CARIBBEAN FEMINIST THOUGHT The issues concerning women in the Caribbean were seriously brought to the fore in the 1960’s -70’s. This came out of women’s movement in the USA where issues of racial and social equality were brought to the forefront of political policies and social concerns.
Barbara Bush and Lucille Mathurin-Mair were early pioneers of women’s movements. They argued for women to have a place in history and more specifically in the slave society and resistance movement.Other historians such as Rhoda reddock, Verene Sheppard and Hilary Beckles, contributed to the debate on the role of gender in Caribbean history. OBJECTIVES OF CARIBBEAN FEMINIST THOUGHT * To address the problems of both men and women and to change the fixed social ideas each group has about each other * To place emphasis on changing gender roles * To highlight issues such as unequal pay for similar tasks * Bringing to the forefront practices against women that can be considered discrimination Caribbean Feminist Thought also places emphasis on the advancement of women.This is done through the avenue of education and the help of the mass media. One international organization that has helped to promote women’s affairs is the UN INDO CARIBBEAN THOUGHT Emancipation of the slaves led to the introduction of indentured labour from Asia.
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Indians came in large number to Guyana Trinidad and Cuba, to a lesser extent Jamaica in the 19th century. In the Caribbean they found harsh conditions, low wages, and overcrowded, dilapidated, unsanitary barracks, restricted movements, poor nutrition, overwork and disease.In response Indian protested, went on strikes, rioted and moved away from the plantation. Many of the east Indians today, try to maintain their culture with cultural and religious celebrations such as; Divali, Phagwa and Hosay. Many of the easts Indians have made significant strides by moving away from the cane fields to education, commerce and health sectors.
In addition they have moved into areas of politics especially Trinidad and Guyana ( Jagan Jagdeo and, Panday). Intellectual writers that have highlighted Indo Caribbean thought include V.S Naipaul (noble prize for literature and Samuel Selvon.
INDIGENOUS PERSPECTIVES This perspective examines the contribution of the indigenous people mainly the Amerindians of the regions. It takes into consideration the ideas thoughts and actions of Caribbean people in forging their own development. OBJECTIVES OF THIS PERSPECTIVE; * To highlight the facts that indigenous groups were the targets of European scorn and uninformed opinion.
The European viewed the kalinagos as vicious cannibals who should be exterminated.There is no proof that the kalinagos were cannibals, however there is proof that the kalinagos fought back the Europeans. * The scholars sort to incorporate the Amerindians, Africans and East Indians in Caribbean history.
Writers such a Walter Rodney, CLR James, Richard Hart, Sidney Mintzy and Hilary Beckles. * In short the indigenous perspectives seek to bring home the point that Caribbean people whether indigenous, enslaved and indentured or peasants were active agents in the historical process and their actions as much as those of the colonizer shaped the contours of Caribbean history. .
State what is meant by Industrialization by invitation (1) 2. State one way in which I. BI has benefited the Caribbean (1) 3. Explain the term “Pan Africanism (2) 4. Explain one way in which Pan Africanism has contributed to the development of the region (2) 5. Explain the term negritude (2) 6. Outline two ideas of Marxist though (4) 7.
Name one person associated with the Negritude movement (2) 8. Outline 3 ways in which Caribbean people benefited from Negritude Movement (3)