What was the most significant reason for Marcos’ fall and transition to democracy?InvestigationFerdinand Marcos ran for the Nacionalista Party in 1965 and delivered his opponent Macapagal a resounding defeat. Marcos initiated an ambitious spending programs on public works such as building roads, bridges, health centres, schools and urban beautification projects. He favored by many and was able to maintain his popularity. In 1969, President Marcos became the first president to win a second term in office.
His popularity then began to decline abruptly in his second term. Allegation of corruption and authoritarianism had already begun to affect his presidency. On 1972, he shocked the nation by declaring martial law due to communist insurgent attacks. This also gives him the permission to stay in power longer than the constitutionally mandate limit of eight years. Many events were then prompted to cause Filipinos to oppose Marcos and end his regime. My first aspect is the Plaza Miranda bombing in which prompted President Marcos to declare martial law. The second aspect is Benigno Aquino’s Assassination, in which caused an uprising for President Marcos assassinating his opponent.
My final aspect is the People Power Revolution, a non-violent rebellion in getting Marcos out of office.At the Liberal Party’s campaign rally that was held to proclaim the candidacies of the eighth senatorial bets in manila. There was a crowd of four thousand to hear the speeches. As the speeches were going on, two hand grenades went off.
This killed much of Marcos opposition. This is monumental because as this will begin the rise of Marcos’ rule as dictator, and distance himself from democracy. There were suspicion of responsibility for the blast in which fell upon President Ferdinand Marcos, whom the liberals blamed for the bombing. However, in later years, They’ve conclude the blame on the Communist Party of the Philippines under the control of Jose Maria Sison. Sison hoped he’d get from the attack was to provoke government repression and push the country into investigating down their opponents, thereby driving thousands of political activism into the underground. Opposition leader Benigno “Ninoy” Aquino was also blamed for the bombing, in which lead to the declaration of martial law. This is significant because this will become the beginning of Marcos’ height of power and the rise of corruption.
An opposition leader Benigno “Ninoy” Aquino was known for his popular criticism against Marco’s political career and represented a threat to the sustainability of his regime. Therefore in 1971, Aquino was unjustly accused of orchestrating a bombing in Plaza Miranda during a Liberal Party rally. The bombing was later claimed to be the beginning of a communist insurgency, in which lead President Marcos to declare martial law on September 21, 1972. Two days after martial law was announced, Aquino was imprisoned on charges of murder, illegal possession of firearms, and subversion for his “role” in the Plaza Miranda bombing. This is substantial as Marcos prospects Aquino as a risk in losing power as President.
Jailed for almost three years, Aquino launched a hunger strike to protest the injustice being tried in a military court in April 1975, in which resulted in him losing almost 20 kilograms in weight with 40 days of no food. On November 25, 1977, a military commission found Aquino to be guilty of all his charges, and sentenced him to executed. However, the execution was never carried through, instead he languished in jail for eight more years. In 1980 after experiencing two heart attacks, Aquino and his family insisted to go the US to seek treatment where he could receive coronary bypass surgery. In the United States, he stayed for three years giving countless speeches denouncing the Marcos regime. This is significant because, although he was absent from the Philippines, he maintain a popular stance for his opposition view against Marcos. In 1983, Aquino has heard rumors about Marcos being ill, and returns to the Philippines in attempt to revive the Filipino opposition.
As he disembarked from the airplane, Aquino was shot and killed by Marcos’ henchman, an act that only aggravated a call for democracy. According to Raul S. Manglapus., the assassination was the peak where Filipinos will keep silent and finally rebel against Marcos’ dictatorship.
This is compelling because Senator Aquino’s death sparked anger amongst Filipino citizens and begin to question the Marcos government, making it the biggest political mistake of the regime. This emerges many Filipinos to go against Marcos’ leadership and begin to rebel for democracy. According to Mark R. Thompson, the importance of this event caused the exile of Marcos to visually represent that the people of the Philippines are not satisfied with his way of government. Although this did spark a rebellion against the Marcos regime, this was not the most significant reason for Marcos’ ousting as it did not phase President Marcos’ outlook on his presidency.In February 22, 1986, over a million filipinos went to the streets of EDSA, Quezon City, in attempt to overthrow the brutal regime of President Ferdinand Marcos. This rebellious act is called the People’s Power Revolution.
Following the murder of Senator Aquino, a opposition began to rallied around his widow, Cory Aquino, whom Marcos is going against in the presidential election in 1986. Though after he was declared winner, protests began to emerge as it was an electoral fraud. This is significant because such blatant corruption in the election was the final straw of tolerance by the Filipino of the Marcos regime.
Former Defence Ponce Enrile and the Armed Forces Vice-Chief of Staff Fidel V. Ramos both withdrew their support of President Marcos and instead barricaded Camp Crame and Camp Aguinaldo, and have their troops ready to combat any possible attacks from Marcos and his troops. The Catholic Church, represented by Archbishop Jaime Cardinal sin along with priests and nun were called in for support of the filipinos who believes in democracy.
Radyo Veritas also aired the message of Cardinal Sin, encouraging thousands of Filipinos to march the street of EDSA. This is monumental because once they are able to overthrow President Marcos, the expect national independence and democracy to flourish, hoping that violations of human rights would cease as political prisoners were released and a ceasefire were forged between the new government and the Democratic Front. The Democratic Front was created by the CPP-NPA to help unify and coordinate with various leftist groups. Finally on the February 25, 1986, Corazon Aquino took the presidential oath of office, proclaimed herself as the 11th president of the Republic of the Philippines. This is the most significant reason for President Marcos’ fall as the revolutionary mass movement that had consistently and vigorously isolated and weakened the Marcos dictatorship over a period of time.
To conclude, the People’s Power Revolution in attempt to overthrow President Marcos was the most significant in removing him out of power. Filipinos reached the height of their patience when Senator Benigno “Ninoy” Aquino was shot and killed in 1983. Although the assassination did prompt filipinos to oppose his dictatorship, this didn’t affect President Marcos’ stance as president.
The Plaza Miranda bombing initiated his declaration of martial law. Although they may start opposition amongst the Filipinos, it wasn’t as great to bring Ferdinand Marcos down in power. Because of these reason, The People’s Power Revolution was able to exile President Marcos from his presidency and transition to democracy.