COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS BETWEEN STUDENTS PERFORMANCES IN MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE IN ND1 FINAL RESULT 2010/2011 ACADEMIC SESSION (A case study of Federal College of Agricultural Produce Technology, Kano) Olowo Sunday Ezekiel Department of Computer science/ Statistics Federal College of Agricultural Produce Technology. Kano. ABSTRACT This study examined extends to which comparative analysis between student performances in Mathematics and Science in ND1 final result for 2010/2011 session of Federal College of Agricultural Produce Technology Kano.
This study sought data from 30 students in ND1 comprises of those department namely; Agricultural Technology, Food Technology and Science Laboratory Technology. using 20 items self constructed validated and reliable questionnaire which was found to be appropriate. The instrument sought information on the teacher’s variable, such as method, attitude, understanding, motivation and student variable such as interest, determination, attitude, influence, environment etc. findings indicate that students background in mathematics and science.
Teaching of mathematics with practical approach and student determination and interest found to be best predictor of students performance in Mathematics and Sciences and gender teacher variable did not influence students performance in Mathematics and Science . It was suggested that the teacher variable be improved, determination and interest such subjects by students should be improved, and teaching of mathematics should be made practically oriented rather than abstract in nature. INTRODUCTION
The importance accorded mathematics in the school curriculum from primary to tertiary school level reflects accurately the vital role played by the subject in contemporary society. At the most basic level i. e. secondary level. The knowledge of mathematics is essential in the conduct of every day living and in engineering, natural and social science. Mathematics therefore is a tool in the hands of scientist in carrying out their day-to-day activities. This is why Onwudiegwu(1988) opined that at every stage Mathematics has to be constructed.
According to Adetula (2005) describes Mathematics as a science of numbers quantity, shape and space. Therefore Mathematics and Science in quote are interwoven and depend on each other. It is also seen that Mathematics is a science subject that supplies the necessary support needed by each subject most especially Science subject so as to arrived at their desired goal. Mathematics has always be regarded as the language of science. It is the most important discipline in training logical reasoning, which every students must mentally acquired before doing well in every other subject.
Hence the concepts in Mathematics are useful in solving problem in science , Technology and applied engineering. Unfortunately, as Mathematics served as tools for solving problem in Science subjects still final ND1 result 2010/2011 was not encouraging. Hence Mathematics and Science subjects of students of Federal College of Agricultural Produce Technology, Kano were not good enough. Hence this problem calls for a proper investigation and lasting solution that will arrest the problem. This could be as a result of background of the students in such subjects or shortage of qualified Mathematics and Science teachers poor methodology etc.
From the historical days of the early human societies to the time when mathematics was used by the Russians, Mathematics has played a fundamental role in economic development of many countries of the world, the subject has been fond to be very important in that, it is needed for all scientific and technological researches and technical students in external examination and the attainment in the school and success in semester examinations in higher institution has been on the increase. ( Popoola 2009).
Researchers (Kolawole and Popoola 2009) have categorized the various factors responsible for this poor performance of students on both public examination and higher institution under the following headings curriculum problems, language problems, student’s problem, and teacher’s variables. Other researchers found that lack of motivation by the teachers and lack of proper practice by the students is also a factor. According to Ohuche (1990) the school and teacher contributed a lot the students fear of mathematics. The book further stressed the base of teachers still requires a helpful environment this drives students to miss so many classes.
The cumulative nature of mathematics courses is such that once you miss a lesson when vital concepts and principles were taught, students begin to feel inadequate. Lack of proper motivation by the mathematics teachers result in the students fear on the subject (Swafford 1980). Becker (1981) supported Swafford in his research, he found that teachers hearing discourage students to offer mathermatics. It should be noted that finding of Fennema (1978). Swafford (1980) and Becker (1981) show that inadequate proper motivation and discouragement by teachers make students fear mathematics and finally dislike it.
Thus it is a factor proper motivation is very important for the students to learning any thing not only mathematics. Odili (2000) stated that no teacher in Nigeria concerned with the teaching of mathematics at any stage from the elementary schools upwards and particularly at JSS/SS level can honestly say that all is well with the teaching of the mathematics subject. Great anxiety have been experienced by government employers of labour, parents and teachers about the fact that large number of students after a secondary school arithmetical operation needed in their everyday life and work.
One reason advanced is that majority of the real meaning of mathematics concepts Ohuche (1990) pointed out that, it is the problem of the attitudes and the negative messages we send to the student that make them hate mathematics. According to the book, nobody can give what he/she has not gotten. So teachers who do not know much mathematics should not be allowed to teach it at all. Attitude as a concept is concerned with an individual way of things, acting and behaving. It has very serious implications for the learner, the teacher, the immediate social group with which the individual learner relates and the entire school system.
Attitudes are formed as a result of some kind of learning experiences. They may also be learned simply by following the example or opinion o parent, teacher or friend. This is mimicry or limitation, which also has a part to play in the teaching and learning situation. In this respect the leaner draws from his teacher’s disposition to form his own attitudes which may likely affect his learning outcomes. In his observational theory, Bandura (1971) demonstrated that behavior are acquired by watching another (The model, teacher, parent, mentor, friend) that performs the behavior.
The model displays it and the learner observes and tries to imitate it. Teachers are invariably, role model whose behaviors are easily copied by students. What teachers like or dislike, appreciated and how they feel about their learning or studies could have a significant effect on their students. Unfortunately, however many teachers seldom realize that how they teach, how they behave and how they interact with students can be more paramount than what they teach. In a nut shell, teachers’ attitudes directly affect students’ attitudes. Teachers’ attitude is in turn influenced by their culture and belief system.
Teachers’ attitudes towards their students in school must be favorable enough to carry students along. When learner exhibits the expected behavior or response, the value attached determines very significantly the effectiveness of the learning processes in any aspect of education. Gangoli cited in Igwe (2002) stipulates that for teaching and learning of science to be interesting and stimulating, there has to be motivation on the part of both the teacher and the learner so as to ensure the development of the positive attitude and subsequently maximum academic achievement.
It has been observes that teachers teach science in a way that merely requires that pupils to listen, read and regurgitate. This depicts negative attitude to teaching. Several research findings have confirmed the hypothesis that teachers’ attitudes towards assessment practices on students’ achievement and their attitude toward physics was positive. In the same vein Onocha, (1985) showed that the effect of teachers’ attitudes to mathematics was stronger on the student mathematical achievement than on their attitude students attitude as well as achievement in mathematics.
Also, Chidolue (1986) found that teacher’s attitude toward Biology teaching is one of the major contributors towards explaining the variance in students Odunsi (1988) confirmed that teacher’s attitude towards integrated science teaching affect their students attitude to and achievement in the subject while Ogunwuyi (2000) found significant causal relationship between the teacher’s attitude and student’s achievement in integrated science.
Teacher’s attitude towards the teaching of Mathematics plays a significant role in shaping the attitude of the students towards the learning of mathematics, Oguniyi (1982) found that students positive attitude toward science could be enhanced by the following teacher-related factors: 1) Teacher’s enthusiasm 2) Teacher’s resourcefulness and helpful behaviour 3) Teacher’s thorough knowledge of the subject-matter and their making science quite interesting.
From the above, we can say that the role of the teacher as facilitator of learning and the contributions of students’ achievement is enormous. Bajah (1999) was of the opinion that the success of our science programme depend greatly on the classroom teacher as he is the one that translate all our thoughts into action. It can be argued to some extent that the characteristics of the teachers and their experiences and behavior in the classrooms, contribute to the learning environment of their students, which in turn will have an effect on student outcomes.
It is also important that we do not undermine the role of the parents in affecting student learning. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The major problem of this research work is the comparative analysis between student performance in Mathematics and Science in final result of ND1 2010/2011 session of Federal College of Agricultural Produce Technology Kano. Over the years, educational planners, school Administrators and teachers are concerned about how to maintain students academic attainment at all levels of the school system.
Educational researchers on their own part have carried out a number of research works especially in the areas of factors affecting teaching and learning of Mathematics, Science subjects and others; gender differences and academic performances all in the bid to suggesting from their discoveries possible antidotes that can reverse the situation. Teachers are usually blamed for the poor learning of students in school Mathematics and Science.
With this is believed that when intensive research is conducted the result of the finding as well as the recommendations made will help to improve the performance of students in Mathematics and Science in the case study area and society at large. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY. The main purpose of this study is to analyze critically the differences in the performances between Mathematics and Science in ND1 final result 2009/2010 of students of Federal College of Agricultural Produce Technology, Kano. Specifically the objectives of the study are: 1. To identify the problem of students toward learning of Mathematics and Science in FCAPT 2.
To investigate method of teaching Mathematics and Science in FCAPT 3. To examine the contribution of instructional material toward the teaching and learning of Mathematics and Science in FCAPT 4. To examine the effect of using laboratory toward the teaching and learning process of Mathematics and Science in FCAPT 5. To find out the competency of the teachers of Mathematics and Science in FCAPT 6. To study the relationship and effect of Mathematics on teaching and learning Science in FCAPT 7. To suggest and recommends measure to be followed in achieving good performance in Mathematics and Science in FCAPT.
RESEARCH QUESTIONS. 1. What are the problem of students toward the learning process of mathematics and science in FCAPT? 2. What are the method of teaching adopted in teaching Mathematics and Science in FCAPT? 3. Does instructional material as teaching aids contribute positively towards the learning of Mathematics and Science in FCAPT? 4. Does the using of laboratory for learning process in mathematics and science have positive effects on students of FCAPT? 5. Are the lectures teaching Mathematics and Science in FCAPT qualify and competent? 6. What effect and impart Mathematics has on learning process of Science?
RESEARCH DESIGN The research design adopted for this study is the caused comparative design. This design is aimed at investigating possible cause and effect relationships in this kind of research, the researcher starts by observing some effect and ten attempts to establish some casual connections by searching back through the data for plausible causal factors. RESEARCH AREA The study area is Federal College of Agricultural Produce Technology, is situated in the central metropolis of Kano state, located in Hotoro GRA in Taruni local government.
POPULATION OF THE STUDY The population of the study is made up of all students of National Diploma 1 in Food Science Technology Department, Agricultural Technology Department and Science Laboratory Department 2010/2011 academic session. The population is about 100 students. A distribution of population indicates that 85(85%) were male while 15(15%) were female all from the three department SAMPLE SIZE The sample for the study in 30 students drawn from the 100 students who offered mathematics and chemistry in ND1 first semester 2010/2011 academic session.
This was done because of time factor and some students did not have complete result, they either absents from one of the subject considered. 3 students were selected in Food science department. 3 students were selected out of 10 students offered mathematics and chemistry in Agricultural technology department. While 24 students were selected out of 80 students in Science Laboratory. department these selection were done in order to avoid unbiasness since the population of students in each department were not the same. Total number of 18(60% of male and 12(40%) of female were selected.
SAMPLING TECHNIQUE Data were collected from 6 lecturers teaching mathematics, 5 lecturers teaching chemistry 4 laboratories technology and 115 students. RESEARCH INSTRUMENT A 20 items likert type questionnaire was set by the researcher to test for students and teacher attitude toward the mathematics and science (Chemistry) self concept and personality of the subjects. The questionnaire was inform section A,B and C. section A and B was based on the respondents personal Data. While c were the views of respondent toward the performance of the students in mathematics and chemistry in FCAPT.
Data for academic performance in Mathematics and science (chemistry) were adopted from the ND1 final result for 2010/2011 academic session in the college. After constructing the instrument the researcher took it to his supervisor and later to an expert for vetting all necessary correction were made before the instrument was administered on the subjects. This was to ensure the validity of the instrument. The instrument was the tested for reliability in a pilot school using 50 students. The split-half reliability estimate showed a reliability coefficient of 0. 68.
DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURE The data for the study were collected by the researcher himself. A preliminary visit was made to the college to ask for permission to carry out the study in the college. The college granted the researcher permission to use their students result as case study. The school also accepted to release the final result of ND 1 for the three departments used as case study. The lecturer in charge of mathematics and chemistry help in completing the questionnaire and the students of the college most especially in the said departments. ANALYSIS OF DATA
All the questions raised in the questionnaire were recorded, interpreted and analyzed. Data was analyzed using means rating. A cut off point was determined by finding the means of the fire point option. This is a mean of 2. 00 and above was acceptable while below was rejected. Data were interpreted and analyzed under the following heading. 1. Poor determination and interest of students affect academic performance of students. In mathematics and science (chemistry) in FCAPT. teaching students without practical approach lead to poor performance in chemistry and mathematics in FCAPT. . poor background of students in mathematics and science (Chemistry) affect academic performances of students in mathematics and chemistry in FCAPT. 3. Giving proper workshop and training to mathematics and chemistry lecturer will enhance their teaching process in FCAPT. RESEARCH QUESTION ONE Poor determination and interest of students affects the academic performance of students in science (chemistry) and mathematics in FCAPT TABLE 2: Response of respondent (Student) on interest and determination of student toward learning process of mathematics and science (chemistry in FCAPT) | Items| =4SA| =3A| =2D| =1SD| = 0UD| – X| Decision | 1| Generally, I like mathematics even though I might not be doing well in it| | 10| 80| 10| 15| 1. 75| Rejected | ? | I have never admired mathematician like chemistry| | 75| 10| 20| 10| 2. 30| Accepted| 3| I wish all school subjects were like mathematics. | 5| 10| 60| 35| 5| 1. 78| Rejected. | 4| I wish all school subject were like chemistry| 15| -| 80| 10| 10| 2. 00| Accepted. | 5| Practical approach uses while teaching chemistry make me developed interest in chemistry then mathematics| 20| 75| 10| 10| -| 2. 1| Accepted| 6| Mathematics teacher are not friendly like chemistry lecturers| 10| 15| 5| 85| -| 1. 20| Rejected. | 7| My interest and determination make me more successful in mathematics and science (Chemistry)| 87| 13| 5| 5| 5| 3. 49| Accepted. | 8| I don’t have to stress my self because education is not important to me| 10| 15| 10| 75| 5| 1. 57| Rejected| 9| I think I understand mathematics and chemistry better of only I am being taught in my own language| 10| 70| 5| 4| 6| 2. 82| Accepted. | 10| I only like mathematics than chemistry because I need the knowledge of counting money| 5| 65| 15| 10| 10| 2. 2| Accepted. | | Grand means| | | | | | 2. 20| | Source: research survey 2011. Table 2 above revealed that the majority of respondents (Students) about 90 disagreed that having interest or likes mathematics might not make students doing well while 10 agreed and 15 undecided. 95 respondent (Students) disagreed that they wish all school subject were like mathematics. While 15 agreed and 5 undecided. 85 respondents disagreed that Education is not important to them. While 25 agreed and 5 undecided. Therefore the students needed to be given more orientation about what education is all about.
Similarly 75 respondents agreed that they never admired mathematician like chemist while 30 disagreed and 10 undecided. Hence students needed to be enlighten the more the roles and important of mathematician and chemists in our society at large. 95 respondents totally agreed that learning Chemistry is more interested because it was being taught with practical approach while 20 disagreed and non undecided. 90 respondents disagreed that mathematics lecturers not friendly like chemistry lecturer while 25 agreed. Non undicided.
Also 100 respondent agreed that they there interest and determination make them more successful in mathematics and science (Chemistry) while 10 disagreed and 5 undecided. Majority of the respondent about 100 agreed that they understand mathematics and chemistry more better if only being taught by their own language while 9 disagreed and 6 undecided. Lastly 70 respondents like mathematics than chemistry because of the knowledge of counting money while 25 disagreed and 10 undecided. Hence students needed to be more enlighten in others areas where knowledge of mathematics were being used.
RESEARCH QUSTION 2 – 4 Teaching students without practical approach, poor background of students in mathematics and science (Chemistry) and giving proper workshop and training to mathematics and chemistry lecturer will enhance academic performance and teaching process on students in FCAPT. TABLE 3: Responses of respondents (lecturers and laboratory technologist ) on their view on the research question 2 to 4 above. 1| Items| =4SA| =3A| =2D| =1SD| = 0UD| – X| Decision | 11| Students performance in mathematics and chemistry in FCAPT is encouraging| 8| 2| 3| 1| 1| 3. 0| Accepted| 12| Students are not being taught with practical approach method in mathematics as being taught in chemistry| 8| 2| 0| 1| 0| 2. 87| Accepted| 13| Students background in mathematics and chemistry average poor | 7| 1| 4| 3| -| 2. 80| Accepted| 14| Lack of clear definition of mathematics and chemistry as a subject is a problem to effective learning of mathematics and science (chemistry) in FCAPT| 8| 2| 1| 3| 1| 2. 87| Accepted. | 15| In availability of relevant instructional materials lead to students poor performances in mathematics and chemistry in FCAPT | 10| 2| 1| 2| ? | 3. 3| Accepted| 16| Lack of defined government policy and poor implementation of the policy make learning of mathematics and chemistry difficult. | | | | | | | Accepted| 17| Lack of experience and committed lecturer in mathematics and chemistry lead to poor performance of students in FCAPT| -| 2| 1| 10| ? | 1. 20| Rejected| 18| Mathematics and chemistry lecturer are not well paid in terms of teaching allowance lead to poor performance of the student| -| 1| 0| 10| 1| 1. 13| Rejected| 19| Lack of mathematics laboratory lead to teaching of mathematics without practical approach method in FCAPT| 1| 9| 0| 2| 1| 2. 7| Accepted| 20| Giving proper training and workshop to mathematics and science (chemistry) lecturer will enhance their teaching process in FCAPT| 8| 2| 2| 1| 0| 2. 87| Accepted| | Grand mean| | | | | | 2. 56| | Source:- research survey 2011 Table 3 above revealed that 11 respondents (academic staff) disagreed that lack of experience and committed teacher lead to poor performance of student in mathematics and science (Chemistry) in FCAPT while 1 agreed and 2 undecided. Also 12 respondents disagreed that mathematics and chemistry lecturer are not well paid in terms of teaching allowance while 1 agreed and 2 undecided.
In the same vein 10 respondents agreed that student performances in mathematics and science (chemistry) is encouraging in FCAPT. while 4 disagreed and 1 undecided. 10 respondents agreed that students were not being taught mathematics with practical approach method while 3 disagreed and 2 undecided. Therefore college need to make it their priority the staff training development most especially the academic staff, by sending them to study more in their area of specialization getting more qualifications in their respective field of study.
Lastly 10 respondents agreed that lack of clear definition of chemistry and mathematics as a subject is a problem to effective learning of mathematics and chemistry in FCAPT. While 4 disagreed and 1 undecided. Hence, students need to be taught thoroughly in details DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATION OF FINDINGS This study aimed at assessing comparative analysis between students performances in mathematics and science (Chemistry) in ND1 final result 2010/2011 academic session. A case study of FCAPT Kano.
The sample were drawn from a population of about 10 students spread out in three department namely Food Technology, Agricultural Technology and Science Laboratory Technology. Department in the college located in GRA Hotoro, Kano. The purpose of carrying out this research was to find out what kind of feeling, belief, and attitudes in general both in the part of lecturers and students toward factors that contributed to poor performances of ND1 students 2010/2011 academic in mathematics and science (chemistry). Poor performances of students in mathematics and chemistry can therefore attributed to the ollowing. i) Non availability of instructional materials ii) Poor background of students in mathematics and science (chemistry) iii) lack of interest and determination of performing excellently in mathematics and science on the part of students. iv) Teaching of mathematics without practical approach method on the part of lecturers v) lack of proper training and workshop to be attended by mathematics and chemistry lecturer in the case study area. vi) Government policy and implementation. All the data gathered for the study were recorded interpreted and analyzed using mean rating.
CONCLUSION The learning of mathematics and science depends on the way it is presented to the learner. The way the learner actively interacts with the learning experiences presented to him and the environment within which the learning take place. Teachers attitude towards the teaching of mathematics plays a significant role in shaping the attitude of students toward science I a significant predictor of science students achievement as well as their attitude toward science and mathematics which could be enhanced by teachers enthusiasm resourcefulness and helpful behavior.
Finally teachers thorough knowledge of the subject matter and their making science and mathematics quite interesting. RECOMENDATION This research based on the investigation of the factors that contributed to the performance of ND1 students 2010/2011 academic session in mathematics and science (Chemistry) in Federal College of Agricultural Produce Technology Kano, Hotoro GRA Kano. To reduce the problems associated to the poor performance of the students result in chemistry and mathematics in the case study area.
The researcher wish to give the following recommendations (i) Mathematics and Science (chemistry) require more generous financial support as well as mathematics and science (chemistry) lecturer of right quality in the effort to make mathematics and science (chemistry) more enjoyable. Through attendance of courses, workshops, conferences, seminars and use of current journals. Qualified and committed lecturers should be employed to teach mathematics and science (chemistry) as this will enhance proper teaching and the use of appropriate instructional method and materials that may increase students interest in the subjects.
Teacher should be given in-service training or study leave with allowance especially for science and mathematics teachers. There should be adequate and meaningful syllabus for easy interpretation of science and mathematics, library should be fully equipped with up-to-date mathematics and science textbooks and other related information instructional material for effective research work. The science and mathematics lecturers should be psychologically prepared to teach the subjects given that every other requirement is met.
Finally, both government and the communities should provide conducive atmosphere for effective teaching and learning of science (chemistry) and mathematics. REFERENCES Adetula L. O(2005). The impact of information and communication Technology on Mathematical Science Education. A paper presented during workshop for mathematical science, in tertiary institution. Bajah S. T(1999). The challenges of Science Technology and teacher Education in Nigeria Beyond the year 2000 African journal of Education 43-49 Bandura A (1971). Psychotherapy based upon modeling principle . Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change.
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