However, the level of tourism developments varies between regions, countries and continents. The tourism sector is experiencing an acceptance of commerce to the extend that the whole industry structure is changing . The web is used not only for information gathering but also for ordering services . A new type of user is emerging one who acts as his or her own travel agent and build a personalized travel package . This research focuses on evaluating the current status of Missiles Hotel Zombie In order to study the adoption of commerce applications on the hospitality sector. . Introduction Matheson and Wall (1982) created a good working definition of tourism as “the emperors movement of people to destinations outside their normal places of work and residence, the satellites undertaken during their stay In those destinations, and the faceless created to cater to their needs. ” The tourism Industry requires a diverse range of information and lends itself well to the support offered by developing multimedia, communication technologies and information systems .
The internet provides an extra ordinary connectivity and the ability to communicate efficiently and effectively directly with customers at a reasonable cost . Lets potential to generate more venue is not questionable but Is acknowledged as something the tourism industry In developing countries needs. According to the World Tourism Organization 2002, Tourism In many developing and least developed countries Is the most viable and sustainable economic development option, and in some countries, the main source of foreign exchange earnings.
Implications of the Internet and other growing interactive multimedia platforms for tourism promotion are far reaching and alter the structure of the industry. This research aimed to explore the Impact of Acts and the Internet in reticular for the future competitiveness of the tourism and hospitality Industry. This paper explores the current state of tourism development and examines the use of the Internet in the sector.
The rapid development and centralization of Information and Communication Technologies (Acts) for the travel and tourism industry has prompted hotels and other enterprises in this sector to increasingly adopt these technologies. This is based on the expectation that the new CIT based technologies and processes would lead to an Improvement in their operating efficiencies and customer service levels. Bulls, D. 2003: 77). The CIT based the service experience as well as provide a means to access markets on a global basis.
Brussels, 2005. Says ‘The use of Acts is a relevant opportunity for growing and strengthening a local tourism industry, and for the development of destinations economies overall. Specifically Acts have the potential to increase destination incomes for financing economic and social development’. While Acts were used in the hotel industry from the late seventies in the form of Computerized Reservation systems and Global distribution systems, it was only in the ass that the Acts began to aka a difference in the hospitality sector.
Nowadays the internet has turned into an Informative channel providing both individuals and organizations with different types of information making them aware of new tourism and old travel opportunities and offers enabling them to compare the offers, have online purchases and provide feedback. It has also turned into a source for travel agencies and organizations to promote their services and products to their potential customers. As the internet is being used worldwide it was important for Missiles hotel to implement hence the creation of its web site www. Isles. Com Missiles Hotel Missiles Hotel is situated in the heart of Hare and overlooks the historic landmark and colorful flower gardens of Africa Unity Square. According to Experience Zombie, Missiles is consistently voted as one of the best hotels in Zombie, Missiles Hotel is a proud member of The Leading Hotels of the World, a prestigious hospitality organization which represents some of the world’s most acclaimed hotels, spas and resorts.
Established in 1928, the organization exists to meet the needs of discerning travelers and for a hotel to be recognized by this body, it needs to exceed very expectation and achieve exacting standards of excellence. Executive chairman Mr. Ionians Mammas says ‘Missiles Hotel has won the prestigious Association of Zimmermann Travel Agents (AZTAR) award for Best City Hotel in Zombie for an astonishing 15 consecutive years’. This award is voted on by AZTAR members and is based on feedback given to travel agents by their many clients across the world.
Problem Definition There have been a lot of changes in the rapid growing world of technology. Changes in the technological world have made organizations to change the way they conduct heir day to day business in order to provide satisfactory services delivery. Effective delivery of service is defined by Martin (2004) as providing products and services that bring utility to users and customers. E-tourism is offering significant benefits for organizations that integrate the technology into their organizational information systems.
This versatile technology improves information quality and accessibility, increases operational efficiency (service delivery) and enhances effective management (Miramar, 2006). Despite these highly perceived benefits of e-tourism its adoption has been relatively slow in Zombie. Currently, there are no studies which have been carried out in Zombie to identify the benefits and challenges of adopting CIT in the tourism and hospitality industry. Hence it is the ideal time to carry out an investigation on the adoption of CIT in the tourism and hospitality industry.
Objectives ere key objective of this research has been to examine the Adoption of CIT in the tourism industry mainly looking at Missiles Hotel in Zombie . Len particular the is to Identify the factors affecting E-tourism in Zombie The paper also assesses how tourism concepts and techniques can contribute towards the improvement of he Zombie tourism competitiveness. RESEARCH QUESTIONS I. At what rate is CIT being adopted in the tourism and hospitality industry in Zombie? II. What factors are encouraging or discouraging the adoption of CIT in the tourism and hospitality industry of Zombie. . Literature review Literature review is a “systematic, explicit and reproducible method for identifying, evaluating and interpreting the existing body of recorded work produced by other scholars” (Khan, 2008, p. 41). The literature review focuses on the impacts of Acts on tourism and the commerce developments in Zombie. It also includes a brief section on Tourism in Zombie which provides the contextual environment that determines the requirements for tourism in the country. 2. CIT Developments and commerce in Zombie There are various factors that have affected the adoption of commerce in Zombie, these include : Software development tools are still evolving . Let is difficult to integrate Internet and e-commerce software with some existing (especially legacy) applications and databases . Special web servers are needed in addition to the network servers, Inch add to the cost of commerce. The Standard June 5, 2011 says the adoption of he multiple currency system in 2009 presented a strong opportunity for the growth of e-commerce in Zombie.
It said Zombie now had a chance to catch up with the rest of the world if the financial and retail sectors took the lead. Internet accessibility is still expensive and or inconvenient . Powered Communications, a government owned internet provider, is one of the 12 PATRIA licensed Internet Access Providers in Zombie. In June 2014 Powered mobile broadband price were $50/month . The price of the modem $45. Every Zimmermann cannot afford these prices. The Financial Gazette 3 Cot 2013 states Despite the growth of the Information
Communication Technology (ACT) sector in the country, which has seen internet penetration rising from five to 47 percent in the past five years, the cost of accessing the internet still remains high. The improved internet penetration is largely credited to the CIT Strategic Plan crafted by the then ministry of CIT under Nelson Chamois. Customers’ attitudes towards online shopping remain skeptical, mainly because of Norris about product quality, product delivery, and security and privacy issues Galahad et al. , 2006; Scott & Scott, 2008).
People do not yet sufficiently trust paperless, faceless transactions . Payment security and privacy concerns are one of the major non technological barriers that prevent consumers from completing transactions online Lack of trust in e-commerce and in unknown sellers hinders buying. Online fraud is also increasing. Some customers like to feel and touch products. They are afraid that if they purchase Introit actually touching the products they might not get exactly what they ordered. Also, customers are resistant to the change from shopping at a brick-and-mortar store to a virtual store. F system integration for effective and efficient management in distribution, operation and communication worldwide. Large hospitality corporations have invested to transform their systems into a total network system; however, small and medium-sized tourism enterprises (Seems) struggle to integrate the systems due to a shortage of financial sources Factors Determining the Adoption of Acts In Zimmermann Hotels There are a number of factors that affect the adoption of CIT in hotels these will be discussed below.
In the hotel industry, the geographic location of a hotel has a major impact on its operations and profitability. The geographical location of a hotel would greatly determine the profile of its visitors, the size of its market and the level of competition that it has to face. A hotel will therefore be more inclined to adopt Acts if it expects the CIT based facilities to either provide greater competitive advantage or to blunt the advantage enjoyed by its competitors considering the characteristics of its customer profile, its market size and the intensity of competition that it has to face. Hush based on the profile of a hotel’s visitors, the size of the market, or the intensity of competition, hotels may differ in their levels of CIT adoption propensity. He market size, in terms of the number of tourists who visit the location, will also be significant factor that affects CIT adoption , since hotels in smaller underdeveloped destinations may need to use the internet and other CIT based technologies to a greater degree to reach out to the global population than hotels located in developed destinations.
According to Baja] and Nag (2005) a range of advanced CIT systems such as Decision Support System (ADS) can be applied to gain substantial benefits on practical levels not only by large organizations, but also by small and medium-sized business organizations as well. Baja] and Nag (2005) argue that ADS integration by small and medium-sized organizations can assist management by generating a set of alternative solution options to management problems of various levels complexities ere competition level among the hotels in a location, can also influence the adoption of Acts.
The general occupancy rate in the location is an indicator of the competitive intensity among the hotels in a location. High levels of occupancy rate at a location Imply that the competition is low, and the hotels can expect to get their rooms filled Ninth relative ease while low levels of occupancy point towards higher levels of intention to attract customers between the hotels in the location. High levels of competition may prompt the hotels to aggressively use CIT based technologies both for attracting customers as well as to increase the efficiency of its operations. He size of the hotel has an important effect on CIT adoption. Effective adoption of several CIT technologies requires a substantial investment of resources. Lack of resources may affect the inclination of small hotels to adopt costly Acts and therefore large hotels can be expected to be more inclined to Acts. Further the risky nature of Investing in new technologies may prompt small hotels to wait till the technology has Another aspect of the hotel size that can influence adoption of Acts is the inclination to change within the organization. Large hotels have been found to be more resistant to change than small firms.
This fact tends to suggest that large hotels are less inclined to adopt Acts than small hotels as long as the investment required is not a consideration. ere scope of activities that the hotel is engaged in can also influence adoption of Acts. Since Acts enable an effective integration of activities of an organization, hotels Ninth varied lines of activities would find more use in the adoption of Acts than hotels Ninth a relatively lesser span of activities. 2. 2 Information and Communication Technologies (Acts) in the Tourism sector The internet has become a key application in the tourism industry.
Tourism providers have been using the internet to communicate, distribute and market their products to potential customers worldwide n a cost- and time-efficient way. In fact, the individual company website had become the most important platform for e-commerce, followed by electronic markets. The main focus of e-business processes in the tourism industry has been on customer facing activities and services, I. E. Primarily e-marketing and e-sales. Online booking and reservation services were widely accepted among consumers and business travelers already in 2005.
Similarly, online purchasing had become a relatively well- used application in the tourism sector. Parsons and Ajax (2013) mention online reservations systems as one of the greatest impacts of CIT on tourism and hospitality sector. Tourism has closely been connected to progress of Acts for over 30 years. The establishments of the Computer Reservation Systems (Cross) in the asses, Global Distribution Systems (Gigs) in the late asses and the Internet in the late asses have transformed operational and strategic practices dramatically in tourism .
The tourism industry at first focused on utilizing computerized systems (e. G. , CRY, GAS) to increase efficiency in processing of internal information and managing distribution. Nowadays, the Internet and Acts are relevant on all operative, structural, strategic and marketing levels to facilitate global interaction among suppliers, intermediaries ND consumers around the world. In this section, we will provide the concepts and definitions of the key terms related to the Internet and Acts. 2. 2. Electronic tourism (e-tourism) It is the application of Acts on the tourism industry (Bilabials, 2003). Bilabials (2003) suggests that e-tourism reflects the digitization of all processes and value chains in the tourism, travel, hospitality and catering industries. At the tactical level, it includes e-commerce and applies Acts for maximizing the efficiency and effectiveness of the tourism organization. At the strategic level, e-tourism revolutionists all business recesses, the entire value chain as well as the strategic relationships of tourism organizations with all their stakeholders.
E-tourism determines the competitiveness of the organization by taking advantage of Intranets for reorganizing internal processes, extranets for developing transactions customers. The e-tourism concept includes all business functions (I. E. , e-commerce, a-marketing, e-finance and e-accounting, ERM, e-procurement, e-production) as well as e-strategy, e-planning and e-management for all sectors of the tourism industry, Including tourism, travel, transport, leisure, hospitality, principals, intermediaries and public sector organizations.
Hence, e-tourism bundles together three distinctive disciplines: business management, information systems and management, and tourism. 11. 2. 2 Computer reservation system (CRY) ere 1989 CRY Regulation defined a ‘computerized reservation system’ as a system for reserving and booking seats on commercial flights electronically, as well as storage and retrieval of itineraries. Several airlines own and market such systems, Inch are used by travel agents. A few include: Saber (produced by American Airlines), Amadeus, and Worlds.
It is a database which enables a tourism organization to manage its inventory and make it accessible to its partners. Principals utilities Cross to manage their inventory and distribute their capacity as well as to manage the drastic expansion of global tourism. Cross often charge competitive commission rates while enabling flexible pricing and capacity alterations, to adjust supply to demand fluctuations. Airlines pioneered this technology, although hotel Chains and tour operators followed by developing centralized reservation systems. Cross can be characterized as the “circulation system” of the tourism product. 1. 2. 3 Global distribution systems (Gigs) ere business dictionary defines a global distribution system as a worldwide computerized reservation network used as a single point of access for reserving airline seats, hotel rooms, rental cars, and other travel related items by travel agents, online reservation sites, and large corporations. The premier global distribution systems are Amadeus, Galileo, Saber, and Worlds. They are owned and operated as Joint ventures by major airlines, car rental companies, and hotel groups. Also called automated reservation system (ARCS) or computerized reservation system SIRS).
Since the mid asses, airline Cross developed into Gigs by gradually expanding their geographical coverage as well as by integrating both horizontally, with other airline systems, and vertically by incorporating the entire range of principals, such as accommodation, car rentals, train and ferry ticketing, entertainment and other provisions. In the early asses, Gigs emerged as the major driver of Acts, as well as the backbone of the tourism industry and the single most important facilitator of Acts globalization (Sheldon, 1993). In essence, Gigs matured from their original development as airline Cross to travel supermarkets.
Since the late asses Gigs have emerged as business in their own right, specializing in travel distribution. 2. 2. 4 Intermediaries Intermediaries (brokers) play an important role in commerce by providing value- added activities and services to buyers and sellers. The most well-known intermediaries in the physical world are wholesalers and retailers. Traditionally, Intermediaries of the travel industry have been outbound and inbound travel ‘alee chain, forcing the existing intermediaries to take up the new medium and to develop corresponding business models. 2. . 5 e-Travel agencies Acts are irreplaceable tools for travel agencies as they provide information and reservation facilities and support the intermediation between consumers and principals. Andrea Petrodollar – (2006) Travel agencies operate various reservation systems, which mainly enable them to check availability and make reservations for tourism products. Until recently Gigs have been critical for business travel agencies to access information and make reservations on scheduled airlines, hotel chains, car rentals and a variety of ancillary services.
Gigs help construct complicated itineraries, while they provide up-to-date schedules, prices and availability information, as well as an effective reservation method. In addition, they offered internal management modules integrating the “back office” (accounting, commission monitor, personnel) and “front office” (customers’ history, itinerary construction, ticketing and communication with suppliers). Multiple travel agencies in particular experience more benefits by achieving better coordination and control between their remote branches and headquarters.
Transactions can provide invaluable data for financial and operational control as well as for marketing research, which can analyze the market fluctuations and improve tactical decisions Hotels use Acts in order to improve their operations, manage their inventory and maximize their profitability. Their systems facilitate both in-house management and distribution through electronic media. ‘Property management systems (Amps)’ coordinate front office, sales, planning and operational functions by administrating reservations and managing the hotel inventory.
Moreover, Amps integrate the “back” and “front” of the house management and improve general administration functions such as accounting and finance; marketing research and planning; forecasting and Held management; payroll and personnel; and purchasing. Understandably, hotel Chains gain more benefits from Amps, as they can introduce a unified system for planning, budgeting and controlling and coordinating their properties centrally. Hotels also utilities Acts and the Internet extensively for their distribution and marketing functions.
Global presence is essential in order to enable both individual customers and the travel trade to access accurate information on availability and to provide easy, efficient, inexpensive and reliable ways of making and confirming reservations. Although Central Reservation Offices (Cross) introduced central reservations in the asses, it was not until the expansion of airline Cross and the cent CIT developments that forced hotels to develop hotel Cross in order to expand their distribution, improve efficiency, facilitate control, empower yield management, reduce labor costs and enable rapid response time to both customers and management requests.
Following the development of hotel Cross by most chains, the issue of interconnectivity with other Cross and the Internet emerged. This reduces both set-up and reservation costs, whilst facilitates reservations through several distribution channels 2. 3 Tourism in Zombie many employment and business opportunities for locals in the asses. But it has aced a great decline since 2000. A number of Zimmermann tourist attractions are marketed online by South African companies and they have created an impression to some international tourists that they are located in South Africa.
E-tourism has always seemed like a no-brainier for Zombie, as money can be paid direct to hotels and suppliers. But obstacles like the lack of access to communication in remote areas, uncertain electricity availability, high cost of bandwidth, the lack of integrated, real-time reservation systems and local online payment gateways have thus far stymied progress. However, with the arrival of voice and data-oriented electrification in some remote tourist areas, there is more access to information via websites by foreign tourists looking for a good holiday resort.
In other parts of Africa, arrival of cheaper bandwidth has lessened the barriers to communication and the world’s Online Travel Agencies like Expedite are showing a real interest in the continent. Ten years ago no-one was talking about online tourism. ere tourism trade tended to focus on going to big trade events like World Tourism Markets, with brochures and doing support advertising in key markets. The travel agents tended to suggest where people went and to some extent picked the estimations. As a result, a great deal of the revenues went to large, international hotel chains and not much of the money was retained locally.
According to The Zimmermann (22 June 2011) 56% of travel globally is booked online and the rise of the Online Travel Agents has been unstoppable. These Tots, as they are known in the trade, include Expedite, Iteratively, Legitimate. Com and Bookings. Com – who have significant market share in Africa. Expedite has actually opened an office to focus on Africa. It goes on to say In 2005, less than 2% of tourism revenues in Africa came from online booking. In 2010, buoyed by the World Cup, that percentage rose to 5% and looks set to go to somewhere between 15-20% by 2016.
The World Cup may have been a one-off boost but it accelerated the growth of online tourism in South Africa. 50% of Americans read an online review before booking internationally and that’s usually either Trip Advisor or Backbone. (Trip Advisor is now owned by Expedite). Most International travelers have credit cards and increasingly expect to be able to book online for anything from the smallest travel lodge to the largest hotel chain. So what are the barriers? The missing piece was e-commerce. There used to be no route for doing online transactions in other countries in Africa including Zombie.
Online distribution by the Tots requires a reservation system that offers real-time availability. Tots won’t do business with you unless you have that. In Zombie there are few tourist resorts offering e-commerce reservation and booking services. Shareware Adventures in Victoria Falls offer online booking and payment services, Inch have attracted a large number of tourists over the years. The second missing piece was the ability and tools to do online marketing. The companies needed racketing skills, especially with social media.
Today’s tourist wants to hear from other travelers (through Backbone and Trip Advisor) and are not that interested in what the hotel has to say. For example, hotel chains Africa Sun and Crests Hotels have invested in websites and Backbone groups where reviews are easily accessible to prospective tourists. Now that the data oriented communication and cheaper to focus specifically on those industry sectors that are most likely to make the online transition fastest. It must be possible in the near future for a heritage site in Binge to be marketed online to the world and attract visitors. Research Methodology or fulfill the objectives of this research a number of methods were used. Both primary and secondary data were therefore essential. Given the dynamic nature of the subject area, multiple primary research approaches were adopted, including both qualitative and quantitative methods (Phillip, 1998). Barman (1998) explains that the two methods are complementary rather than competing, especially for exploratory research. ere researcher made use of the internet and some library books to carry out the research and establish the solutions to the research objectives .
First a qualitative approach was adopted in order to enable the appreciation of all aspects of the subject and to develop a set of the most critical variables to be included afterwards onto a questionnaire. The main objective was to objectively establish the level of commerce and the on-line representation of Zimmermann tourism. ere second stage involved semi-structured interviews aimed to elicit critical issues and to explore the key factors that determine the development of tourism in Zombie. In-depth interviews are considered as the most appropriate method to obtain information about perceptions, attitudes and beliefs.
Judgmental sampling Nas employed and interviewees were selected as pioneers in tourism in Zombie, as determined by their online presence assessed in the previous phase of the research. Owners and marketing managers of organizations that run innovative web sites, as demonstrated by the methods used to interact with their clientele, were targeted and an interview was requested. ere sample was chosen to include interviewees who would be informed, reflecting their particular experience and outlook on the research area. Twenty five telephone contacts were made and 28 interviews were finally conducted, which resulted in a 1% response rate .
The researcher also made use of the questionnaires. The questionnaires designed by the researcher had both open ended questions thus allowing a respondent to fully express the answer and closed questions which only provided simple choice of answer such as yes or no. Questionnaires were used by the researcher because they saved time and they were an inexpensive way of surveying a cross section of people. Questionnaires allowed the researcher to guide the respondent along the lines regarding the topic under study and responses obtained from closed ended questions are easy to analyze.
Questionnaires allowed the respondents to give freely the confidential information since the respondents were not required to disclose their identity. The researcher favored the use of questionnaires because the analysis of data from close-ended question was easy. However data collection through the use of questionnaires required a significant commitment, expertise, time Inflexible as they gave no room to rephrase questions, furthermore, some questions remained unanswered and it affected the research findings. ere researcher used simple wording in the questionnaires so that the respondents
Mould not fail to understand the questions, that is, the researcher used simple Morning to elaborate the meanings of what was being asked and required. The researcher also used face to face interviews. The researcher employed structured interviews to obtain detailed and specific information from the Minister of Tourism and Hospitality Mr. Minimize. The questions presented to the Minister sought to determine the factors affecting adoption of Acts in Zimmermann hotel and also how far Zimmermann hotels are in terms of adoption of Acts.
The interview also sought to discover challenges to implementing Acts and compliance at different hotels. The interview process proved time consuming and required persistence since the honorable Minister was a busy person and he was not easily available. The actual Interview session had a length of 15 minutes due to the Minister’s busy schedule. or avoid inconveniences, an appointment via e-mail and telephone call prior to interviewing visit was made.
Goodman (2003) states that certain biases exist due to the tendency by the interviewer to ask wrong questions and be supplied with answers he expects to get. The researcher eliminated such errors by avoiding leading questions and taking a listener approach instead of providing suggestions. Probing Nas only applied as a means of seeking clarifications. This technique was used because interviews are highly flexible and the researcher was able to rephrase the questions to make the respondent understand better.
Dennis (2003), states that an interview is whereby the researcher and the respondents discuss verbally with each other either face to face, over the phone or over the internet. Interviews allow probing on open ended questions, clarifications on ambiguous questions and sequencing of questions is easily changed. However, the researcher noted that interviews were costly to run in terms of money and they re time consuming because the interviewee was a busy person hence the need of an appointment and the need of a telephone call reminding the interviewee about the appointment before the time.