Civilizations Review Sample Essay

East AsiaShang Dynastya ) Pan Ku ( mythic ascendant of Chinese ) . narratives about early male monarchs B ) Hwang He River ( Yellow River ) . isolated from remainder of world- & gt ; small trade degree Celsius ) Line of male monarchs called the Shang. powerful military

vitamin D ) Developed thoughts based on basic harmoniousnessAncestor worshipSupreme beings controlled all facets of peoples’ livesvitamin E ) Irrigation and advanced engineeringSkilled in clayware and silkHorse drawn chariotsGood bronze workersOracle castanetss ( composing )degree Fahrenheit ) Extended household was of import. patriarchal constructiong ) Invasions cause impermanent decline- lupus erythematosus of a interruption between river vale society and subsequently Chinese civilisations than others








Zhou Dynastya ) Wu Wang came from northern ChinaB ) Extended district to Yangtze River ( Middle Kingdom )degree Celsius ) Alliance/ feudal system ( standard in agricultural lands ) Mandate of HeavenBureaucracies in some complex landsvitamin D ) Beginnings of Confucianism and DaoismDoctrine lessened political confusionvitamin E ) Creation of Mandarin Chinese- linguistic communication integrityTrade of luxury pointsdegree Fahrenheit ) Classs1 ) Landowning nobility and educated administrative officials2 ) Tuging multitudes. peasantry. urban craftsmans3 ) Average people ( executing creative persons )Patriarchal societyg ) Nomadic invasions.

regional disloyalties













Qin Dynastya ) Qin Shi Huangdi took control and made himself the exclusive swayerB ) Strong economic system based agribusinessdegree Celsius ) Powerful ground forces with Fe armsConquered environing districts and incorporate partvitamin D ) Legalism dominant belief systemvitamin E ) Great Wall of China- imperium was good organized. centralized and territorial Standardized all Torahs. currencies. weights.

steps. and systems of Hagiographasdegree Fahrenheit ) Patriarchalg ) Peasant Rebels







Han Dynastya ) Wu TiB ) Enlarged imperium to cardinal Asiadegree Celsiuss ) Political organisationvitamin D ) Buddhism spread along Silk RoadBelieved politicians should be educated and first-class communicatorsvitamin E ) Trade thrived along Silk RoadCivil service tests based on instructions of ConfuciusInvented paper. sundials. calendars. rudder ( pilotage ) .

compass. broadened usage of metals f ) Social constructions ( categories. place of adult females )g ) Invasions. revenue enhancement jobs. population addition. corruptness of tribunal functionaries. unable to command big estate proprietors








South AsiaMohenjo Daro and Harappaa ) Historical background ( laminitiss )B ) Indus River Valley. immense mountains that limited interaction.

but Khyber Pass provided connexiondegree Celsius ) Big metropoliss with maestro programs. uniformly constructedStrong cardinal authorities led by priest-kingvitamin D ) Polytheisticvitamin E ) Sophisticated effluent systemsdegree Fahrenheit ) Social constructions ( categories. place of adult females )g ) ? – invasions. reaching of Aryans








Maurya Indiaa ) Aryans- developed beginnings of Hinduism in the Vedas ( heroic poems ) Founded by Chandragupta Maurya who unified little landsAshoka Maurya led imperium to greatest highsB ) Indus and Ganges Rivers. Deccan tablelanddegree Celsius ) Powerful militaryvitamin D ) Ashoka converted to Buddhismvitamin E ) Trade included silk.

cotton. elephantsdegree Fahrenheit ) Ashoka’s decease. economic jobs. encroachers






Gupta Indiaa ) Chandra Gupta the GreatB ) General geographic characteristicsdegree Celsius ) Decentralized and smaller than MauryansGolden Age of Indiavitamin D ) Hinduism dominant faithReinforced caste systemvitamin E ) Math- pi and nothing and denary system- & gt ; Arabic numbersdegree Fahrenheit ) Rigid societal construction. adult females were losing their rights.

really patriarchal g ) White Huns encroachers. non adequate revenue enhancements for military defenseDelhi Sultanatea ) Islamic encroachersB ) Ganges River. Delhidegree Celsiuss ) Political leader was the grand TurkTried to change over the HindusReligiously motivated devastation ( temples and force )vitamin D ) Taxed non-Muslimsvitamin E ) Colleges founded.

irrigation systems improved. mosques built Fusion of Indo-Muslim civilizationsdegree Fahrenheit ) Women enjoyed rights that bit by bit were stripped off g ) Mongol invasions. inefficient and bad leaders















Middle EastMesopotamia- “The Land Between the Rivers”- Tigris and Euphrates * Demonstrates that suppressing civilisations adopted and adapted the imposts and engineerings of those they defeatedSumer* Rose in the southern portion of Mesopotamia* City states* Polytheistic- each metropolis province had ain God and besides group of corporate Gods * Built temples called zikkurats* Sumerians developed cuneiform* Invention of the wheel – & gt ; enhanced trade* Math system and geometry* Successful agribusiness and river direction* Invasions brought diminution









Babylon* Akkadians developed foremost known codification of Torahs.

so overthrown by Babylonians * King Hammurabi developed more extended Code of Hammurabi- & gt ; step toward modern legal codifications * Invaded by Hittites- strong military with Fe arms
* Assyrians established capital at Nineveh* Cruelty led to rebellions* Invaded by Medes so Chaldeans. who rebuilt Babylon but finally Babylon fell Lydians- coined money instead than utilize swap systemPhoenicians- developed simple alphabetHebrews- 1st Jews. created monotheistic faith



United arab republica ) 3 Major Kingdoms—Old. Middle. NewUnited under King MenesB ) Nile Riverdegree Celsius ) Rulers were called Pharaohvitamin D ) Polytheistic. focal point on hereafter. usage organic structures in afterlife- & gt ;mummification vitamin E ) Constructed obelisks.

pyramids. gravesHieroglyphics- authorship system






Depended on tradedegree Fahrenheit ) 1st female swayer in history- Queen HatshepsutWomans enjoyed more rights and chances to show individualism than in Mesopotamia But adult females still expected to be subservient to work forces. non educated about every bit good as male childs Social constructionTop- pharaoh- owned all land in the landPriestsLordsMerchants and skilled craftsmansPeasants/slavesg ) Invasions from Assyrian and Iranian Empire* A powerful and comfortable was typically the genteelness land for invasions.

When they were attacked. the imperium was excessively large to protect- & gt ; weakened








Persiaa ) Inherited many accomplishments of the earlier Mesopotamian society Cyrus the Great established Persian EmpireB ) Middle Eastdegree Celsiuss ) Political organisationvitamin D ) Mazdaismvitamin E ) Advanced Fe engineeringLively artistic mannerBuilt big roadsdegree Fahrenheit ) Warriors. priests.

and provincials gave manner to an educated bureaucratism Free categories included craftsmans. craftsmen. merchandisers. and low-ranking civil retainers but did non hold as many privileges ; Slaves were a big part of the category system g ) Conquered by Alexander the Great







Umayyad Empirea ) Abu Bakr ( Mohammad’s follower ) became 1st caliph- emperor and spiritual leader B ) Arabic desert. expanded to N. Africa and Spain ( Cordoba ) degree Celsius ) Theocracy- authorities ruled by immediate Godhead counsel / CaliphateCapital- Damascus. Syria

vitamin D ) MuslimismShiite- backed Ali ( Mohammad’s son-in-law )Sunnis backed Umayyad ( caliph chosen from a group of people )vitamin E ) Arabic became official linguistic communicationGold and Ag coins became standard pecuniary unitdegree Fahrenheit ) Social constructions ( categories.

place of adult females )g ) Rise of Shia Islam





Abbasid Caliphatesa ) Historical background ( laminitiss )B ) General geographic characteristicsdegree Celsius ) Capital at Baghdad. Iraqvitamin D ) Shia IslamSufis. Islamic mystics. effectual missionariesvitamin E ) Built around tradeCreation of recognition ( cheques )Steel fabricationMedical encyclopaediaAlgebra partsdegree Fahrenheit ) Society became more structured and more patriarchalg ) Mongol invasions











MediterraneanAthinais city-state/ Sparta city statea ) Historical background ( laminitiss )B ) General geographic characteristicsdegree Celsius ) Polis= city state. Athens- 1st democracyvitamin D ) Polytheism ( Gods possessed human weaknesss ) . SPA philosophers e ) Political. commercial.

and cultural centre of Grecian civ. / agricultural and extremely militaristic part degree Fahrenheit ) Citizens ( big males ) . Free people. Noncitizens. slaves / equality for male childs and misss but no individualism g ) Peloponnesian War.

struggle with other city states




Alexander the Great’s Empirea ) Philip III of MacedonB ) Greece. Iranian Empire. Indus Riverdegree Celsius ) Divided into 3 imperiums ( Antigonid.

Ptolemaic. Seleucid ) vitamin D )vitamin E ) Adopted and spread Greek impostsdegree Fahrenheit ) Social constructions ( categories. place of adult females )g ) Death of Alexander





Roman Republica ) Historical background ( laminitiss )B ) Alps. Mediterranean Seadegree Celsiuss ) Representative democracy with a Senate and an AssemblyMore stable than direct democracies of Grecian polisDeveloped civil Torahs to protect single rights ( 12 Tables of Rome ) vitamin D ) Paganism- Polytheistic Gods from Grecian beginning ( renamed to accommodate civilization ) vitamin E ) Major artistic and rational thoughtsdegree Fahrenheit ) Patricians ( land-owning Lords ) and plebeians ( all other free work forces ) Family centered on the pater households ( eldest male ) . adult females considered inferior to work forces merely like in Greece Slaves were of import component of societal construction





g ) Use of more slaves displaced little husbandmans into the metropoliss – & gt ; no occupations to back up them Currency devalued – & gt ; rising pricesPolitical leaders started contending amongst themselves – & gt ; weakened Senate
Roman Empirea ) Julius Caesar so Augustus CaesarB ) Expanded to its largest geographical proportionsdegree Celsius ) Empire led by a individual emperorvitamin D ) Christianity started to distribute. became official faith during Constantine’s reign vitamin E ) New regulation of jurisprudenceCommon mintageCivil servicePax RomanaLiterature- Ovid’s Metamorphoses and Vergil’s AeneidArchitecture- Pantheon. Colosseum and ForumAstronomy PtolemyEngineering- aqueducts and roadsdegree Fahrenheit ) Social constructions ( categories. place of adult females )g ) Too large.

excessively many disbursals. corrupt leaders. epidemics. Invasions * Golden Ages- occurs when a major imperium greatly expands its district and it becomes the centre of artistic and scientific energy












AfricaWest Africa Kingdoms of Mali / Ghana / Songhaia )B ) South of the Sahara. West Africadegree Celsius ) Mansa Musa ( great Mali swayer ) built capital at Timbuktu and expanded land ; made pilgrim’s journey to Mecca and gave out gold on the manner Sonni Ali ( Songhai swayer ) conquered the full West Africa



vitamin D ) Constant trade brought Islamvitamin E ) Explosion of trade created when the West Africans encountered the Islamic bargainers Lots of gold and salt ( Ghana ) in the W African landsTimbuktu became a major cultural centre ( had a university and many bookmans ) during the Songhai Empire Oral literature of importKnown for sculptures made out of clayware and bronzeBenin civilization mastered a bronze sculpting techniquedegree Fahrenheit )g ) Ghana was capable to a Holy War where an Islamic group killed people who didn’t want to change over





East African KingdomsRhodesia* Great Zimbabwe is the largest and most impressive metropolis of the Kingdom of Kongo ; rock houses * Political authorization based on kingship

Axum* Christian Kingdom
Footings to Know:Neolithic Revolution: passage period in which people moved from mobile life styles to agricultural life styles and town and metropolis lifeBantu: the linguistic communication that provided a lingual base across much of Africa ; it constitutes a major portion of the Swahili linguistic communication ; different cultural groups that spoke Bantu linguistic communicationsHammurapi: King of Babylon ; expanded the thought of a codification of Torahs into the Code of HammurabiIsraelitess: the first Jews ; believed in the monotheistic faith of Judaism ; developed a distinguishable civilization that would take to development of major universe faithMonotheism: belief in one GodShi Huangdi: the 1st emperor of the Qin dynasty ; recentralized assorted feudal lands.

and refused to digest any dissent whatsoeverMandate of Heaven: Eden would allow the emperors power merely every bit long as they governed rightly and sagely ; the celestial spheres appointed the emperorsChinese dynastic rhythm:1 ) dynasty creates strong political relations and economic system2 ) dynasty grows weak. revenue enhancements decline3 ) societal divisions addition4 ) invasion or internal rebellion5 ) another dynasty emerges from a general. encroacher.

provincial Rebel




Confucianism: doctrine of Confucius developed specifically for the Chinese civilization ; his ideas and expressions are collected in the Analects ; trades about entirely with how to reconstruct political and societal order ; adult females were considered of secondary position ; compatible with other faithsLegalism: practiced specifically during the Qin Dynasty in China ; peace and order are accomplishable merely through a centralised. tightly governed province ; don’t swear human nature so need tough Torahs ; farming and military were 2 worthy professions ; Qin dynasty managed to carry through fusion of China through LegalismTaoism: founded by Lao-tzu ; based on construct sing an ageless rule regulating all the workings of the universe ; aspiration and activism merely bring pandemonium ; promoted scientific finds ; added complexness and singularity of ChinaAncestor worship: based on the belief that the asleep. frequently household members. have a continued being and/or possess the ability to act upon the luck of the life ; serves as the footing for many faiths in AfricaHindooism: began in India with the Aryan encroachers ; Brahma is the 1 supreme force.

the Godhead in all things ; Dharma. moksha. reincarnation ; no cardinal sacred textCaste system: societal construction of categories in Hinduism ; became more and more stiff as it got more complexSiddhartha Gautama: laminitis of Buddhism ; Hindu prince ; rejected wealth to seek for the significance of human agony ; he became Buddha. the Enlightened OneBuddhism: faith practiced in many eastern civilisations ; no supreme being ; appealed to members of lower categoryAshoka: the Mauryan emperor who converted to Buddhism: started the spread of BuddhismPolis: city state that shared a common civilization and individuality ; independent from each other ; found in GreeceDemocracy: authorities in Athens where all citizens were expected to take part ; merely grownup males could take part though ; bondage allowed the Greeks to develop democracy because they had clip to run into and vote. etc.

Augustus Caesar: the 1st emperor of Imperial Rome ; established regulation of jurisprudence. common mintage. civil service. and unafraid travel for merchandisers ; started Pax RomanaRomanization: socialization. integrating and assimilation of freshly incorporated populations by the Roman Republic and Roman EmpireThe nazarene: The nazarene of Nazareth was a Judaic instructor who claimed to be the Son of God. the Messiah ; he was crucified so rose from the dead and ascended into heaven- & gt ; Christianity was bornChristian religion: major universe faith that was broken off from Judaism ; Christians believe that forgiveness of wickednesss is accomplishable merely through belief in the deity.

decease. and the Resurrection of JesusMuhammad: prophesier of Allah ( God ) ; his words from God were written down in the Quran ; the laminitis of IslamMuslimism: major universe faith that was born in the Middle East ; Muslims believe that redemption is won through entry to the will of God. and that this can be accomplished through the 5 Pillars of Islam ; split into 2 groups because of the dissension on who should win Mohammad as the leader of religionSunni: Group of Muslims that believe that the leaders of the imperium should be drawn from a wide base of people. non through the familial line of MohammadShi’ite: Moslems that believe Mohammad’s son-in-law. Ali. was the rightful inheritor to the imperiumSufi: Muslim mystics ; most effectual Islamic missionaries ; stressed a personal relationship with Allah- & gt ; Islam extremely adaptable to different fortunes ; succeeded in change overing big Numberss of people to Islam

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