A cultural text can be anything from movie to music. or art to books. such things merely become a text after they have been decoded through critical reading. Each single interprets text otherwise and it is through such things that we can see civilization. What precisely is civilization though? The word civilization comes from the Latin to intend ‘tend and turn on land. ’ Over the old ages it has come to intend other things. we can see this by looking at the lexicon which shows us there are eight different significances to the word civilization and it is the more traditional significance which is put near the terminal of this list. doing manner for new and more of import significances. It is the first four significances which are of most importance to us ; “1. the thoughts. imposts and art produced or shared by a peculiar society. 2. a peculiar civilisation at a peculiar period. 3. activity or involvement in the humanistic disciplines in general. 4. cognition of polish ensuing from an involvement in the humanistic disciplines. ” The text I have chosen to analyze. expressions at a group of people and how their lives were affected by the industrial revolution. an highly influential motion in history.
Raymond Williams. an early innovator in the field of cultural surveies shows us how industry among other things has produced a underdeveloped civilization. In his book ‘Culture and Society. ’ he highlights five cardinal words. industry. democracy. art. category and civilization. He states that “the alterations in their usage. at this critical period bear informant to a general alteration in our characteristic ways of believing about our common life. ” and therefore these alterations bring about a new significance in the word civilization every bit good as bring forthing new civilizations themselves. He says that two general responses emerge from civilization. “first. the acknowledgment of the practical separation of certain moral and rational activities from the goaded drift of a new sort of society ; 2nd. the accent of these activities as a tribunal of human entreaty. to be set over the procedure of practical societal judgement and yet to offer itself as a mitigating and beat uping options. ” Therefore we can see that civilization is non merely a response to the altering significance of the other cardinal words but instead. civilization goes manus in manus with the development of the other words.
The movie I have chosen to look at. The Full Monty shows the types of civilization a group of people experience. The movie looks at the lives of the on the job category community in the North of England during the twentieth century. The movie looks chiefly at the lives of a group of work forces fighting to happen occupations after the closing of the steel mill they used to work at. At the start of the movie we are reminded that Sheffield was a boomtown during the industrial revolution ; a ‘Steel City. ’ 25 old ages subsequently and the movie looks at how this has changed. The essay shall look at how the movie is a representational movie. which besides contains an ideological map.
There are three theoretical accounts to representation ; transparence. correspondence and mediation. Representation most normally means. “a typical example” or “serving to stand for ; symbolic. ” We can see nevertheless. that it is non ever that simple. Transparency ; a transparent relationship between words and things. For illustration. if person says ‘here is a cat’ and points to a cat. that is a crystalline representation. it is clear and obvious what that individual meant. Not all text nevertheless is like this or here would be no misinterpretations or any demand for critical analysis. A letter writer representation would be when something would hold a specific significance to one civilization but non to another. Mediation is the representational force behind the media. There is ever person taking what to set in or go forth out and hence non ever stand foring the truth but instead some 1s sentiment. It is this last two theoretical accounts which is of most importance to us when analyzing his movie.
The Full Monty represents the working category within the North of England. A figure of subjects run throughout this movie. such as maleness. self-respect. money. industry and gender. the movie represents the importance of these things to the peculiar civilization represented in this movie. One subject. which is clear right signifier the start to the terminal of the movie. is gender and maleness. Gaz ; the chief character is particularly proud to be male and he believes strongly in the trueness between friends. Near the start of the movie Gaz and his friend Dave walk past a group of adult females line uping to see the Chippendales ; a group of male strippers. he uses the most violative words he can believe to the maltreatment the strippers with by naming them ‘puffs’ and dissing the size of their phalluss. Throughout the movie we see grounds of male adhering through discoursing jobs ‘downstairs’ to playing football. something they use at one point to larn a dance move. We besides see Gaz holding jobs with stating his boy he loves him and looks around before making so as if the be embarrassed about demoing his emotions. Each one of the work forces we see have their ain jobs. foremost Gaz. whose thought it was to deprive so that he can acquire adequate money to pay care rears and maintain seeing his boy.
Dave has issues with being fat and believes his married woman is holding an matter. we are besides lead to believe that he possibly impotent. precisely the antonym of the job Gerald has. Gerald is a in-between category adult male and his chief concern with denudation is fring his self-respect. he is besides far more disquieted that the others about happening a occupation because of his age and because he has non yet told his married woman of his occupation loss. The ginger one ( we don’t larn the name of ) is evidently down when we foremost meet him because we find him seeking to perpetrate self-destruction. he has no friends and his lone intent seems to be looking after his aged female parent who subsequently dies. ‘Horse’ has issues with his little phallus and the other adult male ( we don’t larn the name of ) doesn’t seem to hold any jobs but represents homophiles. We see so that each of them with their single jobs together represent different types of males ; divorced. fat. black. homosexual. different categories. they are all representational for the work forces in Britain. chiefly the working category ( this is show through speech patterns and linguistic communication which is discussed later. )
The movie besides represents the industrial revolution. how it produced the on the job category and the middle class. A authoritative illustration of this in the movie is when we see a shooting of Gaz’s adjustment ; a immense chap of flats. each one of the single flats being really little. In comparing we see that Gerald. one time Gaz’s foreman has a detached house with a little garden and auto park in the thrust. really similar to the house Gaz’s ex – married woman lives in with her in-between – category spouse. We besides see that Gerald has dwarfs. Gaz and Dave make merriment of this and it seems that the dwarfs represent something merely in-between category people would hold. some may spot these as tacky. it is about as idea they are doing a statement that they are non working category by purchasing things they don’t need. yet. they haven’t rather got it right. We besides see this later in the movie when we enter the house ( this shall be discussed in more item later. ) It can be seen how much industry has taken over the town when the work forces sit on the hillside looking at the position of old brick edifices and chimneys. However. we learn that industry has non wholly died off since Gaz’s ex – married woman is working in a vesture mill. it is clear though. that such occupations need no accomplishment as workers merely receive ?2. 50 per hr.
A twosome of ideal representational scenes come reasonably early on in the movie when the work forces are in their old mill and Gerald is seeking to learn the others how to dance. First this scene reminds us of the industrial subject that runs through out the movie because it is their old mill they pattern in. this puting reminds us of why they are making this. Dance is a signifier of art by and large associated with the higher categories. Gerald takes up dancing because his married woman wanted to. she seems to be a adult female who wants to break herself by seeking to feign she is more than working category changed in-between category by fall ining activities which one would usually tie in with higher categories i. e. dance. skiing and go toing wellness watering place. The other work forces are clearly far more interested in football and it is merely when Horse explains that the dance move is like a football move ; the Arsenal off side trap. do they understand. Here we see the difference in categories by their involvements. it besides seems like they are seeking their best to maintain their maleness. it does non look right that they should be dancing but if it is like football. it is non so bad. Another ground for them accepting that it is alright. is the thrust for ?1. 000. As Gaz said ( in another scene. ) “folk don’t laugh so loud we you got ta expansive in your dorsum pocket. ”
The scene. which follows. besides reminds us of the difference between center and lower category. they all go unit of ammunition to Gerald’s house. It is a reasonably big. detached house. excessively decorated with flowered wallpaper and pink drapes. another illustration of his married woman endeavoring to be of a higher category by seeking excessively hard. One of them remarks ; “it’s a spot classy in’t it” and Gerald reminds them that “this is a good country. ” We see clearly here how the work forces are representational of people from the North of England by the linguistic communication they us. illustrations in this scene are ; “if Ti can’t getta kit off in forepart of ourselves. what opportunity ‘ave we got in forepart of all ’em young girls? ” . “and the kegs” . “hows come you’re so brown any road” and “A merely owe ‘im ‘undred un 20 British pound. ” We see that through their speech patterns. the manner in which words are shortened by losing letters out and the usage a slang words such as ; kegs intending underpants or British pound significance lb ( in the money sense ) they are representational of the North of England.
These two scenes clearly have representational qualities. they include two of the representative theoretical accounts ; correspondence and mediation. It is analogous because it represents a group of unemployed males from the North of England. although they are all in the same state of affairs all of them are different so that they represent a broad figure of people. They show the behavior. the attitudes and features of this type of society. that it is non the same as other societies. The movie besides includes mediation because the authors and shapers of the movie evidently chose what to set in and what to go forth out. It is improbable all these work forces would happen themselves in a state of affairs like this and at that place seems to be a demand to hold and to emphasis the differences between the work forces for comedy value. the brand the movie varied and hence entertaining.
With the movie stand foring the working category we notice an ideological map emerges. Ideology is “the philosophies. sentiments. or manner of thought of a individual. group or state. ” The political orientation intended here is that of Marx. an of import philosopher who brought about a coherent theory of the modern ( industrial ) universe. Marx uses the word ‘ideology’ to spot the different ways of believing about the universe. he defined political orientation as ‘the governing thoughts of a opinion category. ’ Over the old ages the term has changes some what and is now conceived as procedures of cultural meaning and personal formation that can non be summed up simply as ‘ruling thoughts. ’ The Marxist theory explains how categories have been divided up and how the system determines that they stay separate because it works. Marxism says that. by big. “literature and civilization are about things which do non dispute the basic premises of the category construction of society” and if these category divisions are talked about. they are done so as to be diverting.
Marxism is the theory of how our mundane everyday lives are writhen from within with what Marx called ‘class battle. ’ The people with wealth are the 1s with the agencies for doing wealth. in a system which is improbable to fall in. The people at the underside of the concatenation demand to maintain working despite the fact that they are paid really small for manual labor because of the menace of famishment. The lone manner in which this system can fall in is if all the workers stopped working. A entire holt in every individual industry is about impossible and people who have attempted this in the yesteryear have been kept in line by the constabulary. for illustration in 1968 protestors against the system were threatened with imprisonment or even decease.
Using the constabulary or ground forces is portion of the superstructure to maintain workers in line. It is nevertheless non ideal and there another three ways of making so. The first being to direct kids to school. here they will larn manners ; to obey those in authorization and hence. hopefully they shall be kept in line subsequently in life. Here. some shall be used in labor. but others. likely those with affluent parents shall be the 1s who go on to higher instruction before fall ining in with the other center and upper category workers higher up the concatenation. A 2nd manner is through the church. here they learn to accept who they are. this is what God intended them to be. Both of these tie in with the 3rd and perchance most of import manner to maintain workers in line ; civilization. Marxism sees civilization as “capitalism’s manner of acquiring people to build domination as freedom. ” Marxism argues that people are put into their topographic point historically for illustration. if you were born working category. that is where you are likely to be stay. Basically so we see that people are trapped within the system with out even cognizing it. they are afraid to step outside of it either because of fright of famishment or fright of the constabulary.
How so do we see ideology through the Full Monty? All of the work forces are stuck within the system. most of them being manual workers they do non hold the right instruction to travel on to higher occupations and are left being working category. They are nevertheless skilled and Gaz refuses to working in a ?2. 50 per hr mill and Dave believes himself to be better of a security guards occupation at a supermarket. They try urgently to maintain their self-respect which is why it seem uneven that they should deprive for money. where is their self-respect now? As the Marxist theory dictates ; any text about the category system is more amusing that factual as we see this movie is. The work forces don non desire to be portion of this ideological system. non unless the wage is right. they believe themselves to be skilled and merit more than what they are being offered. They are non yet under the menace of famishment otherwise they would hold already been forced back into the system. making occupation that require small skill and pay small money. The movie hence suggests to me. a group. lifting up against society but non rather in the manner Marx though people would. It does nevertheless still fit in with Marxist theory because it is about the rise against the middle class but done in a amusing manner. if it was to hold been more factual Marxisum predicts it would hold come under heavy unfavorable judgment. To me. the movie has a little hidden significance about people who do non desire to be portion of the system any longer and would instead free their self-respect depriving than have it taken off by the middle class.
The Full Monty represents the working category in Britain. which started to emerge in the center of the nineteenth century when the industrial revolution came approximately. At the clip it was a antic motion. which created occupations but besides created new and separate civilizations. Peoples of the clip were possibly incognizant of the great separation this caused or possibly did non care that they were doing rich people richer because they had occupation and money even if it was non much. The movie. to me. represents the ideological map that was created. the movie uses a figure a different characters to demo how all different people were affected and forced into these category groups. However. with the realization of what the industrial has done. the movie represents the people who would instead deprive themselves bare of their self-respect than give it to system they are worth more than.
*Marx. Karl and Engels. Frederik. The German Ideology Part 1. Lawrence and Wishart. London. 1974.
*Rivkin. Julie and Ryan. Michael. Literary theory: an anthology. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 1998
*William. Raymond. Culture and society 1780 – 1950. Chatto and Windus. London. 1967.
*The Full Monty. Redway movie productions. 1997.
Written by. Beaufoy. Simon.
Produced by. Pasolini. Uberto.
Directed by. Cattaneo. Peter.