Chapter 8: Bones Part 2: The Appendicular Skeleton

attaches the upper limbs to the trunk
pectoral girdle
attaches the lower limbs to the trunk
pelvic girdle
Name two characteristics of upper and lower limbs in relation to one another.
1. Differ in function2. Similar structural plan
What is unique about the pectoral girdle that is different than the pelvic girdle
The pectoral girdle is not like a true girdle that completely surrounds/encircles the body like the pelvic girdle is. This is because it provides more flexibility
extremities more suited for stability
extremeties more suited for flexibility
What two bones makes up the pectoral girdle?
Clavicle and Scapula
Where does the pectoral girdle attach on the clavicle?
medially articulate with the sternum (manubrium) and first rib and laterally joins with the scapulae
What should we know about the scapulae?
They do not join each other or axial skeleton, (only the clavicle articulates with the axial skeleton)
Name two characterisitcs of the pectoral girdle
1. attachment for muscles for upper lim movement2.

It is very light and mobile with a glenoid cavity that is shallow and flat which allows good flexibility, poor stability

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What does the acromial calvicular joint articulate with on the pectoral girdle?
Small bone commonly doing a lot therefore it is commonly fractured out or anteriorly
Projection on the inferior side of the clavicle
conoid tubercle
What shape does the clavicle take on?
Name the four main muscle that attach to the clavicle
1. Pectoralis Major (chest muscle)2. Trapezius (Back muscle)3. Sternocleidomastoid (Neck muscle)4. Deltoid (shoulder muscle)
What two things does the clavicle hold laterally?
scapulae and arms
What direction does the clavicle transmit compression forces?
from upper limbs to the axial skeleton
What is a common way to fracture you clavicle?
Fall with outstretched hands trying to catch yourself and the force comes up through the upper extremity which is not supposed to happen
Where is the scapulae located and between what ribs?
on dorsal suface of rib cage between ribs 2-7
What are the three borders and three angles of the scapulae?
Borders: superior, medial(vetebral) and lateral(axillary)Angles: Lateral, Superior, inferior
The most anterior part of the scapula
coracoid process
What do you find in the supraspinous fossa?
What do you find in the infraspinous fossa?
attachment on the scapula for the biceps
supraglenoid tubercle
attachment on the scapula below the glenoid cavity for the triceps
infraglenoid tubercle
How many bones form each upper limb?
What are the group of bones of the arm?
shoulder to the elbow
What are the group of bones of the forearm?
elbow to the wrist
What are the group of bones of the hand?
distal to forearm including wrist, hand and fingers
The only bone of the arm
What is very important about the humerus?
It is the longest and strongest bone of the upper limb
What does the humerus articulate with proximally and distally?
Proximally: with the glenoid cavity (head) and scapula Distally: Radius and ulna
projections on the humerus that are places of attachment for several shoulder muscles
great ad lesser tubercle
depression or groove on the humerus
sulcus within the tubercles on the humerus
intertubercular sulcus
two common places for fractura on the humerus
anatomical and surgical neck
deltoid muscle attachment on the humerus
deltoid tuberosity
groove on the humerus for the radial nerve that supplies the posterior upper extremity
radial groove
smooth rounded projections helping to form joint on the humerus
one segment that is the condly that is articulating with the radius (lateral condyle)
on the humerus this articulates with the ulna (medial condyle)
projections on the humerus above the condyles
where radius fits on the humerus during flexion
radial fossa
during extension, where the olecranon process fits on the humerus
olecranon fossa
true neck
anatomical neck
There are three of these on the humerus and they are used for the ulna to go into during full extension
What two bones form the forearm
Radius ulna
What are the proximal and distal articulations of the forearm?
Proximal: ends articulate with the humerusDistal: articulate wth carpals (wrist)
How many time do the ulna and radius articulate with one another and where?
Proximally and Distally 2 times
ligaments that run the entire length of the forearm that interconnect the forearm
interosseous membrane
What is the anatomical position of the radius relative to the ulna
radius is lateral to the ulna
Where is the radial notch found?
As the elbow goes into flexion, the coranoid process will going into the what to help stabilize the joint?
coranoid fossa
Where does the head of the radius go?
into the radial fossa
The boney part of the elbow that we see in extension
olecranon process
What is the significance of the radial notch
to articulate the radius and ulna together
projections where the biceps attach distally
radial tuberosity
Main bone responsible for forming the elbow joint with the humerus
The distal end of the unla is separated from the carpals by what?
what allows the forearm to flex/extend on arm
hinge joint
the structure of which bone dictates the movemnet we achieve at the elbow (flexion and extension) why?
Ulna because the ulna is bigger on the proximal end located near the elbow joint and the radius is bigger on the distal end forming the wrist joint
On the proximal end of the ulna this fits around the trochlea which is the medial condyle of the humerus
trochlear notch
What are the articulations of the radius proximally and medially
proxially: capitulumMedially: radial notch of the ulna
this bone contributes heavily to the wrist joint and why?
The radius because the distal radius articulates with the carpal bones and when the radius moves, the hand moves
what forms the wrist joint?
ulnar notch of radius
What three bones are found in the hand?
Carpul (wrist)Metacarpals (palm) Phalanges (fingers)
How many bones are found in the carpus and what does it form?
8 marble-sized bones that forms the true wrist (proximal region of the hand)
What shape are the carpus bones and what movements do they have between them?
Short bones that are roughly cuboidal that have gliding movements
What are the four bones in the proximal row of the carpus from lateral to medial?
Scaphoid, lunate, triquetral and pisiform
What are the four bones in the distal row of the carpus from lateral to medial?
Trapezium, trapezoid, capitate and hamate
How many metacarpals do we hand?
How are the metacarpals numbered?
from 1-5 starting with the pollex (thumb)
What do the metacarpals articulate with?
Proximally: the distal row of carpalDistally: the proximal phalanges
How are the phalanges numbered?
from 1-5 starting with the pollex (thumb)
How many phalanges does each finger have? How many does the thumb have?
three: proximal, middle and distal phalangetwo: proximal and distal phalange
What does the pelvic girdle attach to?
Lower limbs and spine
What does the pelvic girdle support?
The visceral organs
What helps attach the pelvic girdle to the axial skeleton?
strong ligaments
What is the name for the socket at the hip joint?
What are the characteristics of the acetabulum?
deep socket allowing more stability and less flexibilitymore stable than arm and less freedom of movement than upper limb
what does the acetabulum articulate with?
Head of the femur
What are the three factrs that lead to stability at a joint?

muscles2. ligaments3. the way the bones shape is or how the two bones that meet fit together

The pelvic girdle consists of what paired bones?
Coxal (hip) bones
How do the coxal bones come together? and by what structure?
unite anteriorly by the pubic symphysis which is a specific type of joint
How does the pelvic girdle articulate and what does it articulate with?
posteriorly to the base of the sacrum
a deep, basin-like structure that is formed by the coxal bones, sacrum and coccyx
bony pelvis
What three separate bones form the coxal bone?
illium, ishium and pubis
This bone is a large and flaring that forms the superior region of the coxal bone
Articulation of the ilium with the sacrum forms which joint?
sacroiliac joint
What three bones contribute to the acetabulum?
ilium, ishium and pubis
This coxal bone is the place for most muscle attachment
This bones forms the posterioinferior region of the coxal bone
These are the strongest part of the hip bone (bones we sit on that are palpated through the gluts)
ischial tuberosities
This boens form the anterior region of the coxal bones
The two pubic bones are joined by this fibrocartilage at the midline
pubic symphysis
The pelvic is rotated somewhat is which direction?
How are the pubi bones positioned anatomically?
Where is the pubic tubercle?
Anterior, inferior side of the coxal bone
What does a muscle do to a bone during contraction?
Exerts a force
What are the two regions of the bony pelvis?
true(lesser) and false(greater)
This region of the pelvis is bounded by alae of the iliac bone and is bigger
False (greater)
This region of the pelvis is inferior to the pelvic brim, forms a bowl containing the pelvic organs and is smaller
True (Lesser)
What are the two main differences between a male and female pelvis?
1. Pelvis is lighter, wider (acetabulum farther apart) and shallower2. Provides more room in the true pelvis for childbirth
What is the coccyx like in a female pelvis?
More moveable for childbirth
What are the three segmnts of the lower limb?
Thigh, leg and foot
What does the thigh segment consist of?
hip to the knee
What does the leg segment consist of?
knee to the ankle
What does the foot segment consist of?
ankle, foot and toes
The single bone of the thigh
the longest and strongest bone of the body
How does the femur articulate with the acetabulum?
the ball-shaped head fits into the deep socket
Describe the saying “broke a hip” relating to osteoporosis
breaking the proximal end of the femur
Three projections on the femur for muscles to attach
trochanter, tuberosity and aspera
smooth rounded projections that articulate specifically with the tibia
medial and later condyle
projections that the abductor muscles of the thigh attach to
abductor tubercle
This bone is a triangular sesamoid bone imbedde in tendon of the quadriceps muscles
bone that is imbedded within a tendon
sesamoid bone
structure that connects muscle to bone
this bone has a mechanical mechanism that improves leverage of the thigh muscles across the knee
What two bones compose the leg
tibia and fibula
This bone of the leg is more massive, positioned medially and recieves the weight of the body from the femur
This bone of the leg is less massive, positional lateral and has little if any weight transmitted through it
This connects the tibia and fibula
interosseous membrane
What three bones form the knee joint?
Patella, femur and tibia
This bone articulate with the femur at the proximl end forming the knee joint
This bone articulate with the talus at the distal end forming the ankle joint
This bone does not contribute to the knee joint but stabilizes it
Lateral ankle bone on the distal end of the fibula
lateral malleolus
medial ankle bone
medial malleolus
Where is the tibular-fibular joint found?
Both proximally and distally
What three bones compose the foot?
tarsus, metatarsus and phalanges
What are three important functions of the foot
1. supports body weight2. acts as a lever to propel body forward when walking3.

segmentation makes foot pliable and adapted to uneven ground

How many bones are in the tarsus?
What half of the foot does the tarsus make up?
the posterior half
Which part of the foot is in contact with the ground and through which weight is transmitted through
How many bones are in the metatarsus?
5 small, long bones
How are the bones of the metatarsus numbered?
1-5 beginning with the hallux
What is significant about the big toe (hallux)
Support the body weight
How many bones are in the phalanges of the toes?
Why are the phalanges of the toes much smaller and less numbler than those of the fingers?
We are adapted to doing so many things with our hands therefore our toes are smaller. However, if we were to practice writing with our toes or doing things like we do with our hands we would be able to eventually accomplish almost all of the same things with both fingers and toes.
How manay phalanges do the toes have? what about the big toe?
three: proximal, middle and distaltwo: proximal and distal
This bone of the foot is the talar shelf
sustentaculum tali
These projections on the foot are made for attachments
calcaneal tuberosity
What are the three important arches of the foot?
Medial longitudinal arch, lateral longitudinal arch and transverse arch
Name two things that arches are maintained by
1. interlocking shapes of tarsals2. ligaments and tendons
What are three disorders of the appendicular skeleton?
Bone fractures, hips dysplasia and club foot
This disorder is when the head of the femur slips out of the acetabulum
hip dysplasia
This disorder is when the soles of the feet turn medially
Name two things that other cultures have been known to do
Foot binding and head binding
Name two characterisitcs of the growth of the appendicular skeleton
Increase heightchanges body proportions
Name two changes that happen in the adult skeleton as we age
skeleton loses mass osteoporosis and limb fractures become more common
What effects can hormonal changes have to bones?
Leads to changes in bone density

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