Developmental Psychology and Early Childhood Education Essay

Introduction The first six old ages of life are critical old ages of human life since the rate of development in these old ages is more rapid than at any other phase of development. Global encephalon research besides informs us about the significance of early old ages for encephalon development.

Early Childhood Care and Education ( ECCE ) makes a positive part to children’s long term development and acquisition by easing an enabling and exciting environment in these foundation phases of womb-to-tomb acquisition.Parents as health professionals are critical in supplying a exciting acquisition environment to the kid and the first two and a half to three old ages need non be in a formal acquisition environment. The National Curriculum Framework acknowledges the significance of engagement of parents. household and community. The programme at the early childhood phase helps to guarantee chances for holistic acquisition and growing.The ECCE programme demands to be determined by children’s developmental and contextual demands. supplying for more demand based inputs and an enabling environment. Given this demand for an individualized attack.

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it was believed that a common ‘curriculum’ would non be appropriate for all. However. over the old ages it has been observed that the practical worlds are different and most of the ECCE programmes on offer presently do non hold developmentally appropriate programmes for the immature kid.The vacuity created by a deficiency of course of study model has resulted in its being filled with either a minimalist programme or the downward extension of the primary phase course of study.

To guarantee optimum development for all kids. there is a demand to make a planned course of study model. embracing developmentally appropriate cognition and accomplishments.

with flexibleness for contextualization. A course of study model is besides required to guarantee that of import acquisition countries are covered. taking attention of all the developmental demands of the immature kid.

It besides facilitates acceptance of a common pedagogical attack to make for a certain degree of quality and turn to the widespread diverseness in the ECCE programmes available for the immature kids in India. This Curriculum Framework is in line with the Government’s vision of ECCE as spelt out in the National Early Childhood Care & A ; Education Policy and is a wide model of basic guidelines for curricular ends. programme content. schoolroom patterns. parent counsel 4 Early Childhood Education Curriculum Framework 2012 and teacher readying across different commissariats and across all parts.

The intent of this unfastened model is to advance quality and excellence in early childhood instruction by supplying guidelines for patterns that would advance optimal acquisition and development of all immature kids and set out the wide agreement of attacks and experiences instead than elaborate shaping of the content. A cautious attack is being adopted to non supply a elaborate curriculum/syllabus which would be normative and ‘delivered’ to the immature kids in a ‘straight jacketed manner’ .The Curriculum Framework calls attending to the common rules and developmental undertakings. at the same clip. esteeming the diverseness in the kid raising patterns and contextual ECCE demands.

Each programme is expected to develop its ain course of study to run into the demands of its kids. their households. the specific scene. the lingual civilization and the local community.

However. the programmes should be based on the course of study rules and guidelines laid down in this model.This Framework is a dynamic papers and would be continually reviewed and evolved in the visible radiation of emerging demands. Besides. with the acceptance of the model.

instance surveies of emerging best patterns will follow and acquisitions from them would farther beef up the model. This Model is steadfastly focussed on the demands of the kid and should take to improved quality of larning and increased attainment of larning results for kids take parting in ECCE programmes.The other constituents for the holistic ECCE programme such as nutrition.

wellness and attention are to be ensured by cross mention from related instruments. Aims of Early Childhood Education The purpose of Early Childhood Care and Education is to ease optimal development of the child’s full potency and lay the foundation for all unit of ammunition development and womb-to-tomb acquisition. This purpose is to be achieved through enabling the kid to: ? Develop a positive self-concept. ? Establish a sound foundation for a good build.

equal muscular coordination and basic motor accomplishments.5 Early Childhood Education Curriculum Framework 2012? Imbibe good wellness wonts and basic life skills/ self-help accomplishments necessary for personal societal accommodation. ? Enhance verbal and non- verbal communicating accomplishments which would ease look of ideas and feelings in fluent. correct. clear address. ? Develop the five senses and cognitive accomplishments and constructs which are foundation for higher order thought and logical thinking. ? Develop emotional adulthood by steering the kid to show.

understand. accept and control feelings and emotions.? Imbibe values. societal attitudes and manners of import in his/her socio cultural context and to go sensitive to rights and privileges of others. ? Develop independency. aesthetic grasp and creativeness by supplying kid with sufficient chances for self-expression and active geographic expedition.

probe and experimentation. ? Make a smooth passage from preschool to primary through development of emergent literacy and school preparedness. Principles of Early Learning Learning begins from birth: From babyhood kids are mentally and physically active.They learn through all their senses and stimulations. Children concept cognition: They construct their ain cognition or working theoretical accounts while they actively engage in their environment and through repeated interactions with people and stuffs. This merely means that kids touch. gustatory sensation. agitate things etc.

to happen out what happens and larn about things in their environment. Children’s wonder and desire to larn: Children are funny and eager to larn. They have an built-in demand to do sense of their experiences and larn about the universe around them.Children learn through drama: Play is cardinal to the child’s wellbeing and development Children’s self-generated drama provides chances for geographic expedition. experimentation.

use and job resolution that are indispensable for building cognition. Play contributes to the development of representational idea. 6 Early Childhood Education Curriculum Framework 2012 Child development and acquisition are characterized by single fluctuation: No two kids are same. Each kid has an single form and timing of growing and development every bit good as single manners of acquisition.Children’s personal.

household experiences and cultural backgrounds besides vary. Children’s larning reflects a repeating spiral that begins in consciousness. and moves to geographic expedition. to inquiry. and eventually. to application. Any new acquisition by kids Begins with consciousness. which is generated from their experiences with objects.

events. or people and ends with use. where kids are able to utilize what they have learnt for multiple intents and use their acquisition to new state of affairss.At this phase kids start researching the following degree of information and the coiling continues. Children need to see success more than failure to organize a positive self-concept: The experiences should be planned in conformity with the maturational degree of the kids. such that they are disputing yet accomplishable. so as to advance assurance. When kids have assurance in themselves.

they do better. They are eager to seek new and difficult things ; they gain new accomplishments and go more confident and capable.Children develop holistically and benefit from incorporate experiences and instruction: Learning and development of kids takes topographic point in entirety. All the spheres of development i. e. physical. motor. cognitive.

linguistic communication. socio-personal. emotional and originative and aesthetic grasp are interrelated and take topographic point at the same time. Curriculum Content The course of study must turn to the undermentioned interconnected spheres of holistic development through an integrated and play based attack which focuses on development of life accomplishments.? Physical and Motor Development: Gross motor accomplishments ; coordination of all right musculuss with sleight ; oculus manus coordination ; sense of balance.

physical co-ordination. and consciousness of infinite and way ; nutrition. wellness position and patterns. ? Language Development: Listening and comprehension ; unwritten skills/speaking and communication ; vocabulary development ; pre- literacy/emergent literacy accomplishments like phonological consciousness ; print consciousness 7 and constructs ; letter- sound Early Childhood Education Curriculum Framework 2012 correspondence ; acknowledgment of letters ; edifice words and sentences and early authorship.

Introduction to linguistic communication of school dealing. ? Cognitive Development: Development of assorted constructs including pre figure and figure constructs and operations ( cognition and accomplishments related to comparing. categorization. seriation.

preservation of infinite and measure. one to one correspondence ; numbering ) ; spacial sense ; forms and appraisals in measuring ; informations handling ; accomplishments related to consecutive thought. critical thought. detecting. logical thinking and job resolution ; and knowledge about constructs and physical. societal and biological environment.? Socio-Personal and Emotional Development: Development of self-concept ; selfcontrol ; life skills/ self-help accomplishments ; wont formation ; inaugural and wonder ; battle and continuity ; cooperation ; compassion ; societal relationships ; group interaction ; pro- societal behavior ; showing feelings. accepting others feelings.

? Sensory Development: Development of the five senses through ocular. auditory and kinesthetic experiences. ? Development of Creative and Aesthetic Appreciation: Exploring different art signifiers. develop temperaments. look and grasp for artistic. dance/ play and musical activitiesPhysical & A ; Motor Development Creative and Aesthetic Appreciation Language Development Socio-Personal Development Cognitive Development Emotional Development 8 Early Childhood Education Curriculum Framework 2012 ECCE is… . . • A balanced drama based programme of linguistic communication.

cognitive. originative and psychomotor activities A kid centered programme catering to single children’s larning & A ; emotional demands through single. little and big group activities and one to one communicating. A school preparedness programme which ‘readies’ kids for larning to read.

compose and make arithmetic subsequently.A programme which indirectly promotes self-denial and thereby interior subject in kids through interactions. • ECCE is not… . . A course of study edge programme for learning 3R’s nor ‘a vocal and a rime and travel home’ attack. A instructor centred programme that follows formal schoolroom attack as in school A plan for officially ‘teaching’ reading.

authorship and arithmetic. which is to be done in primary. Not a programme which demands unquestioning obeisance or exercising rigorous schoolroom subject • • • • • • ( Source: Kaul. V.

( 2010 ) : Early Childhood Education Programme.National Council for Educational Research and Training ) The ECCE programme should guarantee ‘holistic development’ of the kid and reflect the inseparable nature of attention and instruction by comprehensively turn toing the demand for attention. nutrition. wellness and wellbeing of immature kids and parent reding along with back uping the development of all spheres. The holistic development attack is critical for proviso of interrelated and interconnected activities covering all spheres of development. Suggestive Developmentally Appropriate/Age appropriate Activities for ECCE For Children Under 3 old ages?Focus on wellness. nutrition and early psycho societal stimulation through free drama and a batch of grownup kid interaction. Eg.

s. . ( infant games. traditional vocals & A ; syllables. entree to assortment of drama stuffs. individualized grownup attending and interaction.

chances to research. early debut to narratives. infant books. drawings etc. ) in safe.

broad and clean environment. 9 Early Childhood Education Curriculum Framework 2012 For Children between 3 to 4 old ages? Planned drama based programme for all unit of ammunition development with more of free drama. Continuous chances. more free but some guided. for grownup –child. kid to childBasic Dogmas of Curriculum Development? Based on demands and capacities of immature kids? Recognition of particular characteristics of children’s believing? Mix of formal and informal interaction? Familiarity and challenge in mundane beat? Primacy of experience instead than expertise? Developmentally appropriate pattern and flexibleness? Use of local stuff. humanistic disciplines and knowledge which reflect the diverseness and civilization of the kids.

Beginning: Position Paper. National Focus Group on ECCE. 2005 interaction and interaction with drama stuffs and environment through a assortment of single.

little group and big group activities.? Opportunities to listen to narratives. learn rimes. create. indulge in inventive drama.

ask inquiries. do simple job work outing. experiment to advance active and synergistic acquisition and by and large have a ‘feel good’ experience for a positive self-image. For Children between 4 to 6 old ages Traveling towards an increasing ratio of grownup guided vs. free drama activities. and more of big group activities for 4-5 twelvemonth old and focused more on specific school preparedness for 5-6 twelvemonth old.

with increasing complexness in all of above. ? Reading Readiness: vitamin E.g.

image –sound fiting. forms. phonetics ; increasing vocabulary ; verbal look. developing bond with and involvement in reading through image books. storytelling. charts etc. 10 Early Childhood Education Curriculum Framework 2012? Writing Readiness: e. g.

oculus manus coordination. involvement in composing. left to right directivity. ? Mathematics: developing accomplishments in categorization. seriation.

form doing. concluding. job work outing. organizing constructs: pre figure and figure constructs and infinite constructs and vocabulary. environment constructs.? Motor development: all right motor development through activities such as beadwork. pegboards and mystifiers and big musculus development through running. jumping.

equilibrating activities etc. ? Creativity and aesthetic grasp: Creative play. cultural activities. field trips etc. The programme should be relevant to single and social demands. The age limits are declarative and the activities have to be planned harmonizing to the developmental degree of the kids.

Principles of Programme Planning? ? ? The activities should be age and developmentally appropriate.Activities furthering all spheres of development should be suitably planned. The attending span of immature kids is 15-20 proceedingss ; hence the continuance of activities should be 20 proceedingss. with extra clip allotted for weaving up and induction of the following activity. However.

the programme should let infinite and flexibleness for demand based fluctuations. ? There should be a balance between structured and unstructured ; active and quiet ; outdoor and indoor ; autonomous and grownup initiated learning chances and single. little group and big group activities. ? ? ? ? The experiences should come on from simple to complex.A broad scope of single and group experiences should be planned which are related to the child’s environment. are gratifying and disputing for kids. Everyday Fosters a sense of security in kids. Therefore some modus operandi should be followed in the day-to-day programme.

The ECCE programme should ne’er be stiff. 11 Early Childhood Education Curriculum Framework 2012? The continuance of the pre-school programmes should be 3 to 4 hours. The programme should supply for some remainder period during the twenty-four hours and if it is of longer continuance. as a full twenty-four hours programme.

so a nap clip is to be ensured. ?Learning chances should be interconnected. associating larning experiences across developmental spheres in a meaningful context. reflecting the existent life context of the kids. ? The linguistic communication used should be the female parent lingua of the kid. Attempts should be made to widen their linguistic communication sensitively and present the school linguistic communication bit by bit to ease school preparedness. ? Curriculum end and aims should steer schoolroom procedure and appraisal of the kids. The course of study should be implemented in a mode that reflects reactivity to family/ place values.

beliefs and experiences.? The programme should supply chances for geographic expedition and experiential acquisition. advancing active battle with people and objects in the environment. Results of Early Childhood Education Curriculum Children who? ? ? Communicate efficaciously Display emergent literacy accomplishments.

mathematical accomplishments and scientific disposition Express emotions in socially acceptable mode. are socially adaptative and concerted? Have physical control. strength and healthy wonts Pedagogical Approaches The course of study adopts a drama and activity based attack.

Childs are visualised as active existences who construct their ain cognition and the procedure of learning –learning is one of co-construction of cognition. with grownups as facilitators. 12 Early Childhood Education Curriculum Framework 2012 Various attacks are practised for transacting the Early Childhood Education programme. Some normally adopted attacks are: Montessori Method: This method is characterized by an accent on independency. freedom within bounds. and regard for a child’s natural psychological development and is transacted through specialised sensory stuff.

Regio Emillia: Based on the work of Loris Mallaguzi. this is a constructivist attack which focuses on creative activity of a acquisition environment that enhances and facilitates children’s building of their ain thought through the combination of communicative. expressive and cognitive linguistic communications as they engage actively with people. stuff and environment. Progressive Method: This is an eclectic attack which draws from the major kid development theories.

Acknowledging the many waies of larning. latest researches and modern-day work lay the foundation of this model.Thematic Approach: Integrated subjects and undertakings form the nucleus content of the course of study. These subjects should enable the kids to do meaningful connexions among the different constructs and develop holistic apprehension of the universe around them. The course of study should be flexible and antiphonal to the demands of the kids in the category. It is to be constructed to accommodate the diverse societal.

cultural. lingual contexts in the state. and initiate integrated acquisition.A programme can follow any of the above mentioned attacks to transact the course of study. An incorporate daily/ weekly/ monthly programme should be prepared with a all-around choice of larning experiences that strengthen all spheres of development and are age and developmentally appropriate.

The activities for different spheres and constructs should be planned purposefully to enable a kid to actively prosecute with and see the constructs. These will assist to consolidate the acquisition and lay the foundations for future.Caution should be observed to non compare the course of study to merely an exercising of organizing activities. instead it should be viewed as a planned and purposeful intercession and grownup kid and kid to child interaction to ease the procedure of cognizing. understanding and building of cognition by the kids. The purpose of the course of study should be to further 13 Early Childhood Education Curriculum Framework 2012 development through incorporate activities instead than mere completion of worksheets or insistent exercisings and activities.To turn to the demands of the big group of kids in one category and multi-age scene.

the scheme would be to carry on the activities in big group. little group and single degree. Essential Play and Learning Material In early childhood phase. a kid learns through interacting with immediate environment hence environment should be exciting and should hold a assortment of stuffs to elicit and prolong the child’s wonder. involvement and advance his acquisition. ? Adequate supply of developmentally appropriate drama stuffs to further all unit of ammunition development should be available at the ECCE Centre?The stuffs should be safe. clean and in good conditions.

Sufficient measure should be available to work in little groups and it should be easy accessible to the kid. ? The stuffs should advance gross and all right motor development and assist the kid to detect and research including building and retracing. It should advance centripetal geographic expedition and societal interaction along with originative looks through humanistic disciplines. picture. etc.

Some indispensable drama stuffs are Indoor Material O Blocks for constructive drama o Manipulative toys 14Early on Childhood Education Curriculum Framework 2012 o Material for inventive drama /Dramatic drama – dolls. marionettes. masks. kitchen sets. mirrors.

old spectacle frames. bags. old places.

burdening graduated tables. clock etc. o Material to develop Language accomplishments – books and image books. storytelling assistance.

marionettes. narrative cards. sound board. conversation cards. flash cards. image dominoes.

aggregation of rimes and narratives. ocular favoritism and auditory and ocular association stuffs. slates. chalks. crayons. chalkboard.

pulling paper. etc.o Material to develop cognitive accomplishments – sound boxes. ocular favoritism cards. touch cards. experience bag. nutrient points of changing sort to develop centripetal accomplishments.

figure Domino cards. image saber saw and self-correcting mystifiers for fiting. screening. set uping. sorting. job work outing.

memory and consecutive thought to develop cognitive accomplishments and stuffs in the environment o Musical instruments o Art stuff for originative look such as pigments. crayons. pencil. pigment coppices. cotton. togss. clay. knife.

documents. scissors. fabric. gum and fevicol. bead. etc.In add-on to locally available stuff.

teachers/caregivers can develop drama and larning stuff for specific activities planned in the programme. Outdoor Materials o Play equipment to construct equilibrating. jumping. mounting. singing. rocking. cycling. etc.

o Materials like big or little balls. old Surs. rings. etc. for throwing. catching. kicking. turn overing.

etc. 15 Early Childhood Education Curriculum Framework 2012 O Sand and H2O drama agreement with sand cavity. mugs. spoons. cups.

pail. screens. strainer. etc.Assessment Assessment is an indispensable and built-in constituent of any ECCE programme to guarantee that the programme remains child centric and the experiences and activities are planned harmonizing to the degree of the kid. It gives an penetration into children’s involvements. accomplishments and possible troubles in their acquisition from which following stairss in acquisition and instruction can be planned and thereby provides a platform to back up the planning of a coherent course of study for patterned advance in acquisition.

In order to guarantee that the programme is antiphonal to the developmental demands of the kid. it is indispensable to keep their developmental and larning profile. The intent of appraisal is to give utile information about children’s acquisition and development to the grownups supplying the programme as besides to kids and their households. It besides helps guarantee early designation of developmental holds. particular educational demands and peculiar abilities.

Assessment contributes to rating. alteration. and development of programmes. The countries of appraisal? ? ?The child’s involvement and engagement Skills and abilities Social interactions The appraisal of the kids should be formative. uninterrupted and flow from the experiences planned in the course of study. Formative uninterrupted appraisal implies documenting the development of the kid. by construing the grounds from the twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours experiences of the kid with the intent of recognizing and encouraging strengths and references learning/developmental spreads.

Teachers need to measure each child’s advancement on an on-going footing. through observations of their behavior ; their graphics and other merchandises.Home-based observations may besides be 16 Early Childhood Education Curriculum Framework 2012 conducted. The current degree of public presentation should be rewarded to reenforce little stairss of achievements towards the long term ends. Portfolio should be maintained for single kid. It should incorporate anecdotal records. developmental checklists.

samples of pulling. authorship and other activities. observation notes and parent teacher meeting notes. Role of Caregiver/Teacher The caregivers/ instructors in an ECCE programme are facilitators who engage kids in multiple experiences to further their all-around development.They play the undermentioned functions: ? Observe kids to place their demands and capablenesss and move with the gait of the child’s development? Plan appropriate. ? ? ? developmentally holistic and ambitious activities Focus non merely on planning and conducting activities but besides on uninterrupted procedures for interaction and associating larning to child’s environment. Create nurturing and positive relationships with kids and among kids Organise supportive larning environment by taking attention of facets such as the agreement of the physical environment and equipment ; the programming of activities and events and groupings?? ? Work in partnership with parents Facilitate acquisition to run into the aims of the course of study Help in early designation and intercession for kids with particular demands 17 Early Childhood Education Curriculum Framework 2012 To carry through the above the instructors need to bask being with immature kids. be knowing about children’s development and early childhood course of study and should be skilled at implementing the course of study.

Function of Parent The immature kid spends most of the clip at place and much of the early acquisition occurs through the child’s twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours interactions with the household. The parents have a major function to play in the child’s development. much beyond simply being around the kid and supplying nutrient and other basic demands. Parents need to: ? Supply a contributing environment at place for optimum development and acquisition and pass quality clip with the kid? ? ? ? ?Encourage geographic expedition and experimentation at place and optimally use the ample chances for incidental and womb-to-tomb larning originating from the day-to-day activities Play a concerted function and set up a relationship of trust and common regard with the teacher/caregiver at the ECCE Centre Share and be after the development of their kid along with the teacher/caregiver Participate in the unfastened yearss and other events for parents and community Not to coerce formal acquisition and competition at this early age and regard children’s abilities and personalities.Supportive Necessities The unfastened model attack to curriculum adopted herein requires certain stipulations as necessities. These are: ? An enabling and exciting larning environment which has been carefully designed and is child friendly 18 Early Childhood Education Curriculum Framework 2012? ? ? ? ?Contextually and culturally appropriate course of study content Developmentally appropriate acquisition and play material Activity ; rime and narrative bank Children’s Activity Book Trainer’s Manual and Teacher’s Guidebook turn toing adult-child interaction.

agreement of the physical environment and equipment. planning of the day-to-day everyday etc. to assist instructors implement the course of study efficaciously? ?Supportive supervising Professional development chance for ECCE health professionals 19 Early Childhood Education Curriculum Framework 2012 Annexure 1 Some Significant Themes to be covered in the Curriculum Myself. my household and community Food. wellness. hygiene and cleanliness Natural universe and environment: workss ; animate beings and birds ; fruits and veggies Physical environment: air. H2O. existence.

seasons Social environment: My state ; festivals and jubilations ; vicinity ; agencies of conveyance 20.Early on Childhood Education Curriculum Framework 2012 Annexure 2 Sample Weekly Plan Theme: Animals Time 9. 00-9. 30 9. 30-10. 00 Monday Circle Time Free Conversation ( Animal Names ) Tuesday Assembly Guided Conversation ( Homes of Animals ) Screening Cards ( Animals and their immature 1s ) Block Play Lunch Tearing and gluing on animate being drawings Wednesday Circle Time Free Conversation ( Food of Animals ) Soft and Hard Surface Thursday Assembly Guided Conversation ( Animals and their immature 1s ) Shape: Circle Friday Circle Time Guided Conversation ( Uses of Animals ) Pattern Writing.

10. 00-10. 30 Seriation Activity ( Small to big animate being ) 10.

30-11. 00 11. 00-11. 30 11.

30-12. 00 Animal Race Lunch Free manus drawing of favored animate beings Swings and slides Lunch Models of carnal places Walking on Zigzag line Lunch Making Clay Animals Sand Pit Lunch Mask Making 12. 00-12.

30 Animal Rhyme ( Pet Animals ) Music and Movement Activity ( How animate beings move ) Rhyme Dramatization ( Farm Animals ) Animal Story ( Wild Animals ) Song and Dance ( Birds ) 12. 30-1. 00 Winding up & A ; Departure Winding up & A ; Departure Winding up & A ; Departure Winding up & A ; Departure Winding up & A ; Departure.Note: The clip allotted for each activity is 15-20 proceedingss ; the clip slots of 30 proceedingss allotted in the program include puting up.

distribution of stuff and weaving up for each activity. 21 Early Childhood Education Curriculum Framework 2012 Annexure 3 Sample Thematic Web Numeracy: Screening images of animate beings and their immature 1s Creative Art: Models of Animal Homes Language: Rhymes and narratives on Animals Cognitive: Animal names Types: Pet/ Wild/ Aquatic Animal nutrient. sound. place Animals Physical & A ; Motor: Animal Race Tearing and Gluing on Animal Drawings.Socio-Emotional: Free Conversation Music & A ; Movement: Song and Dramatization 22 Early Childhood Education Curriculum Framework 2012 Important Resources 1. Bhatnagar.

R ( 2005 ) : Small Steps. A Manual for Preschool Teachers. National Council for Educational Research and Training.

New Delhi 2. Kaul. V. ( 2010 ) : Early Childhood Education Programme. National Council for Educational Research and Training. New Delhi 3. Mother and Child Protection Card.

Ministry of Women and Child Development. Government of India. 4. Muralidharan. R. . Asthana.

S. ( 1991 ) : Stimulation Activities for Young Children.National Council for Educational Research and Training.

New Delhi 5. Position Paper on Early Childhood Care and Education. National Focus Group ( 2006 ) . National Council for Educational Research and Training. New Delhi 6. Soni. R. Kapoor R.

Vashishtha. K. K. ( 2008 ) : Early Childhood Education. An Introduction. National Council for Educational Research and Training. New Delhi 7.

Swaminathan. M. and Daniel. P. ( 2004 ) : Play Activities for Child Development: A Guide to Preschool Teachers.

National Book Trust. New Delhi. 8. WHO Child Growth Standards- Methods and Development. World Health Organisation 23.


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