San Francisco Earthquake, 1989* California is on a conservative plate margin* Pacific plate west, north American plate east* Earthquake – 7.1* Struck at 5.
04 pm, October 17th* 63 deaths* 1 million homes without electricity* Damage estimated at $7 billion* Interstate 880 collapsed, trapping motorists* SF and Oakland airport closed – damaged* Marina district in Bay area extensively damaged, collapsed buildings, fires from ruptured gas mainsMount St. Helen’s Eruption, 1980* Washington State, NW USA* Part of Western Cordillera,* Destructive plate margin* Erupted early Sunday morning, May 1980* Rumbled for 2 months – 5 mile exclusion zone* Earth tremors triggered landslide* Pyroclastic flow (rock, gas, steam)* Ash cloud 12 miles high* 57 deaths (low because Sunday morning)* Rivers + lakes filled with mud* 400m lost from top of volcano* Logging camps, roads, bridges and houses destroyedHolderness Coast, the* NE England* Retreats 1 or 2 metres per year* Strong prevailing winds (to west) –> strong longshore drift* Soft clay cliffs –> easy to erode* Mappleton, south of Hornsea on cliff top is in danger* 1991 – rock armour placed at cliff base, and rock groynes on beach* Longshore drift moving south from Mappleton was stopped –> more erosion south of MappletonChina* Had encouraged large families to increase workforce, but couldn’t be sustained.* 1975- families restricted to one child- at current rate* Families with more than one child would lose benefits and be fined* Forced abortions and sterilisations* Incentives e.g. child care for one child families* Birth rate 44 in 1950, 17 in 2000.* In rural areas large families tradition- children provide labour/ look after elderly* Compromise- if first child a girl, could have 2 kids* China will not have enough workers in the future* Girl babies undervalued, so killed so they can have a boyMexico –> USA* Land degradation leads to many abandoning their rural lifestyles and farms* 40% of people are unemployed in Mexico* GNI/capita $8070 Mexico, $31910 USA* The closeness of the countries –> migration = very easy* Number of immigrants tightened therefore many (about 3 million) work illegally* Some entered on visas, but remained when they expired* Health conditions bad at the border; TBBarriers* Big fences* Border guards* Live in unsanitary camp before migration* Have to pay to migrate* In the hands of someone elseMerthyr Farm (MEDC)* Snowdonia National Park* 160 ha* 1250- 1500mm rainfall* Steep hills* Hill sheep/suckler cow farm* 3 full time family members* 2 Tractors, big baler* Inputs: 20 tonnes NPK fertiliser on grazing land, 6 tonnes NPK on silage* Subsidies provide half of income* Quota for 661 ewes and 32 suckler cows* Outputs of 750 lambs, bullocks, cull ewes, barren cows, 1200-1300kg of wood, 650 big silage bales, 15 mountain rams (ï¿½250 each)* Alternative income from contract sheep shearing, camping facilities, opens to public/schoolsAlcan Aluminium Smelter* Near Blyth, near Newcastle* Uses lots of electricity* –> Has own power station 0.5km away* Electricity used to make 1 tonne of aluminium = electricity a family uses in 20 years* Coal mine adjacent to power station for fuel* Bauxite is main material, very heavy/bulky, so producers make lighter/more useful alumina before shipping to smelters –> save money* Weight loss industry* Alumina comes into port in Blyth, then brought by rail to Alcan* Aluminium sent by road, and ports* Provides for industrial and consumer markets* Given a ï¿½28 million grant for redeployment* Smelter, power station and Ellington Colliery has provided jobs for unemployed ex-coal miners* Sited on a large area of flat land – easy buildingArgos Distribution Centre, Stafford* M6 and many other main roads such as the A513, A460 and are within about 1 mile of the site.* 90% of the products transported by road, good transport links* Large local workforce situated around 3 miles away from the site (Stafford/Penkridge).
* Reasonable amount of space for the centre to be built on and to expand.* Its market has to be national, made easier because of the good transport links.* Uses National Grid – cheap* Materials are manufactured goodsTourism in Menorca (MEDC)* Main towns: Maï¿½ and Ciutadella* Situated in Balearic Islands, in Mediterranean Sea* Low annual precipitation; 450mm in autumn & spring* Hot/dry summers* Avg. summer temp.
: 30ï¿½C* Many family-friendly resorts and beaches* Beautiful parks e.g. Es Freginal Park* Placa Alfons III with good restaurants and cafï¿½s* Cycling tracks & good views* Families in summer* Nature-lovers in spring* Employment* Monetary stability* The area is developed and regenerated for tourism, and also helps local people* There is no year-long employment, as there are very few tourists between November and April; paro (money) is given to tourism workers who have no job during winterTourism in Kenya (LEDC)* Main towns/cities: Nairobi, Mombasa* Situated in Eastern Africa* Low plains in coastal area, which rise to central highlands, Great Rift Valley. Fertile plateau in the west.
* Mount Kenya 5199m* Hot and humid at the coast (max. 30ï¿½C)* Temperate inland (max 25ï¿½C)* Sunshine all year round* Rainy season: April-June* Beach resorts with fine sand and coral reefs to explore* Many national parks and game reserves* A different culture* Hiking and climbing on Mount Kenya* Actors and film-makers visit during the dry season to film wildlife for movies* Families visit, at any time of the year, to go on safaris and enjoy the beaches. Families are most likely during the long school holidays.* Nairobi/Mombasa airports improved* Many Kenyans have year long jobs in tourism* Money invested into country* High numbers of tourists in reserves puts animals under pressure, so numbers decrease. Leads to fewer tourists, and lower revenue* Cultures threatened by tourism* Capital leakageWirksworth* In the largest area of limestone quarrying in UK in Derbyshire* Southern part of park* A6 within 5km* Limestone quarried since Roman times for building stone, cement* Very pure limestone* Used in agriculture, lime kilns and for lead smelting* Earth mounds used to reduce noise of explosions and machinery* Water sprays used to prevent the spread of dust* Forms large, white scars on the landscape* Trains are used to transport the limestone, but a lot is transported by Lorries –> congestion (with tourists), noise* They contribute to air and noise pollution* Prohibition orders used by local authorities control developments of the quarriesBraer* Jan. 1993* Shetland Islands* Engine failure –> Tanker ran aground at Sunburgh Head* Storm force 10 winds* Taking oil from Norway to N. America* Taking accepted but potentially dangerous short cut between southern tip of Shetlands and Fair Isle, 35 km south* 1000s of gallons of oil released into sea* Toxic fumes blown inland by wind + deposited oil particles on crops/pasture* Winds too strong to allow planes to spray dispersants* Toxic fumes inhaled = nausea + headaches* Salmon farms damaged –> fish unfit for consumption* Clean up costs high* Airport at Sunburgh closed* Crude oil covered beaches/cliffs* Thousands of sea birds e.
g. fulmar/puffin killed* Subsequent use of chemical dispersants seemed to have more impact that the oil itselfPeak District National Park* 1st national park in Britain – 1438kmï¿½* 22 million visitors each year* People go to walk, for scenery, to go to countryside.* Bakewell for its market, Dovedale for limestone dale,* Surrounded by many large cities e.g. Sheffield?Benefits of tourism* Employment: Up to 950 workers. Many work in shops/services related to tourism.* Income: Fields opened for camping, lots of B&Bs.Tourism keeps local shops going- ‘honeypot’ villages provide lots of jobs, ï¿½75 million made each year* Preservation and conservation: Caudwell’s Mill restored as a visitor attractionMagpie mine preserved (industrial site)Redundant farm buildings now accommodation300 local and traditional eventsProblems of tourism* Congestion of villages and beauty spots; Honeypot areas overcrowded – full car parks, blocked roads* Erosion of paths and sensitive vegetation3005 km of public right of wayHeavy use –> major erosion, esp.
on moorlands where made worse by loose peat, high rainfall and windHeavy wear caused by off road vehicles and mountain bikes* Danger and disturbance to wildlifeSandpipers nest on ground –> sensitive to people passing* Litter – unsightly, causes pollution, damages livestock/wild animals. Broken glass dangerous to people. Cause of fire* Damage to farmland – trampling crops + grass reduces animals’ winter feed. Left open gates mean livestock escape. Sheep killed by uncontrolled dogs* Tourist villages – gift shops + cafes for tourists make more money than shops for locals e.
g. baker’s, butcher’s. Locals feel they are being pushed out by tourists/ they have more facilities