Chapter Biology Test Essay

What is an omnivore? Eats both plants and animals 2. What are the four phases of food processing? Ingestion, digestion, absorption, elimination 3. What is digestion? Breakdown of food into small particles of 2 kinds Chemical and mechanical 4. What are the digestive accessory glands (4)? Salivary, pancreas, liver, gall bladder. Assist with chemical digestion 5. Digestion of what macromolecules occurs in the mouth? Crabs and lipids 6. What is the role of a sphincter? Regulates flow of digested materials 7. What is the role of the stomach in digestion? Accomplishes chemical and mechanical digestion. Designed for protein digestion .

Where are most nutrients absorbed into the body? Small intestine 9. What is bile? Helps to digest fats, made in liver and stored in gal bladder 10. The small intestine digests which macromolecules? All molecules 11. What is the role of the gallbladder? Stores bile 12. The liquid food that leaves the stomach is called what? Chem. 13. What type of chemical digestion occurs in the stomach? HCI, pepsin for protein 14. What are vile and microvolt? Projections of tissues into the intestines. They increase surface area for digestion 15. What is the first organ that blood encounters after leaving the small intestine?

Liver for decor and processing 16. What is the role of the large intestine? Water and mineral absorption 17. How many amino acids are considered essential? What is essential? 9, body cannot make it, must be consumed. 18. What is the general role of B vitamins? Energy metabolism 19. Why is the IBM not a good measure for obesity? Doses not take into account of body composition 20. What dietary factors raise OLD cholesterol? Fatty meats (saturated fats) 21. What are the 3 types of blood vessels and what do they do? Arteries, capillaries, and veins 22. What is a closed circulatory system? . What are single and double circulation? 24. What are diastole and systole? Systole- ventricular contraction Diastole- Trial contraction 25. What is the purpose of valves in the heart? Prevents backfill 26. What are the chambers of the heart called? Functions? Atria- pump blood to ventricle. Ventricle- pump blood out of heart. 27. What establishes baseline heart rate? AS node (pacemaker) 28. What allows heart contractions to be coordinated? Gap junctions 29. What happens to blowfly during a hear attack and stroke? HA=blood to heart is blocked Stroke= blood to brain is blocked 30.

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What is the role of smooth muscle in blood vessels? Regulates flow via vasoconstriction or vacillation 31. What determines cardiac output? Heart rate x stroke volume 32. What are erythrocytes and what is their function? Red blood cells carry oxygen and co 33. What is lymph and how does it circulate? Via muscle contraction and movement and breathing. Is blood plasma that carries nutrients and waste. 34. What pressure drives nutrient/waste exchange between blood and lymph? Blood pressure and nonionic pressure 35. What happens during a rupture of the blood vessel wall? Clotting 36. What is innate immunity?

Acquired immunity? Innate- inborn-ћ board acting ex. Skin, stomach acid Acquired- learned in life, highly specific B and T cell mediated 37. How does the inflammatory response work? Mosquito bites- swelling, redness, heat, and pain. Caused by toxic chemicals trot white b CE s 38. What does a B cell do? Make antibodies, target extracurricular pathogens 39. What does a T cell do? Make isotonic chemicals, target sick host cells (viruses and cancer) T helper cells coordinated the immune system 40. What is an antigen? Stimulates an immune response 41. What is clonally expansion/selection?

Creation of identical cells that react to the same antigen. Creates a white blood cell army. 42. What is an autoimmune disorder? Immune system attacks the host 43. What is a hormone? Intracellular signaling molecule that travels through the blood 44. What are the two main classes of hormone and how do they work? Steroids- gene expression Proteins- Modify enzymes 45. Which two brain regions control most bodily hormone production? Hypothalamus and pituitary 46. What does thyroid hormone do? FISH, LA, Cortical? Basal metabolism, gamete production, sex hormone production, long term stress response


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