P1- Discuss factors which affect the development of self-esteem M1- Compare two theories of self-esteem which contribute to our apprehension of self-concept The NHS define self-pride as being the sentiment each person has of themselves. NHS. ( 2015 ) . It is the self-image and ego –respect of an individual’s perceptual experience of themselves. Roshahl. c. ( 2008 ) . This assignment is traveling to discourse the six factors that affect self-esteem. These factors are the growing advancing clime. the looking glass ego. self-actualisation. self-importance individuality. societal individuality and eventually. the constructing of self-concept. Maslow stated that people are motivated to accomplish certain demands. When one demand is fulfilled a individual seeks to carry through the following 1. and so on. Maslow. ( 1943 ) .
The self-actualisation theory was created by Maslow in 1943. This theory is based on the hierarchy of demands. This theory is an on-going procedure. This theory is non something which is aimed for by a individual. alternatively it’s something you do. In add-on to this. the theory is non restricted to persons ; anyone is able to accomplish this hierarchy of demands. The hierarchy is made up of degrees these degrees are ; physiological demands. safety demands. love and belonging demands. respect demands and eventually. is all of the above are achieved. harmonizing to Maslow they are able to so make self-actualisation. Maslowski. R. M. Morgan. L. ( 1973 ) . The first phase of this theory is the biological and physiological demands. in order to accomplish this a individual must hold the basic demands of life. they are ; air. nutrient. fluids. shelter. heat. shelter. heat and slumber.
The safety demands of the hierarchy include protection from elements. security. order. jurisprudence. stableness and eventually freedom fright. The love and belongingness phase of Maslow’s theory requires friendship. familiarity. fondness and love from work co-workers. household. friends and romantic relationships. McGuire. K. J. ( 2012 ) pp281. The 4th phase of the hierarchy of demands is the regard of demands. to accomplish this phase an single must see accomplishment. prestigiousness. self-concept. statues. laterality. command. self-concept and regard from others.
The concluding phase is the self-actualisation. This phase involves gaining personal potency. self-fulfilment. seeking individual growing and extremum experiences. Maslow states that without accomplishing the first four phases. self-actualisation can non be achieved. The 2nd theory is Erickson’s Ego theory. This is another theory which is based on phases. Erickson’s theory focuses on the eight phases of life get downing with baby and completing with older age. The theory is a lifespan theoretical account of development taking in five phases up to the age of 18 old ages old and three farther phases beyond the age of 18 and into maturity. Each phase has a struggle. declaration and a cumilation in age these will wholly be presented in the tabular array below.
Cumiliation in age
0-1 old ages old
Basic trust vs. misgiving
Appreciation of independency and relatedness
Early on childhood 1-3years old
Autonomy vs. Shame
Credence of rhythm of life from integrating to decomposition
Play age 3-6 old ages old
Initiative vs. Guilty
Humour. empathy and resiliency
School age 6-12 old ages old
Industry vs. Inferiority
Humiliation. credence of the class of one’s life and unrealized hopes
12-19 old ages olds
Identity vs. confusion
Sense of complexness of relationships. values of tenderness and loving freely
Early on Adult
20-25 old ages
Intimacy vs. Love isolation
Sense of complexness of life ; meeting of centripetal logical and aesthetic perceptual experience
Adulthood 26-64 old ages old
Generative vs. Care stagnancy
Caritas. caring for others. empathy and concern
65 old ages old -death
Integrity V. Despair
Experiential individuality. a sense of unity strong plenty to defy physical decomposition
The growing advancing clime theory suggests that a individual requires a supportive environment that encourages an person to turn positively. The theoretician of this theory is Carl Rogers. The growing advancing clime theory is a individual centred attack. The intent of the individual centred attack is to alter. understand personality every bit good as human relationship. Jones. R. N. ( 2010 ) PP102. Harmonizing to Carl Rogers. a positive involves diverseness. authorization which means to let the person to turn and accomplish. Other factors which are required to make a positive environment is unfastened communicating. freedom and the capableness to make their full potency. However. without a positive environment. the turning publicity clime theory can non be achieves. The looking glass ego theory looks at how an single positions themselves. The theoretician of this theory is Horton Cooley. The looking glass ego is another theory that is separated into phases. This theory is made up of three phases.
The first phase Idaho that a individual imagines how they are perceived and viewed by others. The 2nd phase of the looking glass theory is when a individual imagines how they are judged by others and this is based and concluded by the first phase of the theory which is how a individual imagines they are perceived by another person. The concluding phase of this theory is the experiencing of a type of feeling or reaction to the staged in one and two. Gbadebo. S. A. ( 2011 ) . pp124. For illustration a individual may believe that they are perceived as being polite and friendly to another person. This would be the first phase of the theory ( imaging how they are perceived by others ) . This would hence take to the single imagining they are judged in a positive visible radiation and a well-bred person. This would be the 2nd phase of the theory ( the manner in which a individual imagines they are judged by others ) . The manner in which an person acts towards them would find the sentiment they have of them. Gbadebo. S. A. ( 2011 ) . pp124.
If a individual who is isolated in a state of affairs is judged to be a polite friendly person they are more likely to do friends as they may give off a friendly vibration promoting people to desire to prosecute with them nevertheless if they were perceived as being rude and chesty. other may non desire to tie in or include the person in their conversation and may even believe the person is intentionally insulating themselves from the state of affairs. The Social individuality theory was created by Henri Tajfel in 1979. He proposed that groups which people belonged to were an of import beginning of pride and self-pride. These groups may be a person’s societal category household or a person’s pick of football squad. Groups give persons a sense of individuality and sense of belonging to the societal universe. Burke. P. J. ( 2009 ) .
This theory focuses on how we perceive and make sense of each other. This helps with the building of society and civilization. This theory suggests that people are interested in the information of others such as their beliefs. purposes and associations. Tajfel. H. ( 2010 ) . This enables a individual to construe and understand the words and actions of another individual every bit good as their determination devisings. This besides allows a postulation of a person’s hereafter. The concluding factor that affects a person’s self-pride is the constructing of self-theory. A sense of ego or personhood. of what sort of individual one is. Identities ever involve both sameness and difference. ( 2000 ) Penguin Dictionary. ‘Identity is about belonging. about what you have in common with some people and what differentiates you from others. At its most basic it gives you a sense of personal location. the stable nucleus to individualism. But it is besides about your societal relationships. your complex engagement with others’ ( 1996 ) .
This theory consists of three chief statements they are ; We are born with our individualities ; individualities and culturally and historically dependent. individualities are unstable and disconnected and are a consequence of witting and unconscious idea and emotion ( affectional fond regard to peculiar individualities ) . This theory consists of beginnings of individuality. they are gender. age. gender. ethnicity. societal category. ingestion. employment. functions and duty. household webs. friendly relationships. usage of engineering. political relations. leisure activities and eventually the organic structure. All of the discussed theories are all lending factors to the development of person’s self-esteem. All of which explain have a different apprehension. Some were obviously based on the demands of an person in order to populate such as Maslow’s hierarchy of demands. others focused on the different phases of life a individual experiences such as Erickson’s eight phases of life. M1- The purpose of this following undertaking is to compare two theories of self-esteem which contribute to our apprehension of self-concept.
The two theories this assignment is traveling to concentrate on are Erickson’s eight phases of life theory and Maslow’s hierarchy of demands. The first similarity of these two theories is that they are both broken down into phases nevertheless Maslow’s hierarchy of demands is split into five phases Maslow. A. H. ( 2013 ) whereas. Erickson’s life phases are split into six. The different figure of phases is on difference between the two theories. A farther difference between the two theories is that Erickson’s phases are based on the phases of life every single experiences. Therefore the theory can be easy generalised to all persons during a specific age group. In add-on to this. Erickson’s self-importance theory is structured in a timeline of phases. However. the phases of Maslow’s hierarchy of demands are the demands needed in life such as heat. shelter. love and household. Rakowski. N. ( 2011 ) .
Therefore Erickson’s theory focuses on experience whereas Maslow’s theory focuses on the demands of an person and the ends of accomplishment of an person. An extra difference between Maslow’s and Erickson’s theory is that Maslow provinces that without successfully accomplishing one phase a individual can non continue to accomplish the following phase forestalling a individual for accomplishing realization. Erickson’s eight phases of life are experienced by all persons throughout their life span and hence all phases are experienced and unsolved phases can be resolved in ulterior phases in life. Tiffany. L. ( 2014 ) . Erickson’s self-importance theory focuses on psychosocial phases whereas Maslows hierarchy theory focused on the demands of an person. The twelvemonth the two theories were developed is another comparing. Erickson’s Ego theory was developed in 1950 whereas Maslow’s hierarchy theory was developed in 1943.
Erickson’s Ego theory has an overall coating point which is when an single achieves self-actualisations whereas Maslow’s hierarchy of demands is a uninterrupted rhythm which continues until a individual reach decease. Tiffany. L. ( 2014 ) . A concluding comparing of the two theories is that Erickson’s Ego theory was influenced by a theory which already existed ; this was Freud’s theory sing the construction and topography of personality. Maslow’s hierarchy theory on the other handed was an drawn-out version of his ain work instead than the work of others. Chapman. ( 2001 ) . Both the theories of Abraham Maslow and Eric Erickson support the usage of human response appraisal in the experimental and behavioral positions. Mcleod. S. Erickson’s eight phases of life besides identifies undertaking which must be achieved at each phase and likewise to Maslow’s hierarchy of demands. if these undertakings are non achieved. a individual can non continue successfully achieve the following undertaking.
NHS. ( 2015 ) .
Interpersonal growing and self-actualisation in groups. Maslowski. r. m. Morgan. L. ( 1973 ) . Text book of basic nursing. Roshahl. c. ( 2008 ) .
( 2000 ) Penguin Dictionary of Sociology.
Maslow’s hierarchy of demands. An debut. McGuire. K. J. ( 2012 ) . pp281 Theory and pattern of reding and therapy. Jones. R. N. ( 2010 ) PP102. Journey into the looking glass. Gbadebo. S. A. ( 2011 ) . pp124.
Identity theory. Burke. P. J. ( 2009 ) .
Social individuality and intergroup dealingss. Tajfel. H. ( 2010 )
A theory of human motive. Maslow. A. H. ( 2013 )
Maslow’s hierarchy of demands theoretical account. Rakowski. N. ( 2011 ) .
Erik Erickson. psychological phases merely psychological science. Mcleod. S. Chapman. Maslow’s hierarchy of demands ( 2001 ) .
Tiffany. L. . Erickson and Maslow. comparison and contrast ( 2014 ) .