Just as life chances are unequally distributed within society throughout our worlds development, so are there inequalities of life chances on an international order. These inequalities are conventionally known in terms of a ranking of worlds. First, Second, Third and Africa considered as a Fourth world. Second, Third and Fourth world countries face barriers that hinder its social, political, economical, natural and technological development. Such examples of this would be economic depression, political factors, war, and natural disasters.
But some nations have overcome these obstacles and have continued to push forward with its development. The Great Depression began in October 1929, when the stock market in the United States had dropped rapidly. This crash led into the Great Depression. The ensuing period of twelve years resulted in it becoming ranked as the worst period of high unemployment and low business activity in modern history. Banks, businesses, and factories were closed and it had left millions of Americans in lack of an occupation, a home and some without food.
A vast majority of Americans had come to depend on the government or charities for their only source of food. The depression became a worldwide business recession of the 1930’s that had affected almost all nations across the globe. It led to a sharp decline in world trade as each country tried to protect their own industries. The solution to this economic turmoil in America was through two actions, Franklin Roosevelt’s relief programs and American industries producing war goods primarily for their Armed Forces and the British Army.
Franklin D. Roosevelt, who was the president of the United States at the time, proposed his plan the ‘New Deal’ to bring economic relief, recovery and reform. This package included programs that put American citizens back to work, projects that gave financial security for the elderly, and programs which assisted impoverished Americans to pay for medicine and food. Examples of these programs would be the Federal Writers Project, National Recovery Administration, Works Progress Administration and the Social Security Act. But the ‘New Deal’ did not fully bring out the America out of Economic turmoil just yet.
It had ended when industries began the production of weapons, vehicles and supplies for the Allied armies with the promotion of war bonds which helped with the costs of manufacturing these equipment. These two projects had created thousands of job opportunities for American citizens, encouraged spending and a new booming industry. Subsequent to the fall of Berlin, the post-war partition of Germany between the four powers decided at the Yalta and Potsdam conferences had only meant to be temporary, to prevent any resurgence of German military power.
Germany was supposed to have been reunited after the completion of ‘Denazification’ and demilitarisation programmes. The German Democratic Republic (GDR) and the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) were separated not only by the Berlin wall but also by separate ideologies. The GDR was under supervision of the USSR who created a communist government, with the three western powers, the United States, United Kingdom, and France constructing a democratic government in the west. The two conflicting governmental ideologies provided just one of many barriers that needed to be hurdled until the Berlin wall finally fell.
The East German economy did not participate and prosper in the global growth after the world war unlike its western counterpart. In East Germany, quality food was scare, and the bread lines that were associated with the Soviet Union were also present there. The standard of the medical and dental care was poor. Housing was also assigned, despite the size of the family. These technological, social and economic problems in the GDR resulted in an inequality of living standards between the two sides, which caused a lack of development. It took almost forty-five years in 1989, till the Berlin wall had finally fallen.
The motivation was not purely political or even pursued solely by the political leaders. The fall of the wall was caused by “A truly peaceful and popular revolt” by the people of Germany. The politicians had the final say, but it was the people who initiated the action and pushed over the first domino that led to the reunification of Germany. And in September, 1990, the United States, Great Britain, France, and the Soviet Union signed a treaty with the East and West German governments relinquishing all the occupation rights they had acquired under the terms of Germany’s surrender at the end of World War II.
On October 3, 1990, after more than 40 years of division, Germany was finally reunited as one nation. As long as there have been civilizations, there have been wars. Whether it is justified or not it is evident that there has always been repercussions on the environment and the people. Signs of devastation is evident, lives are lost and money is diverted from the development of the country. The Persian Gulf War is an examples of this. Saddam Hussein and his Iraqi forces had invaded and occupied Kuwait and was threatening an invasion of Saudi Arabia.
Control of these two countries, together with its own oil reserves, would have given the dictator a major portion of the world’s oil production and supplies. This was unacceptable in the West, in particular the US, who (with UN Resolutions to back them up) put together an international coalition of armed forces to expel Iraqi forces from Kuwait. During the conflict, approximately eleven million barrels of oil was released into the Arabian gulf. This had affected the entire ecosystem of the region, ravaging marine life and migratory birds to a high extent.
Accumulation of solid wastes, had caused groundwater contamination took place on a large scale. There was a huge amount air pollution caused by the fire and smoke, produced by explosives and chemical weapons. The Gulf War had caused more than 8,000 casualties (Coalition forces and civilians). But after six months of combat, Coalition forces had managed to liberate Kuwait and Iraqi forces were forced to withdraw. Post-war, the UN created a five-member boundary commission to reaffirm the inviolability of the Iraq-Kuwait border.
In April 1992, the commission announced its findings, which demarcated the Kuwaiti border with Iraq about 570 meters to the north near the Iraqi town of Safwan and slightly north in the region of the Ar Rumaylah oil fields. These modifications benefited Kuwait and it had given the country six more oil wells in the field and part of the Iraqi naval base of Umm Qasr. Kuwait accepted the commission’s finding and announced it intended to build a security fence along its border with Iraq as an advance warning system. The nation of Bangladesh is prone to natural factors such as flooding and monsoons.
But in 1988, Bangladesh had suffered its worst ever flood. It had caused over 1000 deaths and 30 million Bangladeshi’s were made homeless. Food supplies were affected as well, approximately 668. 529 hectares of crops were destroyed, which resulted in a substantial shortage of dry food. An estimated 400 industrial factories were forced to be closed, leaving thousands of citizens jobless. Its infrastructure such as its communications, roads and railways were severely affected making transport and rescue operations very difficult.
In the ensuing years, world organizations such as Oxfam had cooperated with the Bangladesh government, to prevent this devastation from occurring again. A project called ‘Cluster Villages was proposed, ground was raised above the flood level to protect the villages. Trees and grasses were planted around the perimeter of the village to prevent erosion. A Bangladeshi villager had said : “We grow vegetables like pumpkins on the roof, and fruit trees like mango and jackfruit that can be eaten during or after the floods.
These households did not go under water so this food remained available to the families living here. ” Food shelters were also constructed (the size of 18 to 35 football pitches) and it could accommodate 100 to 300 families . Villagers brought their livestock and possessions, to the safety of this flood shelter in case of emergency. Disaster preparedness committees were created and Oxfam also provided radios and rescue boats. Committee members had testified, and had stated : “Previously we just reacted.
We’d work together, but now we plan before the flood happens. It’s meant that, for example, we didn’t have to leave here in 2004. ” In conclusion, economic depression, political factors, war, and natural disasters have served as barriers that have hindered a nations development. But countries have formulated several successful schemes that have overcome these obstacles; it may be creating new community projects to better the countries social and economical systems or seeking assistance from foreign powers.
And in other examples, these schemes had been the very push that accelerated its growth to a state of full development. Prosperity and growth can only be achieved when all parties unite and come together as one, Henry Ford had once said : “Coming together is a beginning; keeping together is progress; working together is success. ” American children in poverty during the Great Depression A Kuwaiti during the Persian-gulf war in 1990 East and West German citizens during the fall of the Berlin Wall Bangladesh villagers assisting one another after a flood