The question to answer is how to create motivated workforce in organization and to maintain it for maximum production. The relevancy and applicability of these theories in motivating employees in AS workplace. In organizations managers and leaders can use money as a stimuli and reinforcement tool to change or maintain motivation of employees.
According to Skinner’s theory it is possible to place money as motivator to employees, if they know that if they work hard they will be rewarded for their efforts. If we look at the SouthAfrican mining industry recently, we are able to say employees were not motivated enough any longer in relation to their employment engagement and to what they were earning. Had the managers heard the outcry of the employees they could have apply the Skinners theory of motivation and pay them fairly enough. It is also clear that the employees had share common value congruency of behavior to all down tools. This theory can only be applicable where there is only one issue or behavior the manager would want to induce from employees, and then he would be able to select en stimulus he can use as a reinforcement tool.Also Skinner’s methods of experimentation were only based on one behavior per stimulus.
It employees were to engage in multi-facets demands from the employer no amount of stimuli can sustain their motivation. To a less extent this theory can be used in South African workplace, but with the influence of labor movements with their unrests it will be challenging to resort to this theory. Moreover, this theory was established within laboratory with an individual animal.
In a workplace we have human beings with different behaviors ND values and it could be a challenge to motivate them with one thing.On the other hand Mascots theory of motivation needs the Managers and Leaders to know the needs of their employees from the entrants of employment to the senior Managers. Indeed it so the needs of laborers will always be different to that of Managers. For example managers could be looking for car allowances at some stage and ordinary labors medical scheme allowances could be of more paramount. Model of motivation of Moscow is more suitable because will cater for different levels of employees with their different needs.In order for this method of motivation to work, the organization should have managers at each level of employment to determine such needs and address them with the employees. This theory encourages consultation between management and employees for whatever decisions they want to embark on.
Most organizations are challenged by strikes because the employer would not now the needs of his employees. This theory counter acts any unilateral decisions that the employer could take. Labor Relations Act provides that employer and employees should consult and engage in decision making if such a decision will have adverse effect on each other. There is a great difference between the two theories. The expectancy theory is based on individual’s awareness of his capabilities and competencies in accomplishing the task and his gratification after accomplishing the task. The underlying principle here is that an individual is equipped with some prior knowledge and assess himself whether he can challenge himself to attend to new tasks, and where he cannot then motivation could assist.Whereas miner’s theory is based on controlling and creating certain behaviors in individuals. In this theory an individual is Just a subject, being controlled without his knowledge, and stimulus being used to motivate him.
The expectancy theory places an individual in a position in which he is aware and has to challenge himself. The E-to P expectancy evoke the individual’s perception that the degree of effort he will use in a task will result in a particular level of reference*. Say an employee or an individual’s capabilities are lacking in a task.
Then motivation is sought. Necessary training and clarity of Job requirement has to be effected. An employee has to be graded from simple tasks to complex one.
On skinner’s theory of personality and behavior is programmed, as long as the stimuli is used and sustained the subject will keep on performing the same task. This theory undermines the capabilities of a human being that he cannot learn without stimulus. Further difference between the two theories is that Skinner’s theory