About the Citizenship Foundation The Citizenship Foundation is an independent educational charity that aims to authorise persons to prosecute in the wider community through instruction about the jurisprudence democracy and society. We focus. in peculiar. on developing immature people’s Citizenship accomplishments. cognition and apprehension.
Our work includes Citizenship resources for a broad audience from instructors to immature wrongdoers. national undertakings for primary schools. active larning enterprises for secondary schools. countrywide preparation programmes. and community-based undertakings to develop citizenship instruction as a corporate duty beyond school and college boundaries. Theme 1 – Purposes and Valuess At the Citizenship Foundation we believe that the primary stage presents an of import chance for kids to do sense of the altering society and the shriveling universe they live in.
While primary school instructors have ne’er found it hard to believe about what sort of citizens they would wish their kids to go. the chances for developing the children’s cognition have. in recent old ages. been squeezed by the demand to present the nucleus topics and the force per unit area of SATs. There are. at best. limited chances for instructors in English schools to cover societal subjects such as household or offense because. unlike the state of affairs in many Continental states. there is no tradition of a societal surveies curriculum for this age group.
B. B. 1. B. 2. The findings of the recent UNICEF study I underline the demand to go to to pupils’ societal wellbeing. For illustration the UK had the lowest proportion ( 43. 3 % ) of 11 and 13 twelvemonth olds who described their friends as sort and helpful. We consider it of critical importance to cultivate in primary aged kids a concern to move reasonably. responsibly and with compassion. B. 3. We believe that Citizenship Education is indispensable to single authorization.
Not merely should it be statutory. it should be a nucleus component of the primary course of study. incorporating taught and experiential acquisition in a consistent manner taking towards a full apprehension of what it means to be a member of the community with rights and duties. As portion of our entry to the Education and Skills Select Committee’s probe into Citizenship Educationii. we have called for the current articulation PSHE and Citizenship non-statutory model to be accorded statutory position The Primary Review entry from the Citizenship Foundation Citizenship Foundation. March 2007.
1 B. 4. ‘Every Child Matters’iii and the Education Act 2002 make it a responsibility to confer with kids. Children hence need to be consistently taught and given chances to develop the necessary accomplishments. linguistic communication and assurance to enable them to take part to the full in determination devising procedures. Citizenship Education provides an chance for broadening cultural. societal and political skylines. peculiarly in regard to developing a sense of individuality. and an grasp of the diverseness of our society.
These of import maps of a wide societal instruction should non be relegated to the borders or the ‘optional’ . as they are within the non-statutory programme of survey. With the lowering of the age of condemnable duty. it is of import that kids have the chance to set up a sense of societal and moral duty and develop a clearer apprehension of the nature of their legal and moral rights and duties. Changing social conditions and the earlier oncoming of adolescence have made it pressing for primary schools to make more by manner of expressed societal and moral instruction.
For illustration. kids are exposed to the media. and have entree to the cyberspace in a manner that was non the instance even at the clip of the debut of the National Curriculum. In 2003 the OECDiv placed the UK at the underside of a conference tabular array of immature people’s hazard behavior. which included imbibing. smoke. intimidation and sexual activity. At the Citizenship Foundation we believe that the primary course of study should be wide plenty to supply an rational foundation for pick. affording kids the ability to do responsible determinations at ulterior phases of their instruction.
Citizenship Education supports kids in their personal development. fiting them to look into the wider societal and economic universe. and to develop personal aspirations for it. In add-on it lays the foundations for their political literacy and promotes the accomplishments of community battle. It provides them with an early debut to fiscal literacy and bureaus offering public assistance support. supplying them with cognition of where to travel for aid which is indispensable. in an progressively complex universe. to the economic wellbeing. both of the person and the state as a whole.
B. 5. B. 6. Subject 2 – Learning and Teaching B. 7. We know that spoken linguistic communication is a critical portion of human acquisition in the first 10 old ages of life. and that it is a strong determiner of children’s ability to manage the written word. Citizenship Education is a critical constituent in any holistic attack to literacy and oracy. supplying kids with chances to analyze. comparison. evaluate. ground. argue and justify. The work of psychologists such as Mercerv demonstrates the educational importance of explorative talk to turn to shared jobs.
Citizenship issues are rich in such possible because they are existent and relevant. Dunnvi has shown that attitudes and societal constructs are shaped from an early age. From Key Stage 1 Citizenship Education provides an chance for instructors to foster the development of this apprehension in the context of a assortment of issues salient to the immature people themselves. developing understanding and furthering empathy earlier attitudes become entrenched. B. 8. The Primary Review entry from the Citizenship Foundation Citizenship Foundation. March 2007.
2 It offers a context through which kids can develop critical thought accomplishments and emotional literacy in a coherent. incorporate manner. B. 9. Current educational pattern. and the accent on mark scene has led to more individualized acquisition. yet Vygotskyvii has identified larning as a societal. synergistic procedure that requires treatment. exchange and the sharing of positions. Citizenship larning provides chances for engagement and active engagement.
It is characterised by societal thought. and can non be isolated or atomistic. as typified by much of the acquisition that presently takes topographic point. Activities affecting teamwork and question accomplishments. utilizing Wallace’sviii TASC ( Thinking Actively in a Social Context ) theoretical account for illustration. construct a sense of mutuality and community. B. 10. Recent research shows that children’s equals can be a powerful influence on their receptiveness and motive to larn. We besides know that profound cognition is acquired through the practical application of cognition: we learn best through making.
Citizenship is rich in chances for treatment and duologue between immature people. and for using their cognition to do a difference to the universe around them. The most effectual Citizenship Education is built around pedagogical attacks that place active acquisition at the nucleus. B. 11. Research workers such as Margaret Donaldsonix suggest that constructs presented in familiar contexts enable kids to hold on thoughts more readily than when they are concept free. yet there is still a inclination to learn the nucleus topics in a vacuity.
The impression of course of study comprehensiveness needs to be critically revisited. such that comprehensiveness is defined through a scope of larning experiences instead than merely a aggregation of topics. We besides know that kids are more likely to remember affairs which are of import to them. Citizenship Education can fulfill both these features of larning. foremost by showing a existent life model. or ‘big picture’ . to assist kids make sense of new cognition. and secondly by undertaking issues of relevancy and value to them such as equity. intimidation and duty for the environment.
Indeed. Citizenship Education can supply a meaningful context for much of the primary course of study. peculiarly facets of larning in Literacy. History and Geography. It can besides afford kids chances to show their abilities across a broad scope of intelligences. including inter-personal and intra-personal. which are presently non recognised and assessed through SATs. Theme 3 – Curriculum and Assessment B. 12. At the Citizenship Foundation we believe that primary instruction should seek to accomplish ‘Excellence and Enjoyment’ x across all topics.
Presently there is a inclination to concentrate on ‘excellence’ in the nucleus topics while curtailing ‘enjoyment’ to the foundation subjects in the wider course of study. as tends to be implied by the Primary National Strategy ( PNS ) eleven. A more holistic. coherent and enriched attack is needed. with the children’s personal experiences. and their topographic point and hereafter in society. as a cardinal focal point. The Primary Review entry from the Citizenship Foundation Citizenship Foundation. March 2007 3 B. 13. During the primary stage kids develop an increasing consciousness of societal and environmental issues.
They are entitled to chances to develop more informed. brooding and balanced positions on these issues. The course of study needs to be constructed in a manner which promotes a higher degree of interaction and cognitive battle. as opposed to learning with low cognitive battle taking to pre-determined replies. Citizenship. with its accent on oracy. active acquisition. and emotional literacy can play an of import function in righting the instability of an overly narrow course of study. and in supplying kids with the chances to use their cognition in countries such as equal mediation. school democracy and community engagement.
B. 14. Citizenship Education Fosters societal development and nurtures the societal ego. therefore enriching the school community. ‘Citizenship-rich’ primary schools ( where patterns such as equal mediation. pupils as research workers and school councils are embedded ) offer societal acquisition activities which are shown to hold maturational and behavioral benefits to the person and for the whole school. These benefits have the potency to go widespread across all schools if Citizenship is made statutory.
B. 15. Citizenship Education is presently under-recognised and under-developed in the primary stage. This is particularly the instance in Key Stage 2 where issues such as intimidation. stealing. the function of the constabulary. regard for jurisprudence. and community coherence issues are normally addressed but non ever from a Citizenship position or in a consistent mode. Yet this is the clip when attitudes to authorization figures are being shaped. Furthermore. the hazard is that cardinal issues are overlooked.
For illustration. whilst immature people are reprehensively responsible by age 10. this important fact and its deductions. are non consistently communicated to primary school students as portion of the statutory course of study. B. 16. We believe that the nucleus constructs and accomplishments associated with Citizenship should be more exactly mapped and strengthened. and that there should be a clear tract of patterned advance. with identified cross-curricular links. from the Foundation Stage through to Year 6. conveying Citizenship Education into line with and supplying a sound foundation for Key Stages 3 and 4. B. 17.
With respect to formative appraisal we believe that the most appropriate method of appraisal at this phase of acquisition is one based on ‘success criteria’xii which leads to more focussed instruction. and enables and motivates kids to justice and better their ain public presentation in relation to the specific acquisition aims which will hold been identified above. for illustration aims associated with question and communicating accomplishments. B. 18. We are presently working with the QCA to develop an appropriate eight point appraisal graduated table to back up the instruction of Citizenship across the primary and secondary stages.
This will be based every bit much as possible on the empirical work of developmental psychologists. including their work on construct and empathy development. The Primary Review entry from the Citizenship Foundation Citizenship Foundation. March 2007 4 Theme 5 – Diversity and Inclusion B. 19. In his recent reappraisal of Diversity and the Citizenship Curriculumxiii. Sir Keith Ajegbo highlighted the demand to advance understanding between communities. and the importance of battling intolerance and spiritual extremism.
He suggests that instructors should be prepared to undertake controversial subjects such as in-migration and the bequest of the British Empire. and that Citizenship lessons are the appropriate forum in which kids can ‘discuss and debate their identities’ . Whilst his focal point was the secondary course of study. we believe that this work should get down in the primary stage. B. 20. Indeed. from April 2007. upon the execution of the Education and Inspection Act ( 2006 ) . all schools. primary and secondary. hold a statutory responsibility to advance societal coherence.
Citizenship Education provides the logical course of study response to this responsibility. B. 21. Citizenship Education is the topic which provides the most natural forum for treatment of issues associating to equal chances. diverseness. religion and civilization. Work around subjects such as ‘similarity and difference’ and ‘rights and responsibilities’ helps kids develop empathy. deepens understanding and physiques greater assurance to show personal positions. It supports them in developing a sense of who they are. what they can make. and how they belong.
Therefore it helps make societal coherence. which is indispensable for our personal wellbeing. and the care of strong communities. Theme 8 – Beyond the School B. 21. Every staff and regulating organic structure demands to reflect on the intent of their school. and its wider dealingss with the community. Active community battle is cardinal to the Citizenship Education programme. Citizenship Education has the capacity for constructing links between place. school. and the community in which they are situated.
Parents and their kids belong to the same vicinity. national and planetary communities. and Citizenship Education can advance meaningful intergenerational activities. When kids participate in undertakings aimed at doing a difference to their community. or go engaged in research about the positions and duties of people from a assortment of societal strata and professions. they begin to see themselves as active members of wider society Theme 10 – Funding and Governance B. 22. When Citizenship Education is suitably represented within the primary course of study. it will necessitate to be resourced and funded consequently.
At the Citizenship Foundation we believe there to be a demand for a consistent National Strategy for Teaching and Learning in Citizenship. to the full endorsed by the DfES and QCA. and that this can merely be implemented with proper preparation for headteachers and their staffs. This analysis is now supported by the study of the Select Committee. Equipped with the professional expertness. instructors will be enabled to recognize. raising and develop The Primary Review entry from the Citizenship Foundation Citizenship Foundation. March 2007 5 peculiar involvements. endowments and capacities to do it possible for each person to boom in our society.
B. 23. We recommend that every school be required to set up a school council constituted mostly of student representatives. and that pupil representatives should be invited to go associate members of their school regulating organic structures. in line with the new regulating organic structure ordinances introduced in 2003. C. Conclusion C. 1. Citizenship Education has the possible to make more effectual scholars by advancing a brooding attack. enabling connexion of cognition. developing greater installation for shared acquisition with others. and increasing battle and autonomy.
Above all. Citizenship Education can play an of import portion in developing engaged and responsible citizens. The Citizenship Foundation has ever argued that the failure to do Citizenship Education statutory in primary schools was a lost chance and consequences in developmental hold in this country. There are illustrations of first-class Citizenship pattern in the primary stage on which to construct but we argue that that current proviso ( based on a non-statutory articulation model for PSHE and Citizenship ) is unequal. and deserves a much higher profile.
We recognise that primary schools and practicians will necessitate support for the execution of the above developments. and in the visible radiation of this the Citizenship Foundation is runing for: • A designated co-ordinator in every school. supported by an LA advisor ; • Citizenship to have in a revised primary SEF signifier ; • NCSL primary programmes to include a primary dimension ; We will be pleased to discourse any facet of this entry with the reappraisal squad. C. 2 C. 3. C. 4.
The Primary Review entry from the Citizenship Foundation Citizenship Foundation. March 2007 6 References: one UNICEF Report on Child Well-Being in Rich Countries ( 2007 ) Education and Skills Select Committee Report on Citizenship Education TSO ( 2007 ) Every Child Matters DfES ( 2003 ) two three four OECD League Table of Young People’s Risk Behaviour. Programme of International Studies Assessment ( PISA ) ( 2003 ) Mercer. N. ( 2000 ) Wordss and Minds: How We Use Language to Think Together. Routledge. Dunn. J. ( 1988 ) .
The Beginnings of Social Understanding. Blackwell Publishing. Vygotsky. L. S. ( 1962 ) Thought and Language Cambridge. Ma: MIT Press V six seven eight Wallace. B. Maher. J. et Al ( 2004 ) Thinking Skills and Problem Solving – An Inclusive Approach David Fulton Publishers Donaldson. M. ( 1978 ) Children’s Minds. Fontana Press ‘Excellence and Enjoyment’ DfES ( 1993 ) Primary National Strategy ( PNS ) DfES ( 2003 ) nine ten xi as advocated by Shirley Clarke in Enriching Feedback in the Primary Classroom.
( 2003 ) Hodder & A ; Stoughton xiii xii Ajegbo. Sir K. Diversity and Citizenship Curriculum Review ( 2007 ) The Primary Review entry from the Citizenship Foundation Citizenship Foundation. March 2007 7 About the Authors Marguerite Heath is an experient Primary Headteacher who now directs the Go-Givers programme at the Citizenship Foundation. Go-Givers is a major new resource for learning and larning about Citizenship in primary schools which is to be launched in June 2007.
Don Rowe is Director. Curriculum Resources at the Citizenship Foundation and a co-founder of the Foundation. He has published and advised widely on Citizenship Education in Primary and Secondary schools. Tony Breslin is Chief Executive at the Citizenship Foundation and has published and advised widely on Citizenship Education and in a scope of related educational Fieldss. Ted Huddleston is a Undertaking Manager at the Citizenship Foundation. and presently leads on the Citizenship Manifesto programme.
He has published and advised widely on Citizenship Education. Elizabeth Griffiths is an experient primary practician working on the development of Go-Givers at the Citizenship Foundation. Contact: Marguerite Heath The Citizenship Foundation. 63 Gee Street. London EC1V 3RS Tel: 020 7566 4148 Electronic mail: oxeye daisy. [ electronic mail protected ]org. uk The Primary Review entry from the Citizenship Foundation Citizenship Foundation. March 2007 8 The Primary Review entry from the Citizenship Foundation Citizenship Foundation. March 2007 9.