Chapter 34 Africa, the Middle East, and Asia in the Era of Independence I. Introduction A. Real struggle of revolutions is after liberation has been won a. How to build prosperous societies/strong gov’ts b. When you have decades/centuries of colonial rule B. Realities of fragile state structure/underdeveloped economies a. Ethnic/religious divisions become more pronounced C. Departing colonizers left economies in shambles a. To get independence, concessions made to Europeans i. They still benefit economically b. Shortage of expertise/resources c. Rapidly growing populations D.
Reactions destroy environment – anything to survive a. Can’t afford anti-pollution devices b. Alarming air, water, soil pollution II. The Challenges of Independence A. Introduction a. Nationalist movements usually had mass interest i. Promised jobs, civil rights, equality ii. Once Europeans gone, enough to go around – utopia b. Unfortunately, not enough to go around i. Lack of resources, plus unequal distribution c. After failure of utopia i. Bitter rivalries pop up again ii. Ethnic groups thrown together by European random boundaries 1.
Sometimes nations split – Pakistan > Bangladesh 2. Causes famine and starvation 3. Caused wars that stripped resources 4. All gov’t can do is keep nation from falling apart a. Can’t focus on other problems B. The Population Bomb a. Increasing population boom made industrialization difficult/impossible b. Factors that lead to population increase i. Colonial introduction 1. New crops 2. Order – not so many deaths from intertribal conflict 3. Transportation cut down on regional famines ii.
Improved hygiene/medical treatment iii. Asia population gradually slowed, Africa’s still flying 1. Asia added to already big population 2. Africa had low population density – large land area a. At this rate, Niger could pass China b. But… i. AIDS epidemic could slow down ii. Entire continent’s economic output equals Illinois iv. How European control hurt 1. Limiting industrialization made it impossible to deal with growth a. No factories for labor b.
Couldn’t sell goods to draw food from other nations v. Resistance to birth control 1. Procreation = male virility 2. Male children increases social standing of woman 3. Religious beliefs a. Hindu – soul can’t move on until eldest son performs ceremony 4. Core social group in Africa a. Lineage based 5. Difference in need for women a. Asia has dowry/occupational restrictions – not as needed b. Africa women key to agriculture and market 6. Gov’t hesitant to implement birth control reform – we can handle it 7.
Education expensive and difficult – limited literacy vi. Infant mortality rates 1. 75% mortality rates instilled need to have a ton of kids a. Children become workforce b. Children can take care of parents – nations lack welfare 2. Since infant mortality rates have changed, #s go up C. Parasitic Cities and Endangered Ecosystems a. Emerging nations outstripped available land > massive urbanization i. Massive immigration for jobs that don’t exist ii. Heavy competition for jobs = salaries remain painfully low iii.
To survive – people turn to 1. Street vending, scavenging, crime, begging iv. Urban poor become easy to mobilize 1. Quite willing to support/jeer flavor of the month 2. Poor, working-class, idle youths easy to manipulate a. Or enlist in clashes between ethnic/religious groups 3. Gov’t has to keep this group happy, so they subsidize a. Keeps prices low v. Urban planning can’t keep pace 1. Squatters create shantytowns 2. Instead of destroying slums, gov’t tries to bring electricity/sanitation vi.
Overstretched countryside can’t keep up w/ demand 1. Industrialized world gives factory jobs and imports food b. Negative environmental effects i. Soil depletion ii. Deforestation 1. Fuel or grazing land for livestock iii. Industrial pollution 1. Industrial centers small, but pollution huge 2. Can’t afford antipollution technology D. Women’s Subordination and The Nature of Feminist Struggles in the Postcolonial Era a. Women gain political equality in developing world i. Played active roles in nationalist struggles 1.
Led to ability to run for office ii. Were the women powerful in their own right? 1. Connected to other powerful males a. India Gandhi – India – daughter of Nehru b. Corazon Aquino – Philippines i. Husband martyred leader of opposition to Marcos c. Benazir Bhutto – Pakistan i. daughter of Pakistani prime minister – assassinated 2. Reality, women have no political participation or on the outside b. Second-class societal position i. More fundamental difficulties in developing nations 1.
Early marriage ages 2. Large family size a. Higher education not an option 3. Constantly worry about health/food for children a. Male-dominates systems mean women/girls eat last i. Leftovers nutritionally lower/potentially disease E. Neocolonialism, Cold War Rivalries, and Stunted Development a. Economy in disarray i. Diverse economy didn’t exist ii. No money to buy machines/hire train people 1. Money spent on government bureaucracy 2.
So…must sell cash crops/minerals to pay for industrialization b. Export market focuses on primary products i. Natural resources ii. Value less than that of manufactured goods iii. Value based on world market trends – can’t control 1. Can’t plan future because revenue might change c. Neocolonial economy – global economy dominated by industrialized nations i. Not solely to blame – bureaucrats corrupt, pocket tons of money 1. $ spent to buy luxury goods for bureaucrats/relatives 2. Refusal to implement land reform i. Forced to ask for money from World Bank/International Monetary Fund 1. Get money…but have to give up a lot a. Military bases b. Enter into military alliances c. Favor foreign investors d. Reduce state subsidies (gov’t pays farmers, so price cheaper) i. Prices go up…other markets can compete…but ii. Locals can’t afford prices 1. Leads to social unrest, riots 2. Collapse of economies III.
Paths to Economic Growth and Social Justice A. Introduction a. Some ways to improve living standards i. But still…benefits don’t reach everyone ii. But…no solution has actually reached pre decolonialism goals B. Charismatic Populists and One-Party Rule a. Authoritarian rule proved unsuccessful i. Ghana’s Kwame Nkrumah 1. Committed to social reform early on 2. Tried to initiate education/industrialization reforms 3. But…rival political parties/ethnic groups fought him 4. Policies looked leftist a. US didn’t support him, Soviets do 5.
Then…problem with natural resources kick in a. Bad cocoa crop kills farmers 6. So…Kwame has to turn dictatorial a. Crushes opposition b. Starts looking a bit Fascist i. Creates symbols/traditions/mass rallies ii. Dedicates statues to himself c. Surrounds himself with people who think he’s a god 7. Starts looking to the traditional past a. Wears traditional clothing of Ghanian elite b. Even name Ghana not from actual kingdom from their past 8.
But…he’s a jerk…once he takes a trip, he’s overthrown in a coup a. Replaced by military coup C. Military Responses: Dictatorships and Revolutions a. Military regimes have best chance to be successful i. Resilient to ethnic/religious differences 1. Focus on discipline 2. Monopoly on force ii. Not hesitant to use brute force iii. Technical training iv. Anti-communist – get technical/military assistance from West b. Methods of military regimes i. Banned political parties ii. Varying degrees of repression 1. Worst – Idi Amin – Uganda, Myanmar, Congo a. Enrich military leaders, kill/torture everyone else . No attempt to reform c. Majority of money goes to military to protect selves d. Western and Soviets supply these gov’ts 2. Radical reform a. Gamal Abdul Nasser – Egypt i. Replaces corrupt/inefficient democratic gov’t ii. Free Officers Movement trains for overthrow 1. Founded by Hasan Al-Banna 2. Hated minority wealthy Egyptians iii. Muslim Brotherhood – 1928 1. Starts pushing for social reform a. Trade unions/education/land reform iv. Able to take over power in 1952 1. Egypt totally embarrassed Arab-Isreali War v. Rule selves for first time since 500s vi. Nasser rises as ruler of new military regime 1.
Land reform – limits placed on ownership 2. State-financed education 3. Gov’t employs 30% of all jobs 4. State subsidies for crops 5. Restrictions on foreign investment 6. Foreign policy – destroy Israel a. Kick out British/French from Suez b. Backing of both US/USSR vii. Failed programs 1. Land reform – easy to get around/corruption 2. Population boom cancelled out gains 3. Public projects a. Failed due to lack of money/managmn b. Aswan Dam project 1. killed farmlands – silt erosion 2. more parasites cause blindness 4. $ from West dried up 5. Failed foreign policy – loses to Israel in 1967 b. Anwar Sadat – successor i.
Dismantled state-sponsored programs ii. Privately funded programs iii. Stopped fighting Israel – waste of money iv. Expelled Russians 1. Reopened investment from West c. Hosni Mubarak d. Neither path has actually improved living conditions i. Egypt’s rich minority, poor majority ii. Fundamentalist take over 1. Sadat murdered, terrorist campaigns continue C. The Indian Alternative: Development for Some of the People 1. How has Indian experience differed from Egypt’s? a. Preserved civilian rule a. Military actually protects secular democracy i. Prevents nation from going religiously extreme b. Has larger industrial/scientific sector . Better communication system/bureaucratic grid d. Early leaders dedicated to democratic rule a. Preservation of civil rights/democracy b. Allows outspoken press/free elections e. Extremist parties might control local parties a. Federal gov’t mostly moderate f. Mixture of state and private interest a. State funds some organizations/allows foreign investment b. Leads to advanced computer/Internet sector g. Green Revolution a. Improved farming – seeds, fertilizers, irrigation b. Higher crop yields = more money for capitalism 2. But…still huge gap between needs and resources for all population a.
Can’t raise living standards for even majority b. Middle class grown, film industry grown c. Population growth just too fast d. Landlords still dominate tenants/landless a. Green Revolution favors those w/ money for seeds/fertilizer/equip D. Iran: Religious Revivalism and the Rejection of the West a. Ayahtolla Ruhollah Khomeini – ultimate conservative, religious backlash i. Religious purification ii. Return to “golden age” of Muhammad iii. Reaction to Western-backed governments iv. Promised magical protection/instant paradise to those who die for cause v.
Wanted to spread revolutions to surrounding areas vi. Similar to Mahdi – Sudanese revolution of 1880s b. Why was Iranian revolution successful? i. Not formal European colony – merely sphere of influence ii. No Western-educated middle class iii. Instead, shahs modernized using oil wealth 1. Government sponsored programs advance country 2. But…mass of Iranian people alienated a. Ayatollahs – religious experts angered – angered at secular b. Mullahs – local prayer leaders 3. Allowing foreign investors . Half-hearted land reform iv. Shah neglected military v. With crowd demonstrations – he just gave up and left – cancer c. Khomeini’s reforms i. Fought communism ii. Replaced moderates w/ radical religious leaders iii. Purged satanic influences of the West iv. Islamic law codes became superior 1. Amputation of limbs for theft/stoning for women adultery 2. Veiling for women 3. Limited opportunities for women v. Planned land reform, religious education, economies develop vi. But then…Saddam Hussein pushes for oil land from Iran 1.
Leads to Iran-Iraq War a. US supports Iraq vii. No way of knowing if this religious revolution could have been successful E. South Africa: The Apartheid State and Its Demise a. 1970s South Africa – largest, most populous nation still colonially dominated i. Afrikaner Dutch Nationalist party takes over independence from Britain ii. Nationals passed thousands of laws – system of apartheid 1. Monopoly political/economic 2. System of extreme segregation a. Dating not allowed across races b. Non whites must carry passes . Skilled jobs only for whites iii. Creation of homelands 1. relocated Africans to poorest land – live together 2. Overpopulated/poverty-stricken 3. Work in cites, return to homelands iv. Built police state to maintain segregation 1. Natural resources funded this oppression v. Outlawed nonviolent resistance 1. African National Congress outlawed 2. Nelson Mandela leader jailed for decades vi. Played groups against each other so they wouldn’t unite vii. Moving toward a violent climax viii. Why did South Africa change? 1.
International boycott weakened economy 2. Expensive to fund wars with neighbors and keep down insurrections 3. Moderate Afrikaner leader – F. W. de Klerk 4. Release political prisoners F. Comparisons of Emerging Nations a. Similarities to Latin America i. Population pressure ii. Environmental change iii. Considerable economic dependence b. Differences i. India’s democracy differs w/ Middle East and most of Africa a. Enlightened leadership + British relationship b. Always had a tradition of decentralization c. Persistence of Hinduism d.
Caste system still leads to social inequality e. Maintained elements of the past ii. Massive change in the Middle East a. Most nations new – Ottoman Empire cast big shadow b. Tensions between secular/religious leaders i. Iranian revolution embodies this tension ii. What should be role of women? iii. Africa a. Came late to independence b. Subject to western dominance deep into 20th century i. Poorer than most of Asia c. Massive cultural change i. Only 20% polytheists – changing to Christianity/Islam d. Nationalism, consumer culture, Marxism e. Still blended this new w/ old tradition of “Big Man”
IV. Global Connections A. Be fair to new nations a. Only in existence for few decades b. Came in with many handicaps c. Even US took decades to compete – US had civil wars, boundary disputes d. Europe/US also struggled through industrialization i. Horrific working/living conditions + ecological damage B. But…they have more handicaps a. Massive population explosion b. More worldly competition for resources c. World Market system favors established industrial nations C. Struggle for next generation – find regionally specific solutions a. Probably be combination of Western influence + tradition