CHAPTER2REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE & STUDIESIn this life full of possibilities, decisions areessential in making our lives head towards success and attainment. It gives ourlives the appropriate direction that we are opts to take in our future. Hence, decision-makingis a logical way of choosing one from the unlimited options to satisfy a man’sease (Alba, K.
et al., 2010). It is one of the dilemmas that senior high schoolstudents encounter in their lives where they face the reality that this certainadjudication will be a step closer to their future careers. Moreover, it is nota matter of fun and enjoyment, but a matter of life and death because itrequires mature and rigid discussions among the students (Alba, K. et al.
,2010). However, during the career decision, it is inevitable for students to bespared from conflicts and issues that is why there are identified factors thateither positively or negatively affect the future career decisions of seniorhigh school students.A study conducted by the group of Alba, K. in the year2010, found out that student’s abilities or academic performances gave muchimpact on the student’s college course preference. Since student’s mistakes arehighly inevitable, it would be necessary to contemplate on their profile ofabilities that which will be guided and counseled by their parents andcounselor. The researchers suggested that the higher the students are aware abouttheir aptitudes; they are more likely to anticipate the career option andcourse choice that is best suited for them.
This will aid in lessening theburden of students in decision-making. Moreover, the National Career DevelopmentAssociation (NCDA) in the United States in 1993 specified that it would behighly necessary to assist students in contemplating their “abilities,interests, values and goals” which are the “vital foundations of the careerdevelopment process” (Pascual, N., 2014, pg. 2). Thus, Qualifax, Ireland’sNational Learner’s Database (2018), also concluded that it is one of theprerequisites for students in choosing a college course to develop a certainlevel of self-awareness and to complexly evaluate one’s aptitudes, which willbe the basis for the success of their career choices.A recent study by Malgwi, C. et al. (2005) showed thatthe most influential factor that affect undergraduates’ college choicepreference, regardless of their gender, is their interest towards differentfields.
It was supported by the studies of Kim et al. (2002) and Strasser etal. (2002). However, there are still gender differences that influence thestudent’s decision – women influenced by their aptitude in the subject, and meninfluenced by the level of pay in the field. Hence, in the end, these genderdifferences changed over time and the researchers concluded that both genders –men and women – seem to be more alike in the factors that influence theircollege course preference (Malgawi, C. et al., 2005).
Furthermore, parental interference also influence thecareer decisions made by students, but as modern day dawns, maturity precedesover these individuals that allows them to revolt from the choices made by theirparents (Shukla, A., 2009). This was supported by Thao (2009), where heconducted a study of the Hmong/Mong students. His results led to a conclusionwhere parental involvement has a great role to play in the career choice of theadolescent students. Likewise, a student is most likely to succeed in theircareers due to parental pressure where they are obliged to submit their selves andfollow the aspirations of their parents (Saysay, K., 2011). In addition, astudy conducted by Keller, B.
and Whiston, S. (2008) concurred that parentscould be a “source of general psychosocial support” that motivates, inspires, andencourages their children in pursuing their future careers. Among the othergeneral factors, it is said that parental guidance is more salient ininfluencing career preparation.It is said that Filipinos are known for their loyaltyand respect to their elders. Hence, when it comes to decision making, individualsalways seek for guidance from their family members, especially their parents.According to Pascual (2014), “out of respect and loyalty, it may not beappropriate to express personal desires; rather, one may alter one’s intereststo maintain harmony” (pg. 4).
He then concurred that due to the obedient virtueof young Filipinos, they tend to follow their parent’s decisions regardingtheir college courses. In this manner, the young Filipinos are able to fulfillthe aspirations of their parents and accomplish them not just for the sake oftheir selves, but for their families.Besides, Shukla (2009) claimed that the modern-agedyouth are quite “immature and impulsive” to decide for their career choices.Their indecisiveness will often lead to faltered college course choices wherethey will unfortunately encounter predicaments, such as misfit graduates anddropouts, which will hinder them in achieving their career aspirations.Moreover, individuals are also more likely to be influenced by other externalfactors during decision-making which concerns their parents about theirchildren’s affairs.
However, the youth of the present generation tend to revoltagainst the impediment from their parents regarding their college coursepreference (Shukla, A., 2009). Nevertheless, a parental guidance is stillsignificant as parents are most likely to influence and intensively guide theirchildren’s career decisions. Inaddition to parents’ influence in the student’s decisions regarding theircourse preference, the school administration and guidance counsellors must alsobe involved in making a better career plan for every student (Pascual, N.,2014). Student counsellors and student counselling programs have a large contributionin preparing students before they transition to a higher level of education.
Shealso stated that the exposure of students to different career-related mattersalso helps students in their decisions and career choices. This was backed by Finlayson’s study in 2009about the perceptions of Career Technical Education by middle school and highschool counsellors wherein she stated that school counsellors in both groupsindeed have significant contributions in a student’s development by providingchoices and guiding students in the career paths they choose to take.Furthermore, Finlayson (2009) mentioned in her study that Career TechnicalEducation or CTE was recognized as something positive by both middle school andhigh school teachers and it was necessary for students to gain awarenessregarding their career as early as before beginning high school so that theirtransition from middle school to high school will be easier and odds of themdropping out of school before graduation will be less likely to happen. Accordingto Keel (n.d), career awareness at a young age can help the students beknowledgeable of the different career types offered in society and begin tounderstand their traits and qualities that will help them exceed in the processof educational and career development. Perryet al (2009) also associated teacher support to the levels of school engagementof students and stated that students who received high support from teacherswere predicted to have higher levels of school engagement. Student engagementis seen as an important factor in anticipating a student’s achievement(Handelsman, M. et al, 2009).
It was also found in the study of Perry et al(2009) that that some urban youth may not obtain proper parental career supportand as a result, teachers play a much more eminent role in the student’s careerdevelopment. In their study, they emphasized that teacher support contributedwell to career preparation and work as a dominant source for a student’sdevelopment. Peerpressure also influences an individual’s career decision as stated by Alba andher group in their study in 2010. This happens when a person becomes tooinvolved with the decision of their peers and will be forced to take the samedecision as well because of the fear that they might be separated from them.Fernando et al. (2015) supports this by stating that students do not wish to beseparated from their group of friends or peers up until they reach college thusmaking them take the same course together. Alba et al. (2010) also added thatin other occasions, peers prompt an individual to take the same course astheirs believing that it will also benefit them when in reality, it is notreally the appropriate course for that person.
Aside from the family-, school- and peer-relatedfactors, Filipino parents also take into consideration some economic factors:employability of the jobs, in-demand jobs, and the family’s financial, whichare relevant to the success of their children’s future professions (Saysay, K.,2011). Individuals take into consideration the chance or feasibility of beingemployed after their tertiary studies in choosing their college courses. Practicallyspeaking, college education should act as building blocks that will aidstudents in accomplishing their aspirations. Hence, nobody wants to study acourse that might seem to have a lesser employability in the future for it willanticipate wasted efforts, opportunities, money, and time (Alba, K. et al.
,2010). Pascual (2014) also supports this and stated that studentsconsider economic factors such as the availability of jobs in the future inchoosing what college course to take. According to her, the employability andthe possibility of the students being employed in a job in the future areimportant factors considered by students in decision-making. Furthermore,Fernando et al (2015) stated in their study that job opportunities and economicdemands greatly affect the students’ college course preference and since thereare a lot of courses offered today, students should be aware and know what theeconomy needs.
By considering this factor, students will have a higher chanceof getting and succeeding in a job since they chose a course that is demandedin society. However, Pascual (2014) stated in contrast to this and mentionedthat there is a risk to this factor since students tend to disregard theirskills and intellectual capabilities which might lead them to becomeunqualified and incompetent for the job they wish to pursue. Moreover, Pascual (2014) also stated in her study thatstudents tend to choose courses that are well-known and popular. Courses suchas Engineering-, Medical-, Banking- and Finance-related courses, and many moreare usually courses that people are into these days (Academic Clinic, 2009). Thesetypes of courses are well-known and highly popular among Filipino familieswhile the least preferred course by students are courses related to Agriculturedespite it being highly promoted by the government (Pascual, 2014). Throughthis, it can be concluded that some students only choose courses that theythink is a good course because a lot are into it rather that consideringcourses that could provide them with economically feasible jobs in the future.
In other cases,the economic or financial status of a family dictates the course that a studentmust choose. Amidst their promptness and determination in pursuing the careerchoice, their financial stability confines their choices which will eventuallyresult in choosing a more practical college course (Alba, K. et al., 2010). Enrollingand attending a college can cost families a lot of money and it is importantthat an individual is aware of the all the costs related to the college andcourse (College Atlas, 2017).
The cost of college courses vary and this factorhas been given importance of some students coming from unfortunate families,where they disregard their interests and aptitudes towards the subjects andhighly prioritize the educational expenses (Alba, K. et al., 2010). Thus,students end up with a practical and cheaper college course that they don’texcel in, which is a serious educational concern that needs to be addressednowadays.
Furthermore, a study by Patel, R. and Rudd, T. (2012) showedthat the possibility of low-income students losing persistence in completing acourse or degree is high usually because of financial-related problems andissues. Being financially unstable and unprepared for college serves as abarrier to these students to develop and this hinders them from achievingacademic success.In line with the financial issue, there are somemeasures that will aid students in choosing their college course without thehesitation regarding their financial stability. Providing performance-basedscholarships is one of the most auspicious ways to overcome this problemregarding financial issues (Patel and Rudd, 2012).
These programs andscholarships are made to aid students financially and encourage them to succeedacademically. Moreover, Yargo, J. (2010) agrees to this and reported thatscholarships and grants are the most effective way in addressingeducational-financial issues of unfortunate families. Though they may have someprerequisites before attaining a scholarship or a grant, this will motivatestudents to thrive harder in pursuing their career tracks. Another good way ofensuring a student’s education is though applying for student or educationalloans. In the Philippines, there are currently a lot of lending firms offeringthis as a financial solution to help students secure their education such as Development Bank of the Philippines with itsHigher Education Loan Program for Students or HELPS, Study Now Pay LaterPrograms by various private universities and colleges, Philippine SocialSecurity System, and other private lending companies (Loansolution.ph, 2016).