Chapter-9 Bibliography When I was pregnant with the first child?a girl?the altercations between us had darted and have since continued. He is like a strong pepper, hot, so that even with a slight provocation or fault, he loses his head and fights. He tolerates nothing.
“Right to a decent and respectful living”, when the law of the land assures you a right, how can anyone take it from you? Indeed the right to have respect in the society is a fundamental one and yes when it nears fundamental that nears all who are humans are entitled to exercise this right.In our society violence is bursting, right behind the door of our homes. Women are being tortured, beaten and killed in the name of honor or in the stubbornness of the typical orthodox man in proving their authority.
Serious steps should be taken to eradicate this menace from the society. In the last two decades, the Indian women’s movement has contributed to a growing public awareness of violence against women. Women activists have embroiled and pressed for significant changes in the criminal code and police procedures in order to address various acts of violence.But the women at her personal capacity should be bold enough to speak up for her rights, to fight for her dignity; they must respect themselves. For this to be done, they should be educated. This is a big shame for a country like India, which is developing in all the other aspects but lacking in respecting the basic social unit of the society; that is women. The real development begins from the ground level so the women should be given equal right and Justice. Domestic Violence Talking about our motherland India, women are considered as Goddess Laxly of our families.
Why not? After all, they are the most precious and cherished creations of the good Lord above. An Indian girl, who values her morals, who is the symbol of dignity, or whom her ‘honor’ is priceless, who has always dreamt of a future husband’ coming on a white horse to marry her, and who has always planned for her wedding dress, but after her marriage all her dreams are shattered because she is subjected to be loved. Domestic violence, also known as domestic abuse, spousal abuse, battering, family violence, date abuse, and intimate partner violence (PIP) . T happens when an intimate partner, such as a spouse or a person one cohabits with or a person within the family, physically, sexually, or psychologically abuses the other one. It happens because of the feeling of extreme love, self-esteem and extreme Jealousy, difficulties in regulating anger or inferiority complex.
A sadistic attitude is the main reason for such behavior. It results in physical injury, such as hitting, kicking, beating, restraining, battery, shoving, throwing objects; psychological trauma, such as controlling and domineering, insulting the person or giving threats of sexual abuse.It usually starts slowly and then worsens. It reaches the zenith when the person stoops to choking, breaking bones, and sometimes to the extent of resulting in death of the there person. Honor Based Violence ‘Honor’ based violence (HUB) is a form of domestic abuse which is carried out in the name of so called ‘honor’.
It is the set of rules at the discretion of males of the family and the women who do not abide by these ‘rules’ are then punished for bringing shame on the family.It is part of a systematic pattern of dominance and control in the name of Honor. The definition of infringement basically differs from family to family, according to the rules of the families, but a basic definition of infringement may include: (a) a woman having an extra marital affair; b) rejecting an imposed marriage or an arranged marriage; (c) pregnancy outside of marriage; (d) interfaith relationships; (e) seeking divorce; (f) inappropriate dress or make-up and even kissing in a public place or (g) Eloping and marrying against the will of the family.It is mainly based on the fact that if the violator is punished then, it will bring back the honor of the family. In most of the cases the violator is given a fatal punishment.
Even as the government is contemplating bringing in a new law to deal with the spurt in honor killing, reports by Human rights organization show that cold blooded orders in the name of saving family pride have been prevalent in many parts of India.Difference between Domestic Violence and Honor based Violence Although domestic violence and honor based violence are all in the same ground but they differ in the sense that domestic violence is the outcome of some personal reasons such as jealousy, dowry, unsatisfied marital relations whereas honor based violence is the outcome of the typical chauvinist attitude of the society which bars the women with their set of rules.Also, honor based violence is committed with some degree of approval from the family or community the members in order to protect perceived culture or religious belief or honor, whereas domestic violence may or may not involve the degree of approval from the family or the community members. 1. Physical Physical Domestic Violence refers to the direct physical contact with an intention to cause hurt and generate a feeling of intimidation, pain or any other bodily harm. It can be in any form like beating with hands or any object, burning, hitting, slapping, pushing, choking, holding tightly, etc.It also includes depriving a victim of any help, deiced care or sleep when needed or preventing her from necessaries of life or from performing any action or also forcing her to indulge in any activity which is not good for her health or against her values.
The pain cannot be measured and thus it can be on any level. It starts with trivial acts and then goes on to more serious, violent acts. 2. Sexual Sexual Domestic Violence is any type of violence where a woman is forced to get involved in any type of sexual activity against her wish. Coercing or threatening a person to participate in unwanted sexual activity comes under this type.Abusing a woman sexually even if that person is a spouse or intimate partner with whom consensual sex has occurred. It has been also described as- Any sexual act, attempt to obtain a sexual act, unwanted sexual comments or advances, or acts to traffic, or otherwise directed, against a person’s sexuality using coercion, by any person regardless of their relationship to the victim, in any setting, including but not limited to home and work.
Categories of Sexual Abuse and Violence includes- 1) Forcing a person to indulge in certain sexual activity against her will and using her physically only.Completion of the act is not a necessary element of it. 2) Situation where a female does not understand anything due to under age or when she is unable to reject to the forced sex. 3) Taking advantage off person’s situation where she is not able to either understand the situation or consequences because of unconscious situation or intoxication. 4) Force due to sudden provocation or with the intention of insulting the woman. 3. Spousal Rape Spousal Rape is a situation in which the victim is raped by her spouse against her will.
It is also known as Marital Rape.It is a situation which remained unnoticed for a Eng period of time. But now it is repudiated largely by international conventions and now it is increasingly credentialed.
The worst part of this type is that the woman tries to remain quiet on this issue because she considers it as her husband’s prerogative. At times the societal norms also reject this situation from being called as violence. 4. Psychological Psychological Domestic Violence is that form in which the victim is abused emotionally, verbally and psychologically. In this the person uses insults, criticizes or abuses the victims.It may includes screaming and yelling at the victim privately or in he presence of other people, harassing, refusing to talk or making her feel alienated with the intention of undermining her self-esteem or to control her freedom. 5. Threatening and Intimidating Threatening and intimidating domestic violence is that violence in which the person intimidates the victim with certain physical behavior so as to instill fear, such as glaring or staring at the victim to force compliance or stalking the victim or breaking and smashing objects or destroying the victim’s personal property.
. Economic Coercion Economic domestic violence is that form of domestic violence in which the victim is reverted from obtaining employment or an education; sometimes in this the man may withhold the money, prohibiting her access to family income, or lying about financial assets and debts. Specific forms of honor based violence and domestic violence 1 .
Acid Attack It is the act of throwing the act of throwing acid onto the body of a person “with the intention of injuring or disfiguring [them] out of Jealousy or revenge”.The perpetrators usually throw acid at the face of the victim, burning them, and damaging skin tissue, often exposing and sometimes dissolving the bones. In India, hose attacks happen in connection to dowry or forced relationships. 2. Dowry Dowry violence is a form of domestic violence in which a bride is subjected to torture at home by her husband or husband’s family due to his dissatisfaction over the dowry provided by her family or as a result of demands for more or prolonged dowry after the marriage.Many times the brides’ are killed or burnt alive if the husband’s family demands are not fulfilled.
Dowry death refers to the phenomenon of women and girls being killed or committing suicide due to disputes regarding dowry. 3. Honor Killing In this death is awarded to a woman of the family for marrying against the parent’s wishes, having extramarital and premarital relationships, marrying within the same gator or outside one’s caste. It can include: harassment, assault, false imprisonment, threat to kill, rape and murder.There is, however, no honor in murder or abuse of an individual’s human rights. Human Rights Watch defines “honor killings” as follows: Honor killings are acts of vengeance, usually death, committed by male family members against female family members, who are held to have brought dishonor upon the family.
A woman can be targeted by (individuals within) her family for a variety of reasons, including: refusing to enter into an arranged marriage, being the victim of a sexual assault, seeking a divorce?even from an abusive husband?or (allegedly) committing adultery.The mere perception that a woman has behaved in a way that “dishonors” her family is sufficient to trigger an attack on her life. 4.
Violence against the victims of rape The chastity and virginity of a woman are assumed to be her most important “assets” also in the Indian families they are considered as the honor of the family. But when he is raped, she faces severe violence, including alienation’s from the family and in extreme cases they are put to death by their family members in the name of honor by their families and relatives.In many parts it is considered that women who have been raped are considered to have brought ‘dishonor’ or ‘disgrace’ to their families. Domestic violence and honor based violence are perhaps the ugliest forms of crimes against the females today. The causes and factors of violence against women include and its acceptability, aggravated by cultural and social norms, economic dependency, poverty and alcohol consumption etc. The people who commit these try to dominate or control their victims. They continue to do so in order to keep their power.They see women as objects, have low self-esteem, rationalize their behavior, and are possessive and Jealous.
Some of the main causes include: 1. Biological These include genetics and brain dysfunction and are studied by neuroscience. 2.
Psychological This includes personality traits and mental characteristic, which deals with sudden bursts of anger, poor impulse control, and poor self-esteem. These are learned intentional behavior rather than the consequence of stress, individual pathology, absence use or a ‘dysfunctional’ relationship.Perpetrators frequently avoid taking responsibility for their behavior, by blaming their violence on someone or something else, denying it took place at all or minimizing their behavior. Violent men will also typically Justify or ignore their behavior by: * Minimizing the violence example, saying it was “Just a slap” or “isn’t that bad”. * Justifying the behavior to themselves and blaming the victim. * Denying the violence happened or refusing to talk about it and expecting the victim to Just “move on”. The person uses violence and tactics of erection as a way of exercising control and getting what they want. .
Conservative family norms and society This is rampant in orthodox, conservative set up where a set of rules are made at the discretion of the male relatives and the women who do not abide by the rules are then punished for bringing shame to the family. In fact, according to a survey by Niece’s “Global Report Card on Adolescents 2012”, 57% of adolescent boys and 53% of the adolescent girls in India think a husband is Justified in hitting or beating his wife. And the heights being the comment of Justice K.Basketball’s that “it was Kay for a man to indulge in domestic violence and beat his wife as long as he was taking good care of his wife. ” 4. Mental illness This includes several personality disorders: which makes a person antisocial, passive aggressive, alcoholic with poor impulse control. It is estimated that at least one-third of all abusers have some type of mental illness.
5. Marital conflict disorder This happens because the couple are not satisfied with each other and do not have a healthy marital relation. This mainly happens when forced marriage takes place. 6.Jealousy This is one of the most common causes. In this one person is always in an apprehension that the other one is not faithful to him and is planning to leave the relationship or if one person is doing better than the other as in if one is more successful than the other.
Thus one person uses violent nears to establish and maintain a control over the other. An alternative view is that this kind of violent behavior arises from powerlessness and low self esteem of one person in the society, which by dominating and by violently behaving with the other person, the person tries to overcome it.The Donor Murder Case of Nina Asana in New Delhi in the ear 1995 is one such dreadful incident of a woman being killed and then burnt in a marital affair of Nina Asana which led to marital discord and domestic violence against her. 7.
Psychology of the Indian house wives “Besides using abusive language, my husband hits me with whatever he can lay his hands on. When he is really mad, he flings a stick or whatever is in his hand freely towards me. He does not kick or pull my hair or bang against the wall. But hitting me in the back or slapping is what he does most of the times.In a fit of rage, he even asks me to leave home and go to my parent’s’ house. But how can I go? I have children and this is my home. ” A common Indian house wife has a tendency to bear the harassment she is subjected to by her husband and the family. Also as expressed by Rebecca J.
Burns in the following lines, “When I am asked why a woman doesn’t leave abuser I say: Women stay because the fear of leaving is greater than the fear of staying. They will leave when the fear of staying is greater than the fear of leaving. One reason could be to prevent the children from undergoing the hardships if she separates from the spouse. Also the traditional and orthodox mindset makes them ear the sufferings without any protest.
Violence against women remains hidden in the culture of silence. Living under a constant fear, threat and humiliation are some of the feelings developed in the minds of the victims as a consequence of an atrocious violence. It has deep and everlasting impact on the victim. It can cause an array of health problems and physical injuries. The victim may experience long term depression accompanied with anxiety and panic.Emerging research indicates that children who witness this are likely to experience fear, instability in the home also, they tend to SSE their confidence and are prone to depression.
Also, these forms of violence have a great impact on society. Societies which affirm honor based crime or domestic violence tend to boast about it whereas on the other hand, it becomes the headlines of the newspapers. The effects and the consequences can be broadly categorized under: 1 . Health She may experience headaches, abdominal pain and fatigue, shortness of breath, hypertension, or worsened asthma.She may not be able to take proper diet because of the trauma she went through.
2. Physical She may have bruises on the abdomen, back, head, neck, face, beasts, or genitals. The women who are pregnant may also have injured genitals, breasts, or abdomens. In extreme cases the woman may also have the typical black eyes, as well as broken bones. 3. Mental and Psychological This may include depression and anxiety. As they have a tendency to remain quiet, agonized and emotionally disturbed after living under the shadows of torture and torment. 4.
Effect on children Children are generally more attached to their mother than their father as she is the one who gives birth. The child may suffer developmental and psychological disorder like they may turn silent, reserved or express solace to the mother. When they are exposed to domestic abuse or honor based abuse since their childhood, it may have deeper and gruesome impact on their mindset. They may develop a tendency to delinquency. 5.
Effect on society From times immemorial women have been suffering within the four walls of their home.If they come out in open and reveal the wrong done to them for help and rescue, it influences the society both positively and negatively. While on one hand it provides an inspiration and ray of hope for other suffering women, it on the other hand also spoils the atmosphere of the society.
Some try to boast off by setting up examples by giving harsh punishment or sometimes even resulting in murder. When something of this kind happens in the society, few families may witness the evil of these knocking on their door steps. Some families try to imitate what others indulge in, irrespective of it being good or bad for the family. . Effect on the productivity These kinds of violence mainly affect the women’s productivity in all forms of life. She may drop out from work place because of the ill-treatment at home or office, she may lose her efficiency in work or many times she is forced to leave her Job because of the family pressure in the name of so called honor.
They lose interest in household activities. The cumulative effect of this has its effect at all levels and across all regions in the country which hinders the development and leads to slow economic growth.Remedies for Domestic Violence and Honor Based Violence What exactly do we want? A very important question in wake of domestic violence and honor based violence remedies is that why exactly do we want to stop this menace? Do we only want to make mockery of this issue by only discussing it or do we actually want to work on it to clean up the mess with sheer force and determination? Fighting the Evil It is rightly said that every dark night has a dawn. This time the dawn has come in the form of a statute- The Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act 2005 (PAWED).The government has now set up Legal Aid Cells, Family Courts, Look Adults or Peoples’ Courts, and Manila Look Adults or Women’s Courts in order to counter this menace. At the same time attempts to make the police more accessible to women have taken the form of All Women Police Stations.
Police counseling cells, community policing initiatives, and special cells run by Noose at police stations have also sought to address different needs of women experiencing abuse. Many states have in fact initiated district-level programs to address the additional needs of income generation and employment.Also, counseling cells and shelter homes have been established to provide shelter to the victims.
At the same time, recently, to cope with the situation, a campaign, called ‘bell Baja’ was launched. The main motive of the campaign was to motivate the individuals of the society to raise their voice against the domestic violence happening in home and around. The campaign was a big hit and successfully managed to draw the attention of crowds towards this issue. Conclusion This form of evil should not be tolerated. Serious in-sight into the problem is required.
The victims should get help and protection from abusers in order to ensure their safety, as well as their children’s. Not only should the abuser be punished but also those who are allowing it to happen, and are mute spectators should also be to the victim and also to deal strictly with the culprits. But making a law is not sufficient. People will have to awake and arise.
They have to be told about their rights and duties. Every human being deserves the basic honor and respect. No one is entitled to take laws into their hands. Also, Violence is a behavioral choice for which the culprit must take responsibility.