Development Case Study Essay

There are many different terminology uses to describe the development of a nation, which can often lead to confusion. In the 1950s and 1960’s poorer nations were labeled as backwards or undeveloped. Yet this did not accurately describe the status of nations, due to the fact that ever nation in some way is developing. Thus, undeveloped as replaced with underdeveloped, implying that there was as some development taking place. However, the term offended several people, as it implicated that other nations were inferior, therefore, it was changed to less developed countries. Over the years the title for a poorer nation was changed several times from developing, to third world, to a least common Two-Thirds World.

Generally, people believed that the Northern hemisphere of the earth was richer than the South, yet not all richer countries were situated in the north. Thus, the modern term used is ELDC (Economically Less Developed Countries) and EMDC (Economically More Developed) or LEDC (Less Economically Developed Country) and MEDC (More Economically Developed Country). A nations Gross National Produce (GDP) determines whether it is a MEDC OR LEDC. However, there are other indicators of development that are used to identify social, economic and environmental differences between nations these aspects are part of the Human Development Index (HDI). An example of a MEDC is the United States, whereas the Philippines is a LEDC. These two nations have numerous differences in the development of their nation, such as, their access to basic need, distribution of wealth, and environmental qualities.

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The United States is border by two bodies of water the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Pacific Ocean. To the North the US is bordered by Canada and Mexico to the south. Ever since World War I the US has been classified as a superpower due to it military and economic superiority. Like most MEDCs, the US is at stage four on the demographic transition model due to its low birth rates of 14.16 births per 1,000 populations. In addition, the death rate is 8.26 deaths per 1,000 populations. The US is a developed nation thus it has high quality of medical care and hospitals available therefore, the infant mortality is low with 8.37 births per 1000. In 2007 it was reported that the total fertility rate (TFR) was 2.09 children per women.1 The life expectancy is one of the highest in the world with men living up to 75.15 years old and women living until they are 80.97 years old. The population is mostly made up of 15-64 year olds, which is 67% of the population whereas, 0-14 is only 20.2% and over 65 is 12.6%. 2As stated previous the U.S has one of the best medical facilities in the world with one doctor for every 650 individual.3 This is vast contrast to the Philippines. In the US there is a net migration rate of 3.05 migrants per 1,000 populations. There is a large population of Mexicans in California, Florida and other states located along the Mexico-American border. The USA admitted 62,643 refugees during FY 04/05.

The Philippines is a island located in Southeastern Asia. It is an archipelago between the Philippine Sea and the South China. In 2004 the Philippines was rated the 12th most populous country in the world, according to US Census Bureau.4. In 2007 the population was 91,077,286. The main portion of the population is aged between 15-64 years old, with 61.3%, 34.5% of the population is 0-14 years old and 4.1%.5 Like the US the Philippines is at stage four on the demographic transition model; with a relatively low birthrate of 24.48 births per 1,000 and death rate of 5.36 deaths per 1,000. The infant mortality rate of the Philippines is slightly higher than the US with a total of 22.12 deaths per 1,000. Furthermore, the TFR is 3.05 child per women. Unlike the US the Philippines doesn’t have a strong medical health care or medical facilities. In 2003 it was reported that there was only one government doctor for every 28,493 people, in addition there was only one government nurse for every 16,986. For every 5,193 person there was only one midwife and only one rural health unit for every 29,746 person6. This is drastically different to the USA. Despite the lack of health care Filipino males tend to life until they are 67 years old and women living until they are 73 years old. The Philippines has a net migration of -1.48 migrants per 1,000.7 The number of refugees and internally displaces persons is 60,000.

A nations access to food, water and shelter and the level of malnutrition, are key indicator to the level of development. In the US There is a total or 3,069 cu km of renewable water resources and a total of 477 cu km per year freshwater withdraw, domestic, industrial and agricultural. Whereas, the Philippines have 49 cu km of renewable water, and 28.52 cu km per year or freshwater withdrawal. These statistics show a vast difference in the supply of water between the two nations. Furthermore, access to food in the US is relatively easy as the government provide those who can buy their own food with food stamps. However, the Philippines is deeply affected by the malnutrition with 15.2 million people undernourished.

As for shelter, in the US there are an estimated 727,304 homeless people nationwide, meaning about one in every 400 Americans were without a home, according to the Human Rights Record of the United States in 2005. Again, the contrast between the Phiippines and the US is drastic. It is predicted that by the year 2015 there will be about 2.5 billion Filipinos living in slums. These slums are very unsanitary, with little access to water, the people that live there could be evicted at any time, eventually being left with no where to go. Despite the fact that the government has set up housing finance institution however, it went bankrupt twice because it could not collect the loans from the developers. The air and water pollution is a major concern for the Philippines. Major infectious disease are past from food or are water borne diseases, such as bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and typhoid fever.

The first case of HIV in the Philippines was reported in 1982. In 2003 it was reported that 9,000 Filipino’s were living with HIV. Of the total cases found 62% were men, with the mode of transmission was heterosexual contact, followed by homosexual and bisexual contact.13 Less that 500 people have died in the Philippines as a result of HIV. In contrast, the US has a higher population of HIV with 950,000 people living with AIDs. In 2005 there were a reported 17,011 deaths as a result of HIV.

Another way of measuring the development of a country is the literacy rate. The literacy rate in the US is based on everyone over the age of 15 who can read and write, thus the total of literacy in the US is 99%.. However, on the other hand, the Philippines has a literacy rate, those who are 15 and over can write and read, is 92%.

In the Philippines there is one teacher for every thirty six students at the elementary level, and one teacher for every 34 students at the secondary level, according to the Department of Education in 2000. There is one teacher for every thirty-six students or 1:36 at the elementary level and one teacher for every 34 students at the secondary level, according to the Department of Education in 2000.18 Whereas, in the US there is one teacher per 10 students and the average class size is 20-25 students.

Another factor that contributes to the development of a country is the employment rate and the industries that people work in. In the US the unemployment rate is 4.6% in comparison to the Philippines who has a unemployment rate of 7.3%.20 The main sectors and focus of employment in the u is sales and office with 24%, fallowed by manufacturing, extraction, transportation, and crafts 22.6%, however the lows form of employment is farming, forestry and fishing with a mere .6%.

In 2007 the US had a GDP of $12.79 trillion and a GDP per capita PPP in 2007 was $ 46,000. Whereas, in the Philippines most of the population work in services, with it containing 50% of the population. Unlike the US the Philippines has a high level of agricultural employees of 35%. Despite the fact that the Philippines is classed as a LEDC over the last three decades there has been a fast pacing growth in the economy, with the DGP growth exceeding 7% in 2007.21 This increase has been the result of higher government spending, a flexible service sector, and the work of Filipinos abroad. In 2007 the GDP of the Philippines was $ 144.1 Billion and the GDP per capita PPP in 2007 was $ 3,300.22 “Nevertheless the Philippines will need still higher, sustained growth to make progress in alleviating poverty, given its high population growth and unequal distribution of income.”The graph above illustrates the difference in the GDP and PPP through out the world.

The measuring of distribution of income is measured on a scale of 0 – 100, 0 being perfect and 100 being equally inequality. The Gini Index for the Philippines is 46.6, in 2003. This suggests that there is a great deal of inequality in society. The Philippines has a low percentage of high-income earners, a growing working class yet a very large low-income group. Like the Philippines the US has a rating of 45 for income inequality.

Despite the fact that the US is considered one of the wealthiest nations the US has a lot of debt to other nations. In June of 2007 it was estimated that the US had external debt of $12.25 million. The U.S. Treasury statistics indicate that, at the end of 2006, foreigners held 44% of federal debt. About 66% of that 44% was held by the central banks of other countries, in particular the central banks of Japan and China.26 In total, lenders from Japan and China held 47% of the foreign-owned debt. Some argue this exposes the United States to potential financial or political risk that either bank will stop buying Treasury securities or start selling them heavily. On the other hand, the Philippines public debt in September 2007 was 59.5% of GDP. Since 1997, the sustainable interest rate has been less than the actual interest rate making it more difficult for the Philippines to pay its debt in the long run. With

negative primary surpluses, the gap between the actual and sustainable interest rates has been widening. Unless there are more direct corrective measures, Philippines could find itself in a crippling crisis

The Philippines is a nation that is struggling with development, whereas, the US is a thriving nation with a tremendous amount of income. The study of he HDI, literacy rates, death rate population ect are aspect that indicate clearly the development situation in a specific country.

Biblography:

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1″Philippines.” The World Factbook.CIA. March 2008. 03 March. 2008https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/rp.html

“Doctor Deficit.” Time. 20 September 2003. March 2008.

http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,910001,00.html?promoid=googlep

Palacio, Rose. “RP population now 83 million.” 2004/09/07. March 2008. http://www.pia.gov.ph/default.asp?m=12;sec=reader;rp=1;fi=p040907.htm;no=6;date=

“Hunger: facts, prospercts.” People and food and agriculture. Peopleandplante.net. 13 December 2007. March 2008. http://peopleandplanet.net/doc.php?id=343)

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NationMaster.com. March 2008. http://www.nationmaster.com/index.php

“Philippines at a Glance.” You and Aids. UNDP. 2007. March 2008. http://www.youandaids.org/Asia%20Pacific%20at%20a%20Glance/Philippines/index.asp

“Special Analysis 2002” U.S Department of Education. National Center for Education Statistics. March 2008. http://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/2002/analyses/private/tables/tab04.asp

“Economy of the Philippines.” Wikipedia. March 2008 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economy_of_the_Philippines

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2 “United States.” The World Factbook.CIA.

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4 “Hunger: facts, prospercts.” People and food and agriculture. Peopleandplante.net

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18 Palacio, Rose. “RP population now 83 million.” 2004/09/07. March 2008.

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27 “Economy of the Philippines.” Wikipedia. March 2008

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