Costs and benefits of Globalisation on Indian Economy Essay


In this essay we are about to travel Global. Recent events on the fiscal market demo how mutualist the universe is. Common value should non be forbid but what about common losingss. Who should be responsible for them? Many blasted globalization.

What is it and does the universe has other options to develop. Should we return to the schemes of the past? Or should we go on to populate through an age of indispensable economic revolution? The term globalization generates changeless arguments and contentions. But most of those who talk about globalization are non even cognizant of its basicss.The term globalization is used instead mistily. Globalisation is the 1 specific mode of international integrating. Technology has decidedly changed the agencies of manner we live and besides the ways in which the concern is done in universe today. The state by agencies of internet connexion and enthusiastic workers can hold entree to limitless occupations and industries. Let ‘s conceive of a image of a universe where all restrictions are vanishing.

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A universe where there are no boundaries and where competition can come from anyplace. That ‘s the universe where our hereafter lies. To do this universe a healthier topographic point globalization is traveling to play a really of import function.

There are some who believe that we must seek to turn our dorsum on this fresh universe. They besides think that the opportunity to continue our populating criterion is to do a fortress around the state and halt trading and depend merely on our ain industries. But at present it is impossible to turn back the moving ridges of globalization but in making so we can really do ourselves pip off. So alternatively of fearing the hereafter we should encompass it.

Globalization and Structure of Indian Economy

The best definition of globalization has been expressed through a verse form by Canadian economic expert Gerald Helleiner- “ The hapless complain, they ever do, but that is merely idle yak. Our system ( globalization ) brings wages to all, at least to all who affair ” .

Broadly talking the term globalization is most decidedly an economic procedure. Even though it is modeled as a manner of ‘bringing the universe together ‘ , globalization is all about the concern community interrupting down the staying barriers to the free flow of its capital around the universe.It basically means opening up of any state economic system system and its integrating among the other economic systems of the universe. It involves liberalism and execution of economic liberalisation policies and reforms to advance the patterned advance of private sector. The word globalization itself means something new is go oning to the universe. The universe is going a “ individual topographic point ” and sing planetary patterns, values and engineerings that are determining people lives to the point that we are come ining a “ planetary age ” . For India, there are ample confusions about the costs and benefits of globalization.

By and large Indians think that as the state province has laid down their weaponries to globalisation all the hazards are aching and runing.

Figure 1:

Data Source & A ; Projection: VMW Analytic ServicesIndia ‘s population is fast nearing a billion ; this fact is easy to read but much more hard to absorb – one thousand million people, each of whom sees the universe in a somewhat or radically different manner from the others. Since Indian independency in 1947, the economic system of India has increased about exponentially ( Refer Fig.

1 ) . From early 1990s, different authoritiess have adopted inward – oriented development schemes i.e. the province promoting an economic system through self sufficiency and a dominant function in the economic system via province planning. Forces of demand and supply were non allowed to play any cardinal function in resource allotment.Figure 2: India, Share of exports and Imports of goods and services in GDP, 1995-2005ImportsAfter 1991 balance-of-payments crisis, where foreign currency militias fell to $ 1 billion & A ; rising prices went high to 17 % , India laid Numberss of stabilization-cum-structural accommodation steps with widespread effects. The chief purpose was to remerge the Indian economic system with the universe economic system by cut downing barriers to merchandise and investing, and deregulating of a extremely bureaucratized economic system. The Foreign Direct Investment was besides encouraged to cut down the state ‘s trust on debt-creating capital influxs, at the same time restituting India ‘s antediluvian engineerings and progressing easy into planetary markets.

ExportsFigure 3: India GDP growing from 1991 – 2007Since so the existent export growing rates of goods and services in 2006 and 2007 record high degrees: 8.6 % and 9.7 % ( Refer Fig. 2 ) . The propellent growing of exports doubled India ‘s portion in universe exports of goods and services from 0.5 % in 1991 to about 1.

7 % in 2007. Even India imported 11.4 % more goods in 2006 and 13 % in 2007 as compared to the mean growing rate from 1995 to 2005 ( 11.

3 % ) . As a consequence, India ‘s trade ratio of imports plus exports to GDP has twofold since 1991, from 16.5 % to 45 % in 2007.Regardless the unfinished reform docket, India ‘s GDP growing ( Refer Fig. 3 ) has increased & gt ; 9 % over the past 3 old ages, by an norm of 5.8 % yearly during the period 1991-2004. It contributes about 2 % to universe GDP and about 1 % to universe exports of goods and services ( Beginning: World Development Indicators ) . Consistent with first-class growing, per capita incomes were doubled from 1990 to 2007 and poorness dropped from 46 % in 1986 to 36 % in 2000.

However, poorness remains a grave job.Recently several economic experts and lobbyists have compared Indian economic system with that of China but its advancement way has been significantly different from China ‘s. Indeed, it has been besides really different from that followed earlier by Japan, Korea and the other Asiatic giants. First, the recent economic rise in India is mostly thanks to services instead than fabricating sector. India has became a planetary participant in several services sectors such as IT and concern procedure outsourcing, while its fabrication sector keep enduring from low productiveness. Second, the 2/3rd of India ‘s population still rely on agribusiness for a life as compared other Asiatic states and thirdly, India attempt to remains closed to merchandise in comparing to other developing and emerging states.

Even FDI influxs have besides ten folded in last two decennaries. It has been tripled since 2005 and in 2007 it was about $ 23 billion ( Data Source: Government of India, Ministry of Finance, Economic study ) . But India is non yet as nowadays in the Central and Eastern Europe markets as China is. Its portion in the European market was 0.7 % ( 2006 ) , about unchanged from 1990s. However, China ‘s portion in these markets has increased aggressively from 1.

3 % in 1992 to 5.7 % in 2006 ( Data Source: OECD ) .Indian has the possible and should do the attempts to travel from good growing to rapid changeless growing. The job in India lies in the goad productiveness which is severely affected by the low instruction and wellness reforms and besides by the bantam openness of the Indian economic system.

India ‘s weak substructure has hurt the dining potency of Indian production. From unreliable energy, missing H2O supply to bad route and train conditions, substructure deficits have created high concern costs across the sectors ( Beginning: OECD, 2007c ) .

Benefits and Costss of Globalisation on Indian Economy

Globalization has been a classical procedure with ups and downs. Its growing has been mostly led by the technological forces in the Fieldss of conveyance and communicating. The flow of trade has been frequent and there are lesser barriers for the people across the geographical boundaries.

There are less revenue enhancement barriers and fewer restrictions on fund flows. India is no exclusion to globalization. In twelvemonth 1991, when we were up to my neck in fiscal shortage, really high rising prices ( around 17 % ) , balance of payments crisis and low industrial production, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund ( IMF ) bailed us out with important loans with adjunct Structural Adjustment Program ( SAP ) .

This guided in Liberalisation, Privatisation and Globalisation.Indian Economy has undergone many of import reforms in the 1990 ‘s. The LPG theoretical account has helped the Indian economic system to turn quickly and go internationally competitory. From early 1991, a new era has dawned for India and its immense population. This formidable stage of economic development has had a fantastic impact on the overall India ‘s economic development. All major sectors of the economic system have improved dramatically and its effects over the last decennary can barely be ignored. Furthermore, it has marked the morning of the existent integrating of Indian ‘s economic system into World ‘s economic system.Globalization has created many employments & A ; bought big investings to India.

Our economic system has been on the rise at good rates for the past few old ages & A ; many new chances have opened up for India. We have extremely benefited from economic systems of graduated table. The alteration in planetary barriers has permitted the companies to gain from the largest & A ; cheapest labour market, natural stuff and engineering. Foreign concerns have significantly augmented their investings in Indian industries. The wages of industrial labour have improved mostly ; hence, the lock outs and work stoppages have declined aggressively as labour is happy. Now twenty-four hours ‘s concern market has no boundaries and companies can advance their merchandises globally. This has helped the Indian companies to put manus on planetary engineerings which has surely increased our qualities of life criterions.

Indian Entrepreneur ‘s has been more cognizant about the rivals, recent tendencies and quality of merchandises. The competition between the planetary companies can be seen in the improve qualities of the trade names and services to the client.Soon, we can speak about the narrative of two India ‘s: We have the best of times ; we have the worst of times.

There is bright prosperity, there is high poorness. We have stupefying 5 star hotels with dark doomed places. Globalisation gave us everything, globalization gave us nil.Although Rajiv Gandhi authorities, the 6th premier curate of India, introduced some economic reforms between 1985 -1989 but it was the Narasimha Rao authorities, 9th premier curate of India from 1991-1996, that gave a exact form and started the fresh economic reforms in India.

Below are the high spots of some utmost benefits of globalization on Indian Economy:Figure 4: The sector wise part to Indian GDP ( Source: MOSPI Statistics ( Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation ) )Gross Domestic Product ( GDP ) growing rate: The rate of addition of India ‘s existent GDP was low during 1980-90 ( 5.6 % ) to 1993-2001 ( 7 % ) . But in the last few old ages, the GDP one-year growing rate in India has been singular i.e. 7.5 % ( 2003-2004 ) , 8.

5 % ( 2004-2005 ) , 9 % ( 2005-2006 ) and 9.2 % ( 2006-2007 ) ( Ref Fig. 3 ) . Present P.M.

Dr. Manmohan Singh is certain to hold a 10 % addition in the GDP for 11th five twelvemonth program ( 2007 – 2012 ) . In 2006-2007, the sectors lending highest in GDP growing are Industry sector ( 26 % ) , Service sector ( 55 % ) and Agriculture sector ( 19 % ) ( Ref Fig. 4 ) . The addition in GDP has in fact helped to increase the foreign exchange militias from $ 39 billion ( 2000-01 ) , $ 107 billion ( 2003-04 ) , $ 145 billion ( 2005-06 ) , $ 200 billion ( 2007-2008 ) to around $ 268 billion on 1st February 2011 ( Beginning: IMF ) .Foreign Direct Investment ( FDI ) : Since early 2003, India ‘s FDI publicity board is officially run by authorities i.e. Ministries of Economic and Finance.

Since so there has been drastic reforms in the regulations and ordinances of FDI in India. The FDI is now acknowledged as a cardinal driver of development in the state. India is ranked 2nd in international FDI in twelvemonth 2010 behind 1st graded China and in front of Brazil & A ; Russia and it will go on to be in the top 5 finishs to pull planetary investors during 2010-12 ( Beginning: World Investment Prospects Survey 2009-2012 by UNCTAD ( United Nations Conference on Trade and Development ) ) . India attracted cumulative FDI equity influxs of $ 122.68 billion from mid 2000 to stop 2010, harmonizing to the informations released by the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion ( DIPP ) . In October 2010, the FDI influxs were $ 1,392 million. The figure 5 on following page shows the India ‘s top metropoliss and sectors which attracted highest FDI influxs in Jan 2008 ( Beginning: DIPP India ) .

The chief attractive sectors have been information engineering, telecom, services, health care and telecommunications. India controls about 45 % of the planetary outsourcing market with income more than $ 50 billion.Figure 5: An overview of India ‘s top metropoliss which contributed to a great extent in FDI equity influxs.Imports and Exports: The general thought of the independency motion in India ( twelvemonth 1940s ) , led by great M.

Gandhi, was based on the hatred for anything foreign, particularly the one originating from Britain. The imported goods were burnt on regular footing and everyone believed that everything can be produced place. The belief was that we can be self reliant and self dependant and import of goods can convey the foreign laterality. In 2009, 7 decennaries subsequently India ranked 15th in universe in footings of import volume and 22nd in the footings of export volume. In 2004 – 2005 our imports were $ 107 billion ( Ref Table 1 ) , a record addition of around 36 % as compared to $ 79 billion in 2003 – 2004.

The exports besides jumped by 24 % entering $ 79 billion as compared to $ 63 billion the old financial. The oil imports increased by 19 % and the import measure zoomed from $ 21 billion to $ 29 billion in two financial old ages. Other imports excepting oil were $ 77 billion in 2004 – 2005 that is 34 % higher than $ 58 billion in 2003 – 2004.Other Benefits: Information Technology ( IT ) and outsourcing has been given a particular position in the growing of Indian economic system. The ground may be that the authorities desires to show our state as a technological advanced state and to accomplish this they must promote the IT sector. The term particular position means that the sector and planetary / local investors will acquire many particular advantages from the authorities. Furthermore, the impact of the planetary economic systems has influenced the Indian instruction system over the last few old ages. Improved educational establishments, hi- tech colleges, advanced schools are the fruits of globalization.

The colleges have implemented the developed instruction engineerings, to do the pupils cognizant of the latest developments. India is in the 4th place in regard to market capitalisation with $ 894 billion after the US ( $ 17,000 billion ) , Japan ( $ 4800 billion ) and China ( $ 1000billion ) . India should shortly traverse the trillion $ grade.Even though we have non so far reached “ the terminal of history ” but globalization has certain took us closer to “ the terminal of geographics ” .

The globalization has non ever been just. The hard currency flow over the last two decennaries has been really unsymmetrical. Every $ 1 of assistance money to hapless states, the rich states get $ 10. It has deepened the poorness and inequality. It has affected both the societal and political stableness among and within provinces. Capital rights are given more advantages over the labour rights. The trade and finance regulation are unjust and this has had mixed effects on rich and hapless states. In India, the chief casualties of globalization are the poorness and the agribusiness sector.

Here are some costs which India paid because of globalization:Agribusiness Sector: Agribusiness has ever been the strength of the Indian economic system. It plays important portion non merely in supplying nutrient to people, every bit good as the supply of natural stuff to industries and to export trade. 60 % of the Indian population plants in agribusiness sector and nevertheless its part in GDP is merely 20.6 % .

India agricultural growing continued to drop down from 13 % in 2003 to 1 % in 2002-2003 ( Beginning: ) . This set back in agribusiness is in contrary to 6 % enlargement in Indian economic system in last decennary. The grounds of this lessening, harmonizing to Economic Survey 2006-07, are: less investings, disproportions in fertiliser usage, low seeds replacing rate, a distorted inducement system and low post-harvest value add-on.

Indian husbandmans are offered about no subordinates and really less aid from authorities. The Indian authorities has taken no important steps to negociate with foreign companies to put up engineerings for the husbandman ‘s aid. All these factors have led to diminish in the income of the husbandmans and have increased the rural debts. In 2000, the husbandman self-destructions were registered to 12 % of entire self-destructions in the state.

Poverty: Though globalization has drastically improved our life criterions but still it does n’t hold the important consequence in bettering the poorness. Harmonizing to 2007 Forbes list, the figure of billionaires in India has risen to 40 and yet there is 80 % of India ‘s population which lives on less than $ 2 a twenty-four hours. Nevertheless, Indian authorities is doing tonss of attempts to better poorness in rural countries.

They are seeking to supply more installations to the poorer. The 2005 World Bank appraisal was that 41 % of Indian population live below the international poorness line of $ 1.25 a twenty-four hours. So India authorities has still a long manner to travel to better the poorness state of affairs of India.

Industry: The globalization has raised a high competition between the foreign companies and domestic companies. As the foreign merchandises being better, the people prefer to purchase them alternatively of Indian 1s. This has reduced significantly the sum of net income of India companies.

The new engineering has reduced the demand of labour and therefore resulted in the cost of their occupations. No uncertainties that the effects have been positive every bit good as negative but the Indian authorities should do such economic policies related to industry that are good and non harmful.Human trafficking and addition in diseases like HIV are besides the really high cost paid for globalization.

And the commiseration is that adult females ‘s and kids ‘s are among the most open to it.


Globalization has provided India the chance to turn well. Though we have to be more careful on the whole as all the economic systems are linked together and crisis in one economic system have drastic consequence on others and recent events has confirmed that.

But still globalization has decidedly helped India to go a better economic system. We have the abilities and accomplishments to accommodate and alter harmonizing to the flow of planetary market. In the terminal my acute hope for the improvement and the bright hereafter of our state is to travel out and confront this “ globalising ” universe.

I am certain that India of 2025 will be a different topographic point. It will be much more prima force in the universe economic system, than 25 old ages ago or even at the start of the twenty-first century.


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