Different Types of Investment in Human Resources Essay

Now-a-days, if any country is economically strong; those countries can get strong recognition in the whole world. And a country will get this kind of strength if they have better and profitable business condition. Business means integration of all kind of activities which help to run a company.

To run a successful business, we need too many activities like- finance, human resource, production etc and marketing is one of them. Without marketing we cannot earn profit because without selling the products/ services, we cannot run our business.Marketing activities help us to sell the products, do promotions, helps to create brand image and helps to get profit. In this world nothing is constant everything changing rapidly, change is the only unchanged in the world and marketing activities deal with this changes We can use many techniques to sell the goods and can create an image in the mind of customers about our products and our company. Those techniques are known as marketing strategies.

Have we ever thought that how these strategies were developed, who made these strategies?To answer these kinds of questions, at first the names which come to our mind are- Philip Kotlar, Adam Smith or Grey Armstrong. We can recall their names because we read their books our educational institutions; we gather their articles, books, quotes to get more insights about marketing. But we know years after year’s people have engaged themselves to do marketing but may be that time they were not aware this term ‘Marketing’.

Have we ever heard the name of “Sun Tzu”? How many of us know the famous book named “The Art of War” written by him. Many of us don’t know about this book, not even the importance of it.This book was written 2500 years ago. This book is all about war. The writer wrote thousands of techniques to win without war.

There are only thirteen chapters on the books but on those chapters the writer wrote all the techniques to beat the enemy. Now these techniques are used as marketing strategy. The Art of War is an ancient Chinese military treatise attributed to Sun Tzu which is also referred to as “Sun Wu” and “Sunzi”, a high-ranking military general, strategist and tactician, and it was believed to have been compiled during the late Spring and Autumn period or early Warring States period.It is commonly known to be the definitive work on military strategy and tactics of its time. It has been the most famous and influential of China’s Seven Military Classics, and for the last 2000 years it remained the most important military treatise in Asia, where even the common people knew it by name. It has had an influence on Eastern and Western military thinking, business tactics, legal strategy, and beyond. The book was first translated into the French language in 1772 by French Jesuit Jean Joseph Marie Amiot and a partial translation into English was attempted by British officer Everard Ferguson Calthrop in 1905.

Leaders as diverse as Mao Zedong, General Vo Nguyen Giap, Baron Antoine-Henri Jomini, General Douglas MacArthur, and leaders of Imperial Japan have drawn inspiration from the work. Sun Tzu (544-496 BC) wrote the original text of The Art of War shortly before 510 BC. “Sun Tzu” means simply “Master Sun” in Chinese. His surname was Sun, but his first named was Wu, not to be confused with the state Wu of the time, a different Chinese character. He was born in what is today the Shandong area, but at that time it would have been the northern state of Ch’i.Not very much is known about his life.

Historically, there were two “Master Suns” involved with the military treatise. Sun Wu (544-496 BC) was the original author. His descendant, Sun Ping (or Bing) (380-316 BC), worked for the state of Ch’i and added to and popularized his own version of the work. The two are often confused. (Note: According to an e-mail, “Most Chinese recent historians generally agree that he [Sun Wu] was born in around 536 BC. By 516, he was 18, recorded as ‘QingChun’ which means ‘still young.

‘) Sun Tzu emphasized the importance of positioning in military strategy.The decision to position an army must be based on both objective conditions in the physical environment and the subjective beliefs of other, competitive actors in that environment. He thought that strategy was not planning in the sense of working through an established list, but rather that it requires quick and appropriate responses to changing conditions. Planning works in a controlled environment; but in a changing environment, competing plans collide, creating unexpected situations. Marketing planning and implementation from Art of WarAny successful campaign starts with planning. Planning is the trap to capture the future.

A marketing plan outlines the specific actions we intend to carry out to interest potential customers and clients in your product and/or service and persuade them to buy the product and/or services you offer. A marketing plan may be developed as a standalone document or as part of a business plan. Either way, the marketing plan is a blueprint for communicating the value of our products or services to our customers. In the book of Art of War Sun Tzu said about planning.He said, “With careful and detailed planning, one can win”. He also said that “With careless and less detailed planning, one cannot win”. For example, Teletalk brought 3G technology in our country at 14th October 2012.

For this they had a detailed planning first. Such as who will be their target market, what technology they need to offer and what resources they need etc. Sun Tzu also said, “According as circumstances are favorable, one should modify one’s plans. ” This statement implies that we have to modify our plan as the environment or the trend of the market changes.For example, as Teletalk brought 3G service in our country and as next year more 5 telecom company will get the license for bringing 3G service so they have to plan from now. They have to plan for what technology they need to bring for bringing out the 3G service.

Segmentation, targeting positioning (STP) concept from Art of War Market segmentation is a marketing strategy that involves dividing a broad target market into subsets of consumers who have common needs or common desires as well as common applications for the relevant goods and services.Depending on the specific characteristics of the product, these subsets may be divided by criteria such as age and gender, or other distinctions, such as location or income. Marketing campaigns can then be designed and implemented to target these specific customer segments. In the book Art of War Sun Tzu said that: there are six types of terrain (1) Accessible ground; (2) entangling ground; (3) temporizing ground; (4) narrow passes; (5) precipitous heights; (6) positions at a great distance from the enemy.

This statement implies that there are different types of terrain and we have to make them separated from others.At present this concept is being used by the marketers. Sun Tzu mentioned six types of terrain but today’s marketers segment their product or services based on four categories which are stated below: These are the four categories based on which marketers segment their product. For example, Jayson pharmaceutical segment their product in injection, capsule, tablet and different herbal products.

After segmenting the market marketers target the market in which they want to enter. Targeting is nothing but evaluating all segments and to select one or more segments to enter. At first we have which one is more attracting to evaluate.In the book of Art of War Sun Tzu said that “Attack him where he is unprepared, appear where you are not expected.

” This statement implies that, we have to choose that market which will be profitable for us. For targeting the market we should look for two things- one is profitability and another one is resources. Before targeting the segment we have to conscious that whether this target group will maximize our profit or not and whether we have the proper resources to fulfill the needs of that target group of customer or not.

Sun Tzu also said that, “in war, the way is to avoid what is strong and to strike at what is weak. That means we have to select those thing for which we have resources and avoid those thing which we don’t have and which makes us nervous and unprepared. For example, finally they target the herbal product as their targeting strategy.

After targeting the group of customer we have to set a positioning strategy. In marketing, positioning is the process by which marketers try to create an image or identity in the minds of their target market for its product, brand, or organization. Positioning is also defined as the way by which the marketers create an impression in the customers mind.In the book of “Art of War” Sun Tzu also mentioned about positioning along with segmentation and targeting.

He said that, “We may distinguish six kinds of terrain, to wit: (1) Accessible ground; (2) entangling ground; (3) temporizing ground; (4) narrow passes; (5) precipitous heights; (6) positions at a great distance from the enemy. ” This statement also means that we have to have a distinct and unique positioning strategy to capture the target group of customer. For example, Jayson pharmaceutical position by “Nature is our best friend” as they produces the herbal product. Pricing strategy from Art of WarIn narrow sense price is the amount of money charged by the company for a particular product. But in broader sense price means the total amount of value the consumer are going to sacrifice for a particular product. In the book of Art of War Sun Tzu mentioned about pricing.

He said, “Control Military Expenditure”. This statement implies that we have to minimize the cost. Because, if the operating cost is high, then the total price of the product will also be higher which can affect the profitability of the company. So every company should concentrate on minimizing the cost. There are different methods for setting up the price of the product.These methods are:- These are the different forms based on which a marketer can set the price. Only lower cost will not give the high profitability to the company.

Marketers have to analyze the market and their competitors also. Sun Tzu said that, “For to win one hundred victories in one hundred battles is not the acme of skill. To subdue an enemy without fighting is the acme of skill. ” This statement implies that we have to follow different or unique strategy to fight with the competitors. For example, Crown Cement-they are following value based pricing as they are saying that good product prices more.This is how they try to create the perception in the customers and follow the value based pricing. Promotion strategy from Art of War Promotion is all about communication.

Promotion is one of the key elements of the marketing mix, and deals with any one or two-way communication that takes place with the consumer. The main aim of promotion is to ensure that customers are aware of the existence and positioning of products. Promotion is also used to persuade customers that the product is better than competing products and to remind customers about why they may want to buy.There are many ways for promotion. For example- ?Advertising through TV channel, newspaper, banner etc ?Personal selling ?Direct marketing etc Sun Tzu said about promotion in his book Art of War.

He said- “On the field of battle, the spoken word does not carry far enough: hence the institution of gongs and drums. Nor can ordinary objects be seen clearly enough: hence the institution of banners and flags. ” This statement implies that advertising will be more popular if we can use sign, symbol, banner etc with the help of color, music etc.For example- we still remember the ad.

of Banglalink Desh just because of they used many colors, music and youthful models in their advertisement. SWOT Analysis SWOT analysis (alternately SWOT Matrix) is a strategic planning method used to evaluate the Strengths, Weaknesses/Limitations, Opportunities, and Threats involved in a project or in a business venture. It involves specifying the objective of the business venture or project and identifying the internal and external factors that are favorable and unfavorable to achieve that objective.Every organization should analyze their strength, weaknesses, opportunities and threats to survive in the market. For example, SWOT analysis of GP is given below: Strengths: •Largest Subscriber base •Brand Loyalty •Leadership and Management •Network Coverage •Other Strength Weakness: •Higher call rates •Dependency on prepaid products •Excessive GP-BTCL calls rates •Limited FnF Opportunities: •Demand for Products •Declining prices for handsets •New and better interconnection agreement Threats: •Aggressive marketing •Increased marketing/operating costs •Threat of Potential new entrants Possibility of Merger among competitors •Price war In the book of Art War Sun Tzu mentioned about SWOT analysis. He said, “Know your enemy, know yourself and your victory will not be threatened”.

This statement implies that if we know what our strength is, what is our weakness, our opportunities and last but not the least our threats then we will be able to stay in the market. Otherwise, we cannot sustain in the competitive market. He also said that, “Carefully compare the opposing army with your own, so that you may know where strength is superabundant and where it is deficient.

This statement implies that if we want to capture the market we have to have a clear knowledge about our strength and weaknesses. Branding strategy from Art of War A brand is a “Name, term, design, symbol, or any other feature that identifies one seller’s good or service as distinct from those of other sellers. A modern example of a brand is Coca Cola which belongs to the Coca-Cola Company. Branding has two important elements which are:- Sun Tzu said that “Camp in high places, facing the sun”. Here, camp in high places means make a unique identity of a product and facing the sun is related with the differentiation.For example, Walton is a local brand that creates a unique identity by “Amder Ponno” and differentiates their product by the local product at low price. Leadership and Art of War The ship cannot run without radar.

In the same way, to operate a successful business leadership is needed. Leadership is the activity of leading a group of people or an organization, or the ability to do this. If leader can’t direct the employees in a right way then that company can’t get profit in the long run. Sun Tzu said- “In war, the general receives his commands from the sovereign. It means that to do any activity leader gives the proper direction to achieve our goal.

A leader has a combination of many characters, like- he’ll be strict as well as he has to be kind. Here Sun Tzu said- “The Commander stands for the virtues of wisdom, sincerely, benevolence, courage and strictness. ”Leader has to analyze the advantage and disadvantage of his decision and which will be better for his organization. He has to make his decision on which will be benefitted for them. Sun Tzu said- “Hence in the wise leader’s plans, considerations of advantage and of disadvantage will be blended together. So the plan should consider both advantageous thing and disadvantageous things. One of the most important leadership skills is to motivate the people and to insist them for work. According to Sun Tzu, “if a general shows confidence in his men but always insists on his orders being obeyed, the gain will be mutual.

” This statement implies that, if the leader shows confidence on his or her employee then they will be motivated to work and it will be benefitted for the organization. Human resource management from Art of War Human resource management is the process of managing people in organizations in a structured and thorough manner.This covers the fields of staffing, hiring people, retention of people, pay and perks setting and management, performance management, change management and taking care of exits from the company to round off the activities. Human resource is the only resource by which a company can get competitive advantage in the market. If any company has skilled and experienced employee that company can easily get profit.

We have to see our competitors to know what type of employees they are hiring and what is their required skill and knowledge. Sun Tzu gave some important information regarding human resource which is related with Marketing in Art of War.Sun Tzu said “carefully compare the opposing army with your own, so that you may know where strength is superabundant and where is deficient”. It means that we’ve analyze what is our strength and what others providing to the customer. To find out our strength, we can evaluate the performance of employee which is known as performance appraisal. Similarly, if we have any lacking, that can be identified by training need assessment (TNA). It is the human resource who directly deals with the customers.

Their behavior influences the customer to buy the products. So if the employees are satisfied, they’ll give better service to the customer.We’ve give motivation to them; have to reward, recognition, so that they’ll be motivated. Sun Tzu said in his Art of War book that- “regard your soldier as your children”. If we can attract the best human resource from the market and if we can retain them in our company, it’ll be profitable for us.

Their experience, knowledge about the market will help us to be the market leader. Sun Tzu also said that “hence the experienced soldier, once in motion, is never bewildered” it means that a professional employee will not be puzzled and they can give us right direction.For example- Pran has better and skilled manpower and they are taking many steps to utilize their knowledge. Pran is now exporting their product to India. First they had to create a market there and had to give proper message and had to use exceptional skills to do this job. Supply chain management Supply chain management (SCM) is the combination of art and science that goes into improving the way your company finds the raw components it needs to make a product or service and deliver it to customers.Supply chain management (SCM) is the oversight of materials, information, and finances as they move in a process from supplier to manufacturer to wholesaler to retailer to consumer.

Supply chain management involves coordinating and integrating these flows both within and among companies. It is said that the ultimate goal of any effective supply chain management system is to reduce inventory. In the book of Art of War, Sun Tzu warns against fighting a distant enemy. That means, every business requires middlemen such as retailer, whole seller etc to deliver the goods to the ultimate consumer.So, here in this supply chain the price is getting higher. We know that we cannot satisfy the customer with charging the higher price.

That’s why Sun Tzu said to minimize the chain of middlemen and so the distance. An effective Supply chain management depends on 5 rights. Those are:- In this matter Sun Tzu said: “Knowing the place and time of the coming battle. ” This statement implies that we have to deliver the right product at a right time and at a right place and right price. If we ensure that only then we will be able to enjoy the profit.

For example, in winter AC is not the demandable product.So if we do business of AC in winter it won’t bring profit for us because it is not the right time for doing this business. Defensive marketing vs. offensive marketing Sun Tzu said: “The good fighters of old first put themselves beyond the possibility of defeat, and then waited for an opportunity of defeating the enemy. ” Defensive marketing tactics involve taking niche markets that are not well served by larger companies. Where customers have specialized needs but that are not being served by the big players. Another defensive marketing tactic is to build customer satisfaction and loyalty.

If the company has a strong base of loyal customers then the company can defeat his enemy easily. For Example: In rural area of Bangladesh, Sufia Chemical Corporation introduce sufia tooth powder at a low price that able to fulfill the demand of rural people and build strong customer loyalty compare to larger company like Unilever- Pepsodent. Sun Tzu said: “Security against defeat implies defensive tactics; ability to defeat the enemy means taking the offensive. ” Many small business owners want to be major players in their industry. However, as their market share raises this prompts offensive actions by larger competitors.

Engage in defensive niche marketing until you have the resources to do battle with larger companies. Sun Tzu said: “Security against defeat implies defensive tactics; ability to defeat the enemy means taking the offensive. ” Customer satisfaction Sometimes companies are misguided by the notion that customers depend on them.

The truth of the matter is that we very much so depend on them. Many researchers and academia have highlighted the importance of customers in today’s market. The level of satisfaction a customer has with a company has profound effects.Studies have found that the level of customer’s satisfaction has a positive effect on profitability. So if we want to make profit we have to satisfy the customer. Sun Tzu said, “Do good service for the sovereign, it is the jewel of the kingdom. ” Here this statement implies that we have to provide the best service to the customer because generally customers are the king.

If they are not satisfied we cannot make profit. So those who can satisfy the customer will win the market. For example, GP satisfy their customer by offering different services like flexible call rate, my zone and customer service.Along with customer satisfaction Sun Tzu mentioned about Customer Retention. Sun Tzu said, “It is better to recapture an army entire than to destroy it, to capture a regiment, a detachment or a company entire than to destroy them. ” Here this statement implies that if we retain the old customer rather serving the new one it will be more cost effective than previous one. Because customer retention has a direct impact on profitability. For example, AB bank gives a dinner party to the key and loyal customer.

This is their Customer Retention strategy.Customer relationship management (CRM) is a strategy to learn more about customers’ needs and behaviors in order to develop stronger relationships with them. As such, it is more of a business philosophy than a technical solution to assist in dealing with customers effectively and efficiently.

So according to Sun Tzu when any company will try to satisfy their customers effectively and retain their customers ultimately their customer relationship management will be stronger so finally the company can get a huge number of Loyal Customers. Profit Making Strategy from Art of WarPeople do business for making profit. Profit is the positive gain from an investments or business operation. To earn profit marketing need to take some strategy. Profit making strategy means to removing expenses from a business without having a negative impact on product quality. Marketer always thinks how to increase profit and how to decrease the cost.

Sun Tzu said- “Control the military expenditure. ”It means to run any successful business; we’ve to control the operational expenditure in a cost- effective way. For example- Recently Grameenphone took step to minimize their cost by downsizing their employees.

They took this step to earn more profit by controlling their excessive expenditure. A marketer use profit making strategy to reach their break-even point, so that they can get more profit from their business and they can know what is their current situation. Break-even analysis focuses on the relationship between fixed cost, variable cost, and profit. According to Sun Tzu: “Pass quickly over mountains & keep in the neighborhood of valleys. ” It indicates that when any company will be able to pass their breakeven point, it will be easier for them to reach to their desired target profit.Market Entry from Art of War Generally Market entry is depends on the country’s rules and regulations, culture, religion and behavior of the customer, income level of the customers etc.

so here, if any company wants to enter into the market and wants to gain the competitive advantage then whether s/he has to be the first mover or s/he has to give high level of service to the customers. In marketing, first-mover advantage or FMA is the advantage gained by the initial significant occupant of a market segment. It may be referred to as Technological Leadership.This advantage may stem from the fact that the first entrant can gain control of resources that followers may not be able to match. Sometimes the first mover is not able to capitalize on its advantage, leaving the opportunity for another firm to gain second-mover advantage.

Sun Tzu also mention about “when the position is such that neither side will gain by making the first move, it is called temporizing ground. ” This statement implies that when we have the proper resources and opportunity to make the first move we should not delay. Sun Tzu also said, “Deliver your attack at a favorable moment.

That means when we have the opportunity to grab the market we should enter into it. For example, when Dr. Mohammad Younus bring the concept of Microcredit it was totally the new concept. And eventually Grameen Bank gives him the advantage of a first mover. Adaptation of marketing strategies of competitors is the common phenomenon in business. Sun Tzu said, “The highest form of generalship is to attack the enemy strategy”. This statement implies that we have to know the competitors strategy. That means we have to do the competitor analysis.

If we know what product they are offering, who are their target group of customers, what sorts of resources they have then we will be able to make ourselves more strong than our competitors. For example, if Pran Lemon wants to compete efficiently with RC Lemon, it should have clear understanding of RC Lemon’s marketing strategy. Every local and foreign reputed company is following this strategy. Sun Tzu also said “the next best policy is to disrupt his alliance”.

Here he means we have to compete with our competitors aggressively. Here alliance means union of a company.For example, today Sony Ericson is a renowned brand. Through merging with each other they are competing with other companies like Nokia, Samsung etc. Sun Tzu said, “The next best policy is to attack his army. ” This statement implies that if we want to retain the market then we have to compete with our competitors very roughly. We should have e better resources, better manpower to run the business.

For example, if UIU wants to be the number one private universities of the country they have hire the best faculties from other renowned universities like NSU, East West, Brac, AIUB, IUB etc.Competitor Analysis: Before entering any new market, first we have to analyze the external environment. Here we have to know about our competitors as they are also targeting and offering same product to the same group of people to whom we are going to target. We can collect the publicly available information about the competitors company, secondary data of them; we have t find out their strategy etc.

another way of collecting these types of information can be spying on the competitors. Sun Tzu said in his book that- “Be subtle! be subtle! and use your spies for every kind of business. It means that we’ve to very clever and careful and we can send our people to the competitor’s organization to get every kind of information about their company. Latent demand vs. Seasonal demand Latent demand is the desire or preference which a consumer is unable to satisfy due to lack of information about the product’s availability, or lack of money. One of the major objectives of marketing is to either influence the potential buyer to allocate his or her available money differently or to create purchasing power through means such as deferred billing or hire purchase arrangements.Sun Tzu said that, “Appear at points which the enemy must hasten to defend; march swiftly to places where you are not expected.

” This statement implies that we have to grab those markets where there is demand in the market and where we have the power to bit them. Seasonality refers to fluctuations in output and sales related to the seasonal of the year. Sun Tzu also said, “Knowing the place and time of coming battle, we may concentrate from the greatest distances in order to fight”. He also said, “Heaven signifies night and day, cold and heat, time and seasons”.

This statement implies that we have to know the time and season of the product. For example, in winter the sale of ice cream will become low but in summer its sale become higher. So we have to identify the season and according to that we have to sale our product. Marketing management from Art of War Marketing management is a business discipline which is focused on the practical application of marketing techniques and the management of a firm’s marketing resources and activities. To achieve the marketing goal the marketing manager needs to be more efficient and effective in nature.A marketing manager plans, directs, or coordinates marketing policies and programs, such as determining the demand for products and services offered by a firm and its competitors, identifies potential customers, Develops pricing strategies with the goal of maximizing the firm’s profits or share of the market while ensuring the firm’s customers are satisfied. In the “Art of War” book, Sun Tzu had said about the characteristics of a commander which is much relevant to marketing manager.

He said that- “the commander stands for the virtues of wisdom, sincerity, benevolence, courage and strictness” Here the commander means the marketing manager.He has to be sincere, wise, strict etc. as he takes the major decision regarding the marketing department of the organization. For example-Pran has a very strong position in our country. Now they’re exporting their product in the other country. To create a distinctive position in the market, they mainly focus on their employees.

They hire those employees who have various qualities like sincerity, courage, knowledge etc. To managing sales force, there are some requirements. Those are: ?A method of dividing the force.

?Creating signs and signals such as flags, banners, drums, gongs and names for the sales force to be distinguished.In the book of “Art of War” Sun Tzu said that: “The management of large force is similar to that of a small force”. It indicates that whatever the size of a workforce is, they’ve to be properly managed so that they’ll be focused to their aim. Authority of top management: The order in which authority and power in an organization is wielded and delegated from top management to every employee at every level of the organization. Instructions of doing any work flows downward along the chain of command and accountability and feedback flow upward.The ability of an organization to accomplish its goals does not depend solely on the force of will of a single great leader, as well as depend on the effectiveness of the organization’s chain of command. Sun Tzu said: “Orders are not clear and distinct”. It implies that if the order from the top management is not clear and specific, the employees can’t understand that is their job is.

Top management has the authority to delegate the power to lower level, as it is the sales force who directly deal with the customers. TeamworkTeamwork is often a crucial part of a business, as it is often necessary for colleagues to work well together, trying their best in any circumstance. Teamwork means that people will try to cooperate, using their individual skills and providing constructive feedback, despite any personal conflict between individuals. Sun Tzu said in “Art of War” that-“When the common soldiers are too strong and their officers are too weak, the result is insubordination when the officers are too strong and the common soldiers too weak, the result is collapse. It indicates that there has to be proper coordination, synchronization among the manager and the employees.

If any of them lacks any strength it might destroy the whole thing. So employees and manager have to work together to achieve their goal and their strength, view etc had to be same. For Example: In Walton, Employees put ideas on the table for everything from product development to ideas for upcoming promotional campaigns.

By working as a team, everyone contributes to give their ideas, opinion, there are a wide range of creative solutions to try and participants feel united, as they work toward for a common goal.Social marketing Social marketing is the systematic application of marketing, along with other concepts and techniques, to achieve specific behavioral goals for a social good. Social marketing can be applied to promote merit goods, or to make a society avoid demerit goods and thus to promote society’s well being as a whole. Sun Tzu in his book of Art of War said that “art of welfare”. He said, “When you capture new territory, cut it up into allotments for the benefit of the soldiery. ” That means he emphasized on doing the good things which will be better for the society and the people of the society.Sun Tzu also said that, “act for the benefit of your soldiers and utilize the natural advantages of the ground. ” That means we have to do business in such a way so that it will bring better things for the society and which will be harmless for the society as well.

We should use our natural resources in such a way so that we don’t hamper our environment. For example, Prothom Alo try to create the social awareness among the people by “Bodle Jao, Bodle Dao”. Marketing Messages In the book of Art of War Sun Tzu mentioned about many types of marketing messages.Here he suggested using different types of ways for giving the marketing messages. Sun Tzu said, “Fighting with a large army under your command is nowise different from fighting with a small one: it is merely a question of instituting signs and signals.

” This statement implies that if we use sign and signals to give any message to the customer it will be more effective rather than only spoken words. He also said that, “On the field of battle, the spoken word does not carry far enough: hence the institution of gongs and drums.Nor can ordinary objects be seen clearly enough: hence the institution of banners and flags. ” In this statement Sun Tzu implied that in the market if we want to compete with our competitors then only spoken word is not enough. We have to give the advertisement through banners, flags attractive sounds etc. For example, HSBC bank gives marketing messages to the customer that “Only you can’t access us in the moon”. We can conclude that Sun Tzu strategies are the basement of all marketing strategy


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