Civilizations Review Sample Essay

East Asia
Shang Dynasty
a ) Pan Ku ( mythic ascendant of Chinese ) . narratives about early male monarchs B ) Hwang He River ( Yellow River ) . isolated from remainder of world- & gt ; small trade degree Celsius ) Line of male monarchs called the Shang. powerful military

vitamin D ) Developed thoughts based on basic harmoniousness
Ancestor worship
Supreme beings controlled all facets of peoples’ lives
vitamin E ) Irrigation and advanced engineering
Skilled in clayware and silk
Horse drawn chariots
Good bronze workers
Oracle castanetss ( composing )
degree Fahrenheit ) Extended household was of import. patriarchal construction
g ) Invasions cause impermanent decline- lupus erythematosus of a interruption between river vale society and subsequently Chinese civilisations than others








Zhou Dynasty
a ) Wu Wang came from northern China
B ) Extended district to Yangtze River ( Middle Kingdom )
degree Celsius ) Alliance/ feudal system ( standard in agricultural lands ) Mandate of Heaven
Bureaucracies in some complex lands
vitamin D ) Beginnings of Confucianism and Daoism
Doctrine lessened political confusion
vitamin E ) Creation of Mandarin Chinese- linguistic communication integrity
Trade of luxury points
degree Fahrenheit ) Classs
1 ) Landowning nobility and educated administrative officials
2 ) Tuging multitudes. peasantry. urban craftsmans
3 ) Average people ( executing creative persons )
Patriarchal society
g ) Nomadic invasions. regional disloyalties













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Qin Dynasty
a ) Qin Shi Huangdi took control and made himself the exclusive swayer
B ) Strong economic system based agribusiness
degree Celsius ) Powerful ground forces with Fe arms
Conquered environing districts and incorporate part
vitamin D ) Legalism dominant belief system
vitamin E ) Great Wall of China- imperium was good organized. centralized and territorial Standardized all Torahs. currencies. weights. steps. and systems of Hagiographas
degree Fahrenheit ) Patriarchal
g ) Peasant Rebels







Han Dynasty
a ) Wu Ti
B ) Enlarged imperium to cardinal Asia
degree Celsiuss ) Political organisation
vitamin D ) Buddhism spread along Silk Road
Believed politicians should be educated and first-class communicators
vitamin E ) Trade thrived along Silk Road
Civil service tests based on instructions of Confucius
Invented paper. sundials. calendars. rudder ( pilotage ) . compass. broadened usage of metals f ) Social constructions ( categories. place of adult females )
g ) Invasions. revenue enhancement jobs. population addition. corruptness of tribunal functionaries. unable to command big estate proprietors








South Asia
Mohenjo Daro and Harappa
a ) Historical background ( laminitiss )
B ) Indus River Valley. immense mountains that limited interaction. but Khyber Pass provided connexion
degree Celsius ) Big metropoliss with maestro programs. uniformly constructed
Strong cardinal authorities led by priest-king
vitamin D ) Polytheistic
vitamin E ) Sophisticated effluent systems
degree Fahrenheit ) Social constructions ( categories. place of adult females )
g ) ? – invasions. reaching of Aryans








Maurya India
a ) Aryans- developed beginnings of Hinduism in the Vedas ( heroic poems ) Founded by Chandragupta Maurya who unified little lands
Ashoka Maurya led imperium to greatest highs
B ) Indus and Ganges Rivers. Deccan tableland
degree Celsius ) Powerful military
vitamin D ) Ashoka converted to Buddhism
vitamin E ) Trade included silk. cotton. elephants
degree Fahrenheit ) Ashoka’s decease. economic jobs. encroachers






Gupta India
a ) Chandra Gupta the Great
B ) General geographic characteristics
degree Celsius ) Decentralized and smaller than Mauryans
Golden Age of India
vitamin D ) Hinduism dominant faith
Reinforced caste system
vitamin E ) Math- pi and nothing and denary system- & gt ; Arabic numbers
degree Fahrenheit ) Rigid societal construction. adult females were losing their rights. really patriarchal g ) White Huns encroachers. non adequate revenue enhancements for military defenseDelhi Sultanate
a ) Islamic encroachers
B ) Ganges River. Delhi
degree Celsiuss ) Political leader was the grand Turk
Tried to change over the Hindus
Religiously motivated devastation ( temples and force )
vitamin D ) Taxed non-Muslims
vitamin E ) Colleges founded. irrigation systems improved. mosques built Fusion of Indo-Muslim civilizations
degree Fahrenheit ) Women enjoyed rights that bit by bit were stripped off g ) Mongol invasions. inefficient and bad leaders















Middle East
Mesopotamia- “The Land Between the Rivers”- Tigris and Euphrates * Demonstrates that suppressing civilisations adopted and adapted the imposts and engineerings of those they defeated
Sumer
* Rose in the southern portion of Mesopotamia
* City states
* Polytheistic- each metropolis province had ain God and besides group of corporate Gods * Built temples called zikkurats
* Sumerians developed cuneiform
* Invention of the wheel – & gt ; enhanced trade
* Math system and geometry
* Successful agribusiness and river direction
* Invasions brought diminution









Babylon
* Akkadians developed foremost known codification of Torahs. so overthrown by Babylonians * King Hammurabi developed more extended Code of Hammurabi- & gt ; step toward modern legal codifications * Invaded by Hittites- strong military with Fe arms

* Assyrians established capital at Nineveh
* Cruelty led to rebellions
* Invaded by Medes so Chaldeans. who rebuilt Babylon but finally Babylon fell Lydians- coined money instead than utilize swap system
Phoenicians- developed simple alphabet
Hebrews- 1st Jews. created monotheistic faith



United arab republic
a ) 3 Major Kingdoms—Old. Middle. New
United under King Menes
B ) Nile River
degree Celsius ) Rulers were called Pharaoh
vitamin D ) Polytheistic. focal point on hereafter. usage organic structures in afterlife- & gt ;
mummification vitamin E ) Constructed obelisks. pyramids. graves
Hieroglyphics- authorship system






Depended on trade
degree Fahrenheit ) 1st female swayer in history- Queen Hatshepsut
Womans enjoyed more rights and chances to show individualism than in Mesopotamia But adult females still expected to be subservient to work forces. non educated about every bit good as male childs Social construction
Top- pharaoh- owned all land in the land
Priests
Lords
Merchants and skilled craftsmans
Peasants/slaves
g ) Invasions from Assyrian and Iranian Empire
* A powerful and comfortable was typically the genteelness land for invasions. When they were attacked. the imperium was excessively large to protect- & gt ; weakened








Persia
a ) Inherited many accomplishments of the earlier Mesopotamian society Cyrus the Great established Persian Empire
B ) Middle East
degree Celsiuss ) Political organisation
vitamin D ) Mazdaism
vitamin E ) Advanced Fe engineering
Lively artistic manner
Built big roads
degree Fahrenheit ) Warriors. priests. and provincials gave manner to an educated bureaucratism Free categories included craftsmans. craftsmen. merchandisers. and low-ranking civil retainers but did non hold as many privileges ; Slaves were a big part of the category system g ) Conquered by Alexander the Great







Umayyad Empire
a ) Abu Bakr ( Mohammad’s follower ) became 1st caliph- emperor and spiritual leader B ) Arabic desert. expanded to N. Africa and Spain ( Cordoba ) degree Celsius ) Theocracy- authorities ruled by immediate Godhead counsel / Caliphate
Capital- Damascus. Syria

vitamin D ) Muslimism
Shiite- backed Ali ( Mohammad’s son-in-law )
Sunnis backed Umayyad ( caliph chosen from a group of people )
vitamin E ) Arabic became official linguistic communication
Gold and Ag coins became standard pecuniary unit
degree Fahrenheit ) Social constructions ( categories. place of adult females )
g ) Rise of Shia Islam





Abbasid Caliphates
a ) Historical background ( laminitiss )
B ) General geographic characteristics
degree Celsius ) Capital at Baghdad. Iraq
vitamin D ) Shia Islam
Sufis. Islamic mystics. effectual missionaries
vitamin E ) Built around trade
Creation of recognition ( cheques )
Steel fabrication
Medical encyclopaedia
Algebra parts
degree Fahrenheit ) Society became more structured and more patriarchal
g ) Mongol invasions











Mediterranean
Athinais city-state/ Sparta city state
a ) Historical background ( laminitiss )
B ) General geographic characteristics
degree Celsius ) Polis= city state. Athens- 1st democracy
vitamin D ) Polytheism ( Gods possessed human weaknesss ) . SPA philosophers e ) Political. commercial. and cultural centre of Grecian civ. / agricultural and extremely militaristic part degree Fahrenheit ) Citizens ( big males ) . Free people. Noncitizens. slaves / equality for male childs and misss but no individualism g ) Peloponnesian War. struggle with other city states




Alexander the Great’s Empire
a ) Philip III of Macedon
B ) Greece. Iranian Empire. Indus River
degree Celsius ) Divided into 3 imperiums ( Antigonid. Ptolemaic. Seleucid ) vitamin D )
vitamin E ) Adopted and spread Greek imposts
degree Fahrenheit ) Social constructions ( categories. place of adult females )
g ) Death of Alexander





Roman Republic
a ) Historical background ( laminitiss )
B ) Alps. Mediterranean Sea
degree Celsiuss ) Representative democracy with a Senate and an Assembly
More stable than direct democracies of Grecian polis
Developed civil Torahs to protect single rights ( 12 Tables of Rome ) vitamin D ) Paganism- Polytheistic Gods from Grecian beginning ( renamed to accommodate civilization ) vitamin E ) Major artistic and rational thoughts
degree Fahrenheit ) Patricians ( land-owning Lords ) and plebeians ( all other free work forces ) Family centered on the pater households ( eldest male ) . adult females considered inferior to work forces merely like in Greece Slaves were of import component of societal construction





g ) Use of more slaves displaced little husbandmans into the metropoliss – & gt ; no occupations to back up them Currency devalued – & gt ; rising prices
Political leaders started contending amongst themselves – & gt ; weakened Senate

Roman Empire
a ) Julius Caesar so Augustus Caesar
B ) Expanded to its largest geographical proportions
degree Celsius ) Empire led by a individual emperor
vitamin D ) Christianity started to distribute. became official faith during Constantine’s reign vitamin E ) New regulation of jurisprudence
Common mintage
Civil service
Pax Romana
Literature- Ovid’s Metamorphoses and Vergil’s Aeneid
Architecture- Pantheon. Colosseum and Forum
Astronomy Ptolemy
Engineering- aqueducts and roads
degree Fahrenheit ) Social constructions ( categories. place of adult females )
g ) Too large. excessively many disbursals. corrupt leaders. epidemics. Invasions * Golden Ages- occurs when a major imperium greatly expands its district and it becomes the centre of artistic and scientific energy












Africa
West Africa Kingdoms of Mali / Ghana / Songhai
a )
B ) South of the Sahara. West Africa
degree Celsius ) Mansa Musa ( great Mali swayer ) built capital at Timbuktu and expanded land ; made pilgrim’s journey to Mecca and gave out gold on the manner Sonni Ali ( Songhai swayer ) conquered the full West Africa



vitamin D ) Constant trade brought Islam
vitamin E ) Explosion of trade created when the West Africans encountered the Islamic bargainers Lots of gold and salt ( Ghana ) in the W African lands
Timbuktu became a major cultural centre ( had a university and many bookmans ) during the Songhai Empire Oral literature of import
Known for sculptures made out of clayware and bronze
Benin civilization mastered a bronze sculpting technique
degree Fahrenheit )
g ) Ghana was capable to a Holy War where an Islamic group killed people who didn’t want to change over





East African Kingdoms
Rhodesia
* Great Zimbabwe is the largest and most impressive metropolis of the Kingdom of Kongo ; rock houses * Political authorization based on kingship

Axum
* Christian Kingdom

Footings to Know:

Neolithic Revolution: passage period in which people moved from mobile life styles to agricultural life styles and town and metropolis life

Bantu: the linguistic communication that provided a lingual base across much of Africa ; it constitutes a major portion of the Swahili linguistic communication ; different cultural groups that spoke Bantu linguistic communications

Hammurapi: King of Babylon ; expanded the thought of a codification of Torahs into the Code of Hammurabi

Israelitess: the first Jews ; believed in the monotheistic faith of Judaism ; developed a distinguishable civilization that would take to development of major universe faith

Monotheism: belief in one God

Shi Huangdi: the 1st emperor of the Qin dynasty ; recentralized assorted feudal lands. and refused to digest any dissent whatsoever

Mandate of Heaven: Eden would allow the emperors power merely every bit long as they governed rightly and sagely ; the celestial spheres appointed the emperors

Chinese dynastic rhythm:
1 ) dynasty creates strong political relations and economic system
2 ) dynasty grows weak. revenue enhancements decline
3 ) societal divisions addition
4 ) invasion or internal rebellion
5 ) another dynasty emerges from a general. encroacher. provincial Rebel




Confucianism: doctrine of Confucius developed specifically for the Chinese civilization ; his ideas and expressions are collected in the Analects ; trades about entirely with how to reconstruct political and societal order ; adult females were considered of secondary position ; compatible with other faiths

Legalism: practiced specifically during the Qin Dynasty in China ; peace and order are accomplishable merely through a centralised. tightly governed province ; don’t swear human nature so need tough Torahs ; farming and military were 2 worthy professions ; Qin dynasty managed to carry through fusion of China through Legalism

Taoism: founded by Lao-tzu ; based on construct sing an ageless rule regulating all the workings of the universe ; aspiration and activism merely bring pandemonium ; promoted scientific finds ; added complexness and singularity of China

Ancestor worship: based on the belief that the asleep. frequently household members. have a continued being and/or possess the ability to act upon the luck of the life ; serves as the footing for many faiths in Africa

Hindooism: began in India with the Aryan encroachers ; Brahma is the 1 supreme force. the Godhead in all things ; Dharma. moksha. reincarnation ; no cardinal sacred text

Caste system: societal construction of categories in Hinduism ; became more and more stiff as it got more complex

Siddhartha Gautama: laminitis of Buddhism ; Hindu prince ; rejected wealth to seek for the significance of human agony ; he became Buddha. the Enlightened One

Buddhism: faith practiced in many eastern civilisations ; no supreme being ; appealed to members of lower category

Ashoka: the Mauryan emperor who converted to Buddhism: started the spread of Buddhism

Polis: city state that shared a common civilization and individuality ; independent from each other ; found in Greece

Democracy: authorities in Athens where all citizens were expected to take part ; merely grownup males could take part though ; bondage allowed the Greeks to develop democracy because they had clip to run into and vote. etc.

Augustus Caesar: the 1st emperor of Imperial Rome ; established regulation of jurisprudence. common mintage. civil service. and unafraid travel for merchandisers ; started Pax Romana

Romanization: socialization. integrating and assimilation of freshly incorporated populations by the Roman Republic and Roman Empire

The nazarene: The nazarene of Nazareth was a Judaic instructor who claimed to be the Son of God. the Messiah ; he was crucified so rose from the dead and ascended into heaven- & gt ; Christianity was born

Christian religion: major universe faith that was broken off from Judaism ; Christians believe that forgiveness of wickednesss is accomplishable merely through belief in the deity. decease. and the Resurrection of Jesus

Muhammad: prophesier of Allah ( God ) ; his words from God were written down in the Quran ; the laminitis of Islam

Muslimism: major universe faith that was born in the Middle East ; Muslims believe that redemption is won through entry to the will of God. and that this can be accomplished through the 5 Pillars of Islam ; split into 2 groups because of the dissension on who should win Mohammad as the leader of religion

Sunni: Group of Muslims that believe that the leaders of the imperium should be drawn from a wide base of people. non through the familial line of Mohammad

Shi’ite: Moslems that believe Mohammad’s son-in-law. Ali. was the rightful inheritor to the imperium

Sufi: Muslim mystics ; most effectual Islamic missionaries ; stressed a personal relationship with Allah- & gt ; Islam extremely adaptable to different fortunes ; succeeded in change overing big Numberss of people to Islam

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