiteley herself as she was considered Whiteley’s muse and was the subject of the work. It is the way that he painted her with such a level of beauty that suggests his intentions were to display his passion for her. Whiteley ultimately wanted to display the beauty he found in the body and decided to portray this through the image of his wife.
Artist Brett Whiteley was born in Sydney in 1939 and grew up in Longville in New South Whales Australia. He attended the Bathurst Scots college boarding school however he dropped out out and worked in advertising whilst attending a night time drawing class at the Julian Ashton at school of Sydney. Whiteley won a travelling art scholarship in 1960 and went to work overseas. Some of his works were exhibited in galleries in Whitechapel and Marlborough. Whiteley won the international Biennale for young artists in 1962 which strengthened his reputation worldwide.
Later that year, he has his first solo exhibition in the Matthiesen of London. He had gained a lot of recognition and appreciation on a global scale. Whiteley was overseas for the decade during the 1960s where his thrilling art career escalated. He exhibited widely in Australia, France, Italy and briefly lived in New York and Fiji with his wife Wendy and daughter Arkie. When Whiteley returned to Australia in 1964, he was known as one of the leading Australian Artists. There was an obvious transformation from his abstract style that turned very figurative.
This is evident in particular the Christie series which displayed Whiteley’s common motifs of violence and imagery of sex. Whiteley experimented with new forms by the incorporation of photographic media, charcoal and collage. Whiteley was influenced by a number of different facets within his life, including other artists, his wife and a large consumption of drugs and alcohol. Bacon is the most recognised influence of Whiteley as he was his art mentor which can be seen through the abstract style of his works. Whiteley cited Bacon’s “study for self portrait” as he echoed Bacon’s tendency of self portraiture and the triptych compositioning.
Wendy Whiteley often posed as his muse and inspired many of his works. Painting beauty is one of the most prevalent themes of his works and was inspired by many aspects of his world such as his wife. A combination of drugs, alcohol and his wild perceptions of the world were formed into abstract images often reflecting a sense of beauty. Whiteley made reference to his addiction in works such as “Art Life and the Other Thing” through the representation of the wild beast. Thus, proving that the addiction not only influenced his art making practice but also his life.
Whiteley exhibited his works for most of his life, both domestically and internationally. The exhibitions ranges from small galleries to displays in places such as the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in New York. Whiteley won many awards throughout his life all over the world. In Australia, he won the Archibald, Wynne and Sulman prizes and in 1978 won the trifecta and still stands as the only person to win all three prizes in the same year. During the later years of his life, his addiction to drugs and alcohol intensified. Whiteley began to become heavily addicted which is evident in his artworks and home life.
On the 15th July 1992, he was found dead in a hotel in Thirroul due to a drug overdose. However, his works still remain which leaves Whiteley to still be classified as one of the Whiteley stated that ‘Art is the thrilling spark that beats death. ’ This applied to him as even though he is gone, his artworks remain to be some of the most celebrated works of art within Australia. Ironically, his greatest influences of drugs and his wife Wendy which were known to have heavily impacted his art making practice and concepts did not save the artist from his own demise.
His art, which is still relevant today, outlived the artist himself as they certainly did beat death. Artwork Whiteley creates artworks by expressing his wild mind through a range of techniques using a range of mediums such as photographic media, oil paints and charcoal “Art Life and the Other Thing” and “Christie”. This is a very post modern approach to art making as he uses different art making styles that originate during different times in art history. The works are shaped by the technology of the time and the varied use of technological advancement.
In particular, “Art, Life and the Other Thing” the work appropriates a traditional style of the past which is associated with Dobell’s controversial portrait. Two of the panels are painted layer by layer of oil paints to create the image. This is contrasted with the small photographic portrait of Whiteley in the smallest panel of the work. “Christie”, Whiteley uses collage technique by using a range of mediums in the work “Christie”. There is traditional art forms of charcole and oil painting with photographs and modernised textual references through the journalistic text of the newspaper.
By incorporating text into the work it adds meaning and makes it seem more like the horrific news story that it was rather than a picture to be admired. Whiteley uses symbolism in “Art life and the other thing” through the repetition of hairstyle which is an identifiable feature of his own appearance. Each persona in each panel of the work has this common element which communicates the idea of a wholesome view of himself that Whiteley was trying to display in the work. Whiteley is commenting on how one person can be fragmented into different personas within oneself.
This presents a range of different emotions that is expressed through the different personas for example the wild beast is in a fit of aggression which is tamed as you move across the work; the middle panel shows Whiteley in a calm sate and the photographic portrait shows him with a pleased expression. As all personas are painted with the same colours which suggests that even though there may be different aspects of a person which are separated, it is still a holistic view of the person. This is achieved through the technique of triptych. The artwork is unique as it conveys the view of the artist.
Whiteley’s work acts as an invigorating network of creative techniques in order to captivate and entice his audience. Whiteley achieved this by applying layer by layer of different mediums. Art Criticism Whiteley made a large impression on the art world on an international level. He became one of the most well known artists in Australian history and had an impact on both traditional and contemporary art making. Whiteley managed to create controversy with his artworks which received him different opinions from his audience and art critics worldwide.
Whiteley had a reputation for his individual art making style. His drug addiction was well known to the public and led him to have a divided critical opinion. Some argued that it is not morally right to use rape and murder victims as the subject of art. However, Whiteley’s purpose according to Lauren Maurice was “to explore injustices and investigate the inner workings of evil”. Therefore, the artwork is justified as it achieved its purpose. It was deemed unconventional to surround a number of artworks around such an evil figure.
However, the journalistic incorporation of the newspaper clipping was used to educate the viewers of the horrific events. “Christie” was one of his most controversial art works which caused an uproar due to the way he portrayed the victims. Even though Whiteley’s intention was to show the nature brutality and reinforce the horror of such as man. However, in doing so, the women were displayed disrespectfully for the sake of art rather than acknowledging that they were real people. The work was made within a decade of when the crimes were committed, so the topic was still relevant in the society of the time.
Families of the victims would have struggled to see their loved ones who were brutally murdered, exposed in such a threatening manner in the form of an artwork. Critics were divided about “Art Life and the Other Thing” for a number of reasons. The most obvious reason being the appropriation of William Dobell’s portrait of Joshua Smith and his lack of subtly in including the image. This choice of appropriation received attention as it was well known of the disturbance it caused when it was originally submitted in the Archibald.
Another reason why critics were unsure of “Art Life and the Other Thing” was the brutal honesty that Whiteley displayed in the self portrait. The panel with the out of control beast that struggled with the addiction showed very confronting images of Whiteley’s life. It was as if Whiteley was foreshadowing his own fate which was a confronting element for a self portrait. Art making Whiteley had a very unique approach to art making which received him the title as one of Australians most iconic artists.
Each work is different and has a variety of techniques and showed evidence of experimentation with a range of mediums and form. Whiteley stood out amongst other artists as he painted whilst under the influence of drugs, believing that it enhanced his performance. In the later years of his life, Whiteley’s drug addiction was in total control of his life and there is a clear evolution from the works of his youth. His drug addiction is clearly shown through his art making practice and technical compositioning of each work. This is evident in “Art, Life and the Other Thing” and “Christie”. Art, Life and the Other Thing” presents a combination of creative processes achieved with the exploration of a range of mediums. Whiteley was a well practiced artist and had great knowledge of the different styles that make up his works. “Art Life and the Other Thing” shows Whiteley’s ability of juxtapositioning the canvas’ with layered oil paints and the third panel of photographic media. The art making process it equally as important as the concept and in some ways they go hand in hand. For example, In “Art, Life and the Other Thing”, Whiteley alludes to his drug addiction by making the beast the persona of the panel.
Whiteley conceptually expresses his drug addiction by identifying symbols of the syringe and cigarettes to represent this part of himself. However, Whiteley also presents his drug addiction through the physical motion of his painting style. The erratic line work and abstract figures are achieved due to his decision making while being controlled by the drugs that were taking over him. The concept of “Christie” was sparked when Whiteley had previously been travelling during the 1960’s in the United Kingdom. The effects of Whiteley’s drug use are evident within this work due to the chaotic scene that is created.
The rough outlines and sketchy style or Abstract painting are two common elements to his style which suggests that he was on drugs. This was his preferred method of painting and was proven successful as he produced some of his most renowned masterpieces in this way. “Christie” presents a number of Whitley’s art making practices, There is evidence of collage, layering and the inclusion of photographic media and text. This work shows one of Whiteley’s styles of art making which can be classified as “visual journalism”.
Robert Hughes wrote at the time; “The fact that Whiteley could take a subject so loaded with journalistic associations and turn it into art is the measure of his power for transformation” (1995). Unlike, other artists, Whitley has a very unique approach to art making as he manages to present a real life story in a matter of painting techniques. Similarly to “Art Life and the Other Thing”, “Christie” uses layers of materials of oil paints and charcoal to create the line work and dark tones. He incorporates real footage of the story, that being the images of the victims in the top right corner of the work.
This adds a sense of realism to the work which was an intended method of Whiteley’s to strengthen the intention of provoking fear amongst his audience. The idea of “Christie” was sparked as Whiteley had travelled parts of the work during the 1960’s. Travel had influenced this work as when he was staying in an area of the United Kingdom, Christie’s horrific crimes were committed. His association with that area of the world bought about his fascination of the subject and eventually led to the formation of the
Christie series almost a decade later. There was a vast change in Whiteley’s art making style that occurred during the Christie series. Whiteley had turned from glorifying the sensuality of sex and women and instead portrayed violence and horror. Art History: Whiteley was a part of the Australian Avant-Garde movement which is a modernist form which associates with pushing boundaries that are considered the norm. He was considered one of the leading artists of this movement due to his lyrical expressionism in the abstract style of painting.
Whiteley’s talent had taken him across the world and he a large number of life experiences that inspired his work. Whiteley had an obvious appreciation for art history as he referenced aspects of the art world in his paintings. This is evident in “Art, Life and the Other Thing” with his appropriation of Dobell’s portrait of Joshua Smith. He had the knowledge of previous artists in history that had an impact on critics, the media and the audience. He recontextualised this idea in order to renter it into the same art competition almost sixty years later.
However, it was a different time in art history, and was not only accepted into the Archibald but won. The art world was experiencing many wild forms of the post modern movement so the work was not as shocking in comparison to Dobell’s portrait when it was first released. Whiteley highlights his creative talent as he creates shock amongst his audience with the work still able to be viewed, the work does have elements of brutal honesty though it is mild and disguised in his painting style. Whiteley takes upon elements of art history in the nude themes of his works such as in the work “Wendy”.
He expressed similarities of some of the most primitive forms of art such as “Venus of Willendorf” which is believed to have been made 24,000 BC. This sculpture is a nude portrayal of a female and the purpose of the work was to portray beauty. This is a recurring theme of art throughout almost all stages of art history, which is taken from the earliest forms and still used in modern times by artists such as Whiteley. “Wendy” has many aspects of the art history such as calligraphy which is an ancient oriental form of art; this is referenced in the foreground of the work.