Ch. 9 Schizophrenia & Related Disorders

Schizophrenia
_____ is a mental disorder with a range of symptoms involving disturbances in content of thought, form of thought, perception, affect, sense of self, motivation, behavior, and interpersonal functioning.
Schizophrenia
Roland has the illusion that he is the reincarnation of Hitler and wants to conquer the world. Roland is most likely to be diagnosed with
Active Phase
In which of the following phases of schizophrenia are the psychotic symptoms most prominent?
Delusions, hallucinations, disturbed speech, and disturbed behavior.
In the context of schizophrenic disorders, which of the following is an example of a positive symptom?
Positive
Researchers refer to the symptoms of schizophrenia that are exaggerations or distortions of normal thoughts, emotions, and behavior as _____ symptoms.
6 months
How long must a person show the signs of disturbance in order to be diagnosed as having schizophrenia?
Delusion
_____ are deeply entrenched false belief that are not consistent with a schizophrenic person’s intelligence or cultural background.
Hallucination
A false perception held by a schizophrenic person that does not correspond to the objective stimuli present in the environment is referred to as a
Hallucination
Emily complains that spiders crawl all over her body at night although this is not true. This is an example of a(n)
Delusion
Graham believes that he is the reincarnation of Christ and the responsibility of restoring peace and order to the world lies on his shoulder. This is an example of a(n)
Disorganized speech; *incomprehensible.
Which of the following best describes incoherent speech?
Grandeur
David refers to himself as Hitler and believes that all men comprise his army and should follow his orders. Which of the following forms of delusions is David suffering from?
Control
Cordelia feels the radio is “forcing” her to perform certain actions against her will. Cordelia is most likely suffering from the _____ type of delusion.
Reference
Marshall believes that all television commercials are specifically directed toward him. This condition is referred to as _____ delusion.
Another person or persons are trying to inflect harm on the individual or on that individual’s family or social group.
People suffering from the persecution type of delusion are most likely to harbor the belief that
Inappropriate concerns about one’s body, typically related to a disease. (Believes she has brain cancer & that ants have invaded her head and eating her brain).
People suffering from the somatic type of delusion are most likely to harbor the belief that
One’s lover is being unfaithful.
People suffering from the infidelity type of delusion are most likely to harbor the belief that
Self-blame
Dorothy holds herself responsible for causing hurricane Katrina that killed thousands of people in the U.S. Identify the type of delusion afflicting Dorothy.
One’s thoughts are being broadcast to others.
People suffering from the thought broadcasting type of delusion are most likely to harbor the belief that
Outside forces are inserting thoughts into one’s mind.
People suffering from the thought insertion type of delusion are most likely to harbor the belief that
Negative Symptoms
Affective flattening, alogia, avolition, and anhedonia are all
Affective flattening, alogia, avolition, and anhedonia.
Which of the following is an example of a negative symptom of schizophrenia?
Restricted affect
The narrowing of the range of outward expressions of emotions is referred to as
Avoliton
A lack of initiative, either not wanting to take any action or lacking the energy and will to take action is referred to as
Avolition
Eric, who has schizophrenia, lacks the energy to take any initiative. This condition is referred to as
Asociality
_____ refers to a lack of interest in social relationships, including an inability to empathize and form close relationships with others.
Asociality
Jean has been diagnosed with schizophrenia. She does not have any interest in building social relationships and stays locked up in her room most of the time. This symptom of schizophrenia is referred to as
Loosening of associations
The condition associated with schizophrenia in which one’s flow of thoughts become vague, unfocused, and illogical is referred to as
Loosening of associations
At the age of 30, Claire, a schizophrenic patient, lost her ability to speak. On examining her, the physician could not find any direct physiological cause for Claire’s condition. This condition is most likely to be diagnosed as
Catatonic
_____ schizophrenia is characterized by purposeless and repetitive bodily movement or stiffened posture.
Unable to speak, move, or respond and may hold themselves in the same pose for a considerable lenght of time ranging from days to weeks.
Which of the following is the primary symptom of catatonic schizophrenia?
Catatonic
Gomes has schizophrenia and his predominant symptom is that his body stiffens and becomes rigid several times during the day. Identify the type of schizophrenia afflicting Gomes?
Disorganized
Clara suffers from a severe form of schizophrenia. Her speech is incomprehensible. She uses words that have highly idiosyncratic meanings and do not belong to any existing human language. This form of schizophrenia is referred to as _____ schizophrenia.
Disorganized speech and behavior and flat or inappropriate affect.
Which of the following is one of the primary symptoms of the disorganized type of schizophrenia?
Paranoid
Which type of schizophrenia is typified by preoccupation with one or more bizarre delusions or auditory hallucinations related to being persecuted or harassed?
Paranoid
Darin accuses his parents of colluding with aliens from Mars in a bid to kill him. From the given information, it would be most appropriate to conclude that Darin is suffering from the _____ type of schizophrenia.
Undifferentiated
The type of schizophrenia involving complex symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, and incoherence, but in which no one symptom predominates, is referred to as _____ schizophrenia.
Undifferentiated
Terence has schizophrenia, but no single symptom seems to be dominant in his case. He exhibits a variety of symptoms such as disturbances in sense of self, stereotyped movements, flat affect, and delusional thinking. Terence would most likely be diagnosed as having _____ schizophrenia.
Residual
Individuals with lingering symptoms who have been previously diagnosed as having schizophrenia but do not have full-blown psychotic symptoms are most likely to be diagnosed as having the _____ type of schizophrenia.
Residual
Filomena was diagnosed as having a severe form of schizophrenia. However after undergoing treatment, she has shown much improvement and has only a few mild symptoms. For more than a year, she has not shown any full-blown psychotic symptoms. At this stage, Filomina will be considered as having the _____ form of schizophrenia.
Benedict Morel
Which of the following individuals was the first person to have identified schizophrenia?
Emil Kraepelin
The German psychiatrist who systematically defined “dementia praecox” was
Inappropriate affect
The extent to which a person’s emotional expressiveness fails to correspond to the content of what is being discussed is referred to as
Eugen Bleuler
The Swiss psychiatrist who coined the term schizophrenia was
Association, Affect, Ambivalence, Autism
Which of the following is NOT one of Bleuler’s “Four A’s?”
Kurt Schneider
Which German psychiatrist developed the idea that in order for schizophrenia to be diagnosed, certain “first-rank” symptoms needed to be recorded?
Remission
_____ is the term used to refer to the situation when a schizophrenic person’s symptoms no longer interfere with his or her behavior and are below those required for a DSM diagnosis.
Remission
Fanny was diagnosed with a severe form of schizophrenia. However after she positively responded to medication, her symptoms no longer interfere with her behavior and were below those required for a DSM diagnosis. This condition is referred to as
Individual’s symptoms no longer interfere with his or her behavior and are below those required for a DSM diagnosis.
In the context of schizophrenia, remission is the condition in which the
Brief Psychotic Disorder
_____ is a disorder characterized by the sudden onset of psychotic symptoms that are limited to a period of less than a month.
Brief Psychotic Disorder
A person who experiences a sudden “nervous breakdown” and then recovers from it within a week would most accurately be diagnosed as having
Brief Psychotic Disorder
Jenny experienced a brief psychotic episode soon after her miscarriage. The symptoms only lasted about a month. Jenny was most likely afflicted by
Must experience one of four symptoms: delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, gorssly disorganized or catatonic behavior. Must experience symptoms for more than a day but recover in less than a month.
Which of the following is one of the mandatory criteria needed to be fulfilled in order for a person to be diagnosed with brief psychotic disorder?
A day
In order to be diagnosed with brief psychotic disorder, signs of psychotic disturbances must persist for more than
A disorder characterized by the sudden onset of psychotic symptoms that are limited to a period of less than a month.
Which of the following is true of brief psychotic disorder?
Schizophreniform Disorder
Which of the following is the schizophrenic-like disorder in which the individual has psychotic symptoms that are essentially the same as those found in schizophrenia, except that the symptoms are not chronic in nature?
Symptoms of schizophreniform disorder usually last from 1 to 6 months.
The difference between schizophrenia and schizophreniform disorder is that
1-6 months
To be diagnosed as having schizophreniform disorder, how long must the individual have the psychotic symptoms?
Brief Psychotic Disorder; Schizophrenia
Symptom duration of less than a month is to _____ as duration greater than six months is to _____.
Schizophreniform Disorder
Which psychotic disorder is defined as having active symptoms that last longer than a month but less than six months?
Schizophreniform Disorder
Someone whose psychotic symptoms last longer than a brief psychotic disorder but not as long as schizophrenia is most likely to be diagnosed with
It usually lasts from 1-6 months. Otherwise, the symptoms are the same as schizophrenia.
Which of the following is true of schizophreniform disorder?
Schizoaffective Disorder
_____ is a psychotic disorder involving the experience of a major depressive episode, a manic episode, or a mixed episode while also meeting the diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia.
Also suffer from a major depressive episode, a manic episode, or a mixed episode in addition to meeting the diagnosis criteria for schizophrenia.
The difference between schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder is that people suffering from schizoaffective disorder
A month
To be diagnosed with delusional disorders, a person has to experience delusions that have lasted
for at least
Schizoaffective Disorder
Fevie has been admitted to a psychiatric hospital. She claims that there is a person wanting to kill her. She has delusions of persecution and is also exhibiting the symptoms of a major depressive episode. She is most likely to be diagnosed as having
Erotomanic Type of Delusional Disorder
Rex falsely believes that the current marital discord between the President and his wife is because the First Lady is secretly in love with him and wishes to spend the rest of her life with him. Which type of psychosis is afflicting Rex?
Erotomanic Type of Delusional Disorder
The type of psychosis in which the individual has a delusion that a person of higher status than him/her is deeply in love with him or her is referred to as
Grandiose
The schizophrenic-like disorder in which an individual has delusions of being very important is referred to as delusional disorder, _____ type.
Grandiose Type
Raymond is a janitor at a large corporation and is convinced that the decisions he makes while cleaning affect the functioning of the company more significantly than the decisions made by the CEO. Which type of delusional disorder is most likely afflicting Raymond?
Another person is in love with them.
Delusional disorder, erotomanic type is characterized by the delusion that
One possesses special and extremely favorable personal qualities and abilities.
Delusional disorder, grandiose type is characterized by the delusion that
There romantic partner is unfaithful to them.
Delusional disorder, jealous type is characterized by the delusion that
Jealous Type
Mariana is troubled by the delusional belief that every woman who glances at her husband secretly desires him; she also believes that he has had affairs with some of them despite his insistence that he has never seen them before in his life. Which type of delusional disorder is most likely afflicting Raymond?
Jealous
_____ type of delusional disorder is the disorder in which individuals falsely believe that their romantic partner is unfaithful to them.
Persecutory Type
In which schizophrenic-like disorder does the individual have delusions of oppression and harassment?
Persecutory Type
_____ type of delusional disorder is the disorder in which individuals falsely believe that someone close to them is treating them in a malevolent manner.
Persecutory Type
Which type of delusional disorder is characterized by thoughts similar to those experienced by individuals with paranoid schizophrenia?
Believe that someone is out to harm them.
The similarity between the persecutory type of delusional disorder and paranoid schizophrenia is that in both these disorders afflicted people
Persecutory Type
Catherine believes that her recent car accident was actually an attempt on her life by her ex-boyfriend. Which type of delusional disorder is most likely afflicting Catherine?
They have a medical condition.
Delusional disorder, somatic type is characterized by the false belief that
Somatic
People with the _____ type of delusional disorder believe that they have a medical condition.
Somatic
Ricky’s medical reports are normal, however he is convinced that he suffers from leukemia. He is most likely suffering from the _____ type of delusional disorder.
Shared Psychotic Disorder
The schizophrenic-like disorder in which one or more people accept and acquiesce to the delusional beliefs of another individual is called
Shared Psychotic Disorder
Langdon has convinced his mother that the other members of their family have been abducted by the government and have been replaced with robots that look exactly like them. Langdon and his mother would most likely be diagnosed with
Shared Psychotic Disorder
Gertrude has forsaken the religious beliefs of her own mainstream upbringing and has accepted the strange delusional religious beliefs of her husband, who believes that he is the direct descendant of an ancient Greek god. She has no qualms about her husband sleeping with other women as she believes that according to the religious text of her new religion, it is a man’s given right. Gertrude is most likely to be diagnosed as having
Shared Psychotic Disorder
Which of the following schizophrenic-like disorders most accurately accounts for the delusional beliefs that many cult members share?
Origin of schizophrenia have fallen into 2 categories: Biological and Psychological
Which of the following is true of schizophrenia?
Vulnerability
Which of the following terms is used to refer to the biologically based predisposition of developing a particular disorder?
Kraepelin
Biological explanations of schizophrenia have their origin in the work of _____ who thought of schizophrenia as a disease caused by a degeneration of brain tissue.
Degeneration of brian tissue.
Kraepelin was of the view that schizophrenia was a disease primarily caused by
Have enlarged ventricles (ventricular enlargement).
When contrasting the CAT scans of the brains of normal people and those with schizophrenia, it has been found that people with schizophrenia
Cortical atrophy, a wasting away of brain tissue.
The ventricle enlargement observed in clients with schizophrenia is most often accompanied by
Cortical Atrophy
The wasting away or deterioration of tissue in the cerebral cortex is referred to as
Prefrontal lobes
In which of the following areas of the brain is the loss of brain volume most pronounced?
They have a wide range of deficits including poor performace on motor tasks, difficulties in working memory, poorer attention, reduced word fluency, deficient processing of emotional information, and impaired decision making.
Which of the following statements is true of schizophrenia patients?
Have a wide range of deficits including poor performace on motor tasks, difficulties in working memory, poorer attention, reduced word fluency, deficient processing of emotional information, and impaired decision making.
Through fMRI studies, it has been found that people with schizophrenia
Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI)
_____ is a method of investigating abnormalities in the white matter of the brain.
Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI)
Kim’s physician suspecting that she might be suffering from schizophrenia, investigates the white matter of her brain for abnormalities. Identify the method of investigation employed by Kim’s physician to investigate the white matter.
Tracks the activity of water molecules as they diffuse along the length of axons, making it possible to investigate abnormalities in neural pathways.
The diffusion tensor imaging method primarily
Loss of connectivity among brain regions.
The results of diffusion tensor imaging studies show that schizophrenia is related to the
Blocking dopamine receptors.
The drug, chlorpromazine, has its effect by
Neurodevelopmental Hypothesis
Which of the following theories proposes that schizophrenia is a disorder of development that arises during the years of adolescence or early adulthood due to alterations in the genetic control of brain maturation?
Alterations in the genetic control of brain maturation.
According to the neurodevelopmental hypothesis, schizophrenia is a disorder of development that occurs mainly due to the
Adolescence or early adulthood.
According to the neurodevelopmental hypothesis, schizophrenia is a disorder of development that arises during
Extrapyramidal Symptoms (EPS)
Side effects of antipsychotic medication such as motor disorders involving rigid muscles, tremors, shuffling movement, restlessness, and muscle spasms affecting the posture, are referred to as _____ symptoms.
Extrapyramidal
Sam has been diagnosed with schizophrenia and is currently on antipsychotic medication. He has been experiencing frequent muscle spasms and mild tremors. These symptoms are referred to as _____ symptoms.
Neuroprogression
_____ is the process in which the effects of schizophrenia interact with brain changes caused by normal aging.
Antipsychotic medication
The primary biological treatment for schizophrenia is
Chlorpromazine (Thorazine)
Which of the following is the first medication that doctors used in treating schizophrenia?
Paul Charpentier
Who had developed antipsychotic chlorpromazine that is used in treating schizophrenia?
Tardive Dyskinesia
Which of the following is a motor disorder that consists of involuntary movements of the mouth, arms, and trunk of the body?
Tardive Dyskinesia
Adrian is recovering from schizophrenia. She has been taking high doses of antipsychotic medications for a very long period of time and has begun to experience uncontrollable movements of her mouth and tongue that make her appear as if she were chewing food in a very exaggerated way. Adrian is experiencing the symptoms of
Involuntary movements of the mouth, arms, and trunk of body.
Which of the following is a typical symptom of tardive dyskinesia?
Neuroleptics
Medications that are most effective in reducing the frequency and intensity of psychotic symptoms are referred to as
They have 2 main categories: “typical” or “first generation” and “atypical” or “second generation” antipsychotics.
Which of the following is true of neuroleptics?
Medications do have severe side effects.
Although antipsychotic medications are effective, it is important to remember that
Agranulocytosis
Which of the following is a condition that affects the functioning of the white blood cells?
Clozapine (Clozaril)
Which of the following is an antipsychotic that has potentially lethal side effects by causing agranulocytosis?
Token Economy
Jordan is being treated for catatonic schizophrenia and is currently living in an institution. Every time Jordan talks to one of the staff members, makes his bed, or behaves in some other appropriate manner, he receives a coupon. After acquiring twenty coupons, he can exchange them for privileges. Jordan’s maladaptive practices are being treated through the process of
Token Economy
_____ is the group-based form of contingency management in which individuals can earn secondary reinforcers for performing desired activities that can later be exchanged for some tangible benefits.
Reducing the distress and preoccupation an individual has with their symptoms.
Clinicians using cognitive-behavioral therapy to treat individuals with symptoms of psychosis mainly focus on
Neural “plasticity”
People with schizophrenia show _____ meaning that their brains undergo positive adaptive changes during cognitive training.
Expressed Emotion (EE)
The index that addresses the degree to which family members speak in ways that reflect criticism, hostile feelings, and emotional overinvolvement or overconcern with regard to the individual with schizophrenia is called
Suffer a relapse.
Patients recovering from schizophrenia, who are exposed to high levels of criticism are more likely to
Higher activiation of brain regions.
When hearing speech high in EE compared to neutral speech, the regions of the brain involved in self-reflection and sensitivity to social situations in schizophrenic people have
Lower socioeconomic classes.
Several studies have found that most individuals suffering from schizophrenia in the U.S. belong to
“Downward Drift”
Schizophrenia interferes with ones’ ability to work and earn a living and eventually leads to poverty. This notion is referred to as
“Downward Drift” hypothesis
Leon was a relatively successful attorney before developing schizophrenia. He has now stopped working and prefers to wander the streets in preparation for an “airlift” of humans by extraterrestrials. He has lost all his property and stays on the streets. His poverty has further aggravated his psychotic symptoms. Leon’s story lends credibility to which hypothesis regarding the relationship between social class and schizophrenic symptoms?
Migrate to lower-status jobs and urban areas where they are more likely to suffer from exposure to environmental pollutants, stress, and overcrowding.
Individuals most at risk for schizophrenia are those who
“Developmental Cascade” Hypothesis
The _____ proposed by Stilo and Murray integrates genetic vulnerabilities, damage occurring in the prenatal and early childhood periods, adversity, and drug abuse as leading, ultimately, to changes in dopamine expressed in psychosis.
Stilo & Murray
Who had proposed the developmental cascade hypothesis?
Assertive Community Treatment (ACT)
The treatment program involving a team of mental health professions from psychiatry, psychology, nursing, and social work who reach out to clients in their homes and workplaces is referred to as
Engendering empowerment and self-determination on its “consumers”
ACT’s main focus is on
ACT
Dr. Norman, a psychiatrist, along with other professionals from the field of psychology, nursing, and social work reaches out to schizophrenic patients in their homes and workplaces and focuses on engendering empowerment and self-determination on them. This is an example of
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