Effects of Aging in Prison Essay

Effects of Aging in Prison Wanda W.

Jones Webster University Table of Contents Objective3 Aging in Prison Literature Review4 Participants13 Measurement14 Survey and Data Collection Tool15 Data Collection Method18 Analysis19 Schedule20 Budget21 Institutional Review Board23 Peer Review24 Objective This research proposal will be on the aging prison population. The topic to be explored will be the impact of the elderly in prison on society. It will attempt to understand why aging in prison has become such a hot topic for discussion.Some of the topics being discussed include housing, healthcare, hospice and re-entry into society. The study will review why there are so many aging prisoners and the impact it is having on the aged prisoners, the correctional system and society at large. A review of male and female elderly prisoners will be discussed. A more thorough analysis will be on the reasons for the boom in the aging prison population which may include sentencing laws; parole; repeat offenders; nature of crime (property, person, violent or non-violent); increased life expectancy and mental illness among others that may be discovered.

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In addition a review would be done on how prisoners feel about aging in prison, does it bring a sense of remorse, missed opportunities on life, and even the thoughts of dying in prison. The challenges of compassionate release among aged prisoners that are really too ill to cause any additional threat to society, effects physicians, prison personnel, the public and the elderly offenders themselves in trying to balance the needs of the inmates and the cost of incarceration. Aging in PrisonThe fastest growing population in prisons today is older inmates, classified as 50 years of age or older (Allen, Phillips, Roff, Cavanaugh, & Day, 2008). An inmate is typically considered elderly at 50 years old, primarly because they are generally “10-11. 5 years older physiologically [than] they are chronologically” (Thivierge-Rikard & Thompson, 2007).

Poor health in inmates are contributed to abuses of alcohol and drugs, inadequate diet, and lack of proper health care (Thivierge-Rikard & Thompson, 2007). There are three times as many prisoners in federal and state correctional facilities in 2001 as there was in 1990” (Allen, Phillips, Roff, Cavanaugh, & Day, 2008). There are three historical trends that have caused a growth in the prison population; the overall population is aging, a crackdown on crime after the Vietnam War and the building of more prisons to house more inmates (Thivierge-Rikard & Thompson, 2007). It is estimated that “for the year of 2020 the elderly inmate population [will be] at 21-33% of the total United States prison population” (Thivierge-Rikard & Thompson, 2007).The change from rehabilitation for criminals to incarceration for crimes following the Vietnam War is seen by the “mandatory sentencing, ‘three-strike’ sentencing laws, and various ‘get tough’ crime policies at both the state and federal levels” (Thivierge-Rikard & Thompson, 2007). These longer prison terms and decreased parole practices, can be seen “From 1970 to 1997, the number of inmates paroled decreased to 42%, and the number of prisions increased from 1,287 in 1990 to 1,500 by 1995. As of 2000, there were 1,668 state, federal, and private correctional facilites in the United States” (Thivierge-Rikard & Thompson, 2007).

The aging prison population growth is more prevalent on the state level than the federal level (Thivierge-Rikard & Thompson, 2007). During the years 1996 to 1998, prisoners 55 years old and older rose, “55% among males and 50% among females” (Collins & Bird, 2007). The increase of female offenders has soared over the last thirty years. “In 1977, the United States imprisoned 24 male prisoners for every female inmate.

By 2007, the rate fell to 13 men to every woman” (Johnson & Brooks, 2011).Many of the elderly women inmates are first time offenders and new to the prison system. Not only do they have to deal with the devastation of being locked up and aging in prison but the refusal of the prison staff to be treated as a person of any value (Johnson & Brooks, 2011). Many see the elderly as victims of crime instead of committing crimes (Collins & Bird, 2007). The crimes the elderly are commiting are more serious and crimes are taken more seriously today, thus landing more older offenders in prison with the potetnial of dying there (Johnson & Brooks, 2011).The main crimes for the aged prisoner are ‘theft and handling of stolen goods (31%) and sexual offences (21%), with violence not being unusual. There is more evidence of older females trafficking drugs (Collins & Bird, 2007). Older inmates are considered to be less healthy than non-prisoners due to previous lifestyles before prison, socioeconomic conditions and heartlessness of prison life itself (Dayron, Aday, & Wahidin, 2009).

“Aging is not for the faint of heart especially in prsion, and especially so for the sorts of people-the sick, abused, drug, and alcohol addicted-whose often-reckless lives land them behind bars.Complications associated with aging are accelerated in prison” (Johnson & Brooks, 2011). “We learn that prison magnifies the problems that bring people to prison in the first place” (Johnson & Brooks, 2011). Older prisoners are not homogenous. Some older inmates are growing old while serving their sentences and some are coming in old as new inmates (Collins & Bird, 2007). “It is telling that a 50-year old inmate is considered elderly, the equivalent, on a good day, of a 60-year-old civilian.Ten years lost at that late date in the life span and in the context of prison is a long, long time” (Johnson & Brooks, 2011).

The aged prisoner typically has three chronic diseases among other viruses and infections. It has been studied and reported that the fear of death is based on the health of the aged inmate (Dayron, Aday, & Wahidin, 2009). “They get sick at high rates, at least inpart in response to the stresses of imprisonent, and this requires expensive care, at a time of increasingly strained state budgets” (Johnson & Brooks, 2011). Older female inmates need medical services more than any other inmate group” (Dayron, Aday, & Wahidin, 2009). Prisoners serving life are known as ‘lifers’ and are serving more time in prisons due to mandatory sentences, regardless of the age while committing the crime; advancement in technology, such as, DNA; and the aging population (Collins & Bird, 2007). In 2000, the yearly cost of housing an aged prisoner was more than $60,000 and three times that of a younger prisoner (Allen, Phillips, Roff, Cavanaugh, & Day, 2008).An example of the aged health care can be seen in the case of a severely ill inmate in California were health care exceed $1. 97 million, versus an average yearly cost of $73,000 for a person in a community nursing homes (Williams, Sudore, Greifinger, & Morrison, 2011).

The aging prisoners bring concern in the way of “health, social care, rehabilitation and resettlement” (Collins & Bird, 2007). Studies have revealed that older prisoners suffer from common problems of “depression, guilt, worry, and psychological stress” (Allen, Phillips, Roff, Cavanaugh, & Day, 2008).The most common illness in the aged prisoner is psychiatric illness followed by depressive illnesses. Compared to the younger prisoner, the aged prisoner is twice al likely to suffer psychiatric illness and three times as likely to have a depressive illness (Collins & Bird, 2007). Mental health conditions have been researched and accepted to be substantial in the aged prison population, up to 40% of state aged prisoners aged 55 and older (Allen, Phillips, Roff, Cavanaugh, & Day, 2008). Inmates also highlighted the stress of being away from their families, the stigma associated with their crime, and depresion related to the possiblility of dying in prison as some of the largest factors in their problems with emotional well-being” (Allen, Phillips, Roff, Cavanaugh, & Day, 2008). Women aged prisoners, more so than men, try to maintain contact with family and friends, in what is considered the ‘free world. ’ However, this becomes a problem with the aging prisoner because those in the ‘free world’ are aging as well.

So the writing, calls and visits will begin to slow and possibly stop, especially in the event of loss health or death (Johnson & Brooks, 2011). Those aged inmates that reported better health reported reduced anxiety and depression. “It is interesting that forgiveness, private religious practices, and religious meaning did not explain unique variance[s] in anxiety, depression, or desire for hastened death” among the inmates that used spirituality as a method of coping (Allen, Phillips, Roff, Cavanaugh, amp; Day, 2008). Contributing factors to an increase in death anixety included education levels; feeling unsafe; mental health issues and chronic illnesses with insufficent and incompentent prison medical staff; and advancing age (Dayron, Aday, & Wahidin, 2009). Not surprising, most aged female inmates used their spiritual relationship to handle the fears of dying in prison (Dayron, Aday, & Wahidin, 2009).

Since morbidity in the aged prisoner cannot really be compared to that of younger prisoners or the non-prison population, their health needs are not known (Collins & Bird, 2007). Although elderly prisoners at a segregated prison faciliy would have more of their special needs met with such services as “on-site kidney dialysis, dental care, counseling on death and dying, and palliative/hospice care” (Thivierge-Rikard & Thompson, 2007), continuing in the general population will allow more services at a lower cost for prison administrators (Thivierge-Rikard & Thompson, 2007). While the overall number of older prisoners is small, the number is growing steadily and they are likely to have significant healthcare needs in the areas of mental health, cardiovascular risk and chronic illness management” (Collins & Bird, 2007). A vast majority, “96% of state instutions do not provide any geriatric health care services” (Thivierge-Rikard & Thompson, 2007) and at present, “39% of the inmates are classified as geriatric inmates” (Thivierge-Rikard & Thompson, 2007).

Congress created a federal statue, “under the Sentencing Reform Act of 1984” (Williams, Sudore, Greifinger, & Morrison, 2011), to give court authority to allow a Compassionate release for prisoners that allows the inmates to be released from prison before they die” (Williams, Sudore, Greifinger, & Morrison, 2011).With the exception of five states, the federal and state correctional systems have all instituted some basic guidelines for compassionate release based on ”a terminal or severely debilitating medical condition, a condition that cannot be appropriately cared for within the prison, and a prisoner who poses no threat to society” (Williams, Sudore, Greifinger, & Morrison, 2011). An inmate must be medically eligible which is determined by a medical doctor and must have the approval of the prison system, and ultimately the courts to receive a compassionate release (Williams, Sudore, Greifinger, & Morrison, 2011).Normally, prisoners are too sick to advocate on their own behalf to be released and must have someone to perform that role for them. Very few prisoners obtain a compassionate release (Williams, Sudore, Greifinger, & Morrison, 2011). The push for compassionate release is based on the cost of incarceration for housing a fast growing number of older inmates, prison overcrowding, health care of those aging and dying in prison (Williams, Sudore, Greifinger, & Morrison, 2011).Cost being a motivating factor in compassionate release. “Between 1982 and 2006, U.

S. state and federal prison populations grew by 271%, prisoners aged 55 years or older increased 418%, and spending increased by 660%. For the 79,100 prisoners older than 55 years, the cost of incarceration is more than 3 times that for younger prisoners, primarily due to health care cost” (Williams, Sudore, Greifinger, & Morrison, 2011). Retribution, rehabilitation, deterrence and incapacitation are the principles behind imprisoning inmates.Administrators in the criminal system, those in public policy, and medical personnel themselves, have come to understand that; taking away freedom, offering programs, trying to prevent future crime acts and protecting the public from aged inmates “who are too ill or cognitively impaired to be aware of punishment, too sick to participate in rehabilitation, or too functionally compromised to pose a risk to public safety” (Williams, Sudore, Greifinger, & Morrison, 2011) should be allowed a compassionate release.

Prognoisis provided by the doctor is essential for a compassionate release, and can put the doctor in a dilema regarding the medical status of the prisoner, perdicting death to late for possible release or too early that may pose a problem with public safety (Williams, Sudore, Greifinger, & Morrison, 2011). “Geriatricians can be helpful for considering the downgrading of prisoners who are too ill to be of any threat or harm.Thus, they can contribute to a structured process of judgment in decisions regarding whether a hospital transfer, compassionate release or a review of prison resuscitation would be appropriate in cases of terminal illness” (Collins & Bird, 2007).

Conclusion A person’s background and how they lived their life can have a lot to do with their age during incarceration (Johnson & Brooks, 2011). As the population at large ages, so is the prison population (Johnson & Brooks, 2011). As older female offenders commit more serious crimes they will likely do more time, often dying in prison becomes a reality (Johnson & Brooks, 2011).Older women inmates are treated the same as any other inmate, when in reality there is a difference, in health or the ability to do harm (Johnson & Brooks, 2011). There will continue to be a growing female inmate population (Dayron, Aday, & Wahidin, 2009). The lack of proper medical treatment, an insensitive staff and the stigma of prison will continue to affect how female prisoners feel fear and negativity to getting sick and dying in prison (Dayron, Aday, & Wahidin, 2009).Inmates still cared about their family and did not want to shame them any further by dying in prison (Dayron, Aday, & Wahidin, 2009). With the growth of the elderly committing crimes at a higher rate and those already committing crimes in their youth with longer mandatory sentencing, Geriatricians should be part of the penitentiary system (Collins & Bird, 2007).

They can be used to assess, evaluate and determine the needs of the aged prisoner, which in some cases would result in release (Collins & Bird, 2007).Due to the soaring cost to house an aged inmate every year coming closer to the triple digits, it is well worth it to study the implications of crime on physical and mental health (Allen, Phillips, Roff, Cavanaugh, & Day, 2008). A study to determine the significance of spiritual relationships with a Higher Power and better mental health could have a bearing on the fears getting sick and dying in prison (Allen, Phillips, Roff, Cavanaugh, & Day, 2008).

Studies should be done to provide not only the fiscal costs of imprisonment but also, the quality of life for the rising elderly inmate population (Thivierge-Rikard & Thompson, 2007). The determination to have consolidated or segregated housing, geriatric or non-geriatric health services and other programs for the aged inmate will likely be determined differently state by state (Thivierge-Rikard & Thompson, 2007) . It would be beneficial to allow the aging offenders to remain among the general population; it tends to allow more services.However, these services can be enhanced to accommodate the aged prisoner (Thivierge-Rikard & Thompson, 2007).

The correctional system is flawed, but there has been some changes and will continue to be changes with the escalating cost of aging prisoners, a positive change in compassionate releases would allow those with no threat to society be allowed to die outside the prison (Williams, Sudore, Greifinger, & Morrison, 2011). It is illusive to expect medical doctors to be able to determine the death of a person, regardless of their illness.The medical establishment understands the need for prison geriatrics and has come to the forefront to establish guidelines that would be fair to the aged prisoner, cost effective for the prison system, safe for the public and efficient for the physician to make the proper diagnosis for those ailing and dying (Williams, Sudore, Greifinger, & Morrison, 2011). References Allen, R. S. , Phillips, L.

L. , Roff, L. L. , Cavanaugh, R. , & Day, L. (2008). Religiousness/Spirituality and Mental Health Among Older Male Inmates. Gerontologist, 48(5), 692-697.

Collins, D. R. , & Bird, R.

(2007). The Penitentiary visit – a new role for geriatricians? Age and Ageing, 36(1), 11-13. doi:10. 1093/ageing/afl144 Dayron, D. , Aday, R. H.

, & Wahidin, A. (2009). The Effect of health and Penal Harm on Aging Female Prisoners’ Views of Dying in Prison.

Omega: Journal of Death ;amp; Dying, 60(1), 51-70. doi:10. 2190/OM. 60. 1. c Johnson, R.

, ;amp; Brooks, A. (2011). Cold Comfort: Women Aging in Prison.

The Gerontologist, 51(6), 884-887. doi:10. 1093/geront/gnr114 Thivierge-Rikard, R. V. , ;amp; Thompson, M. S. (2007).The Association Between Aging Inmate housing Management Models and Non-Geriatric Health Services in State Correctional Institutions.

Journal of Aging ;amp; Social Policy, 19(4), 39-56. doi:10. 1300/J031v19n04_03 Williams, B. A.

, Sudore, R. L. , Greifinger, R. , ;amp; Morrison, R. S.

(2011). Balancing Punishment and Compassion for Seriously Ill Prisoners. Annal of Internal Medicine, 155(2), 122-W44. Participants This study will include content analysis of published data on correctional facilities.

All 1900 of the correctional facilities would receive a survey to participate.Male and female aged prisoners 50 years or older who accepted the invitation to participate in the survey and went through the interview process are included in the study. A total of 600 aged inmates will be studied, divided up evenly among females and males. . Measurement Key variables are the aged inmate and the prison population.

The independent variables are the aged inmate, type of facility and programs. The dependent variable include mental health, physical health, religiousness/spirituality, fear of getting sick or dying in prison, compassionate release.The following demographics will be taken from the aged prison inmates: age, race, marital status, years of education, self-rating of general mental, emotional and physical health, type of crime, and self-reported years of incarceration for the current offense. The surveys would measure, Daily Spiritual Experience, Forgiveness, Positive Religious Coping, Private Religion, Depression, Anxiety and Hastened Death, Fear of Dying and former abuse of alcohol and drugs.The measure for the unit analysis in corrections facility data included security level of the institution, number of correctional officers, overcrowding, and accessibility to different programs, educational, work or recreational. Survey and Data Collection Tool Informed Consent You are being invited to participate in a research study about the effects of aging in prison. This study is being conducted by Wanda Jones, Spring 2 semester, Research and Assessment in Gerontology class at Webster University. This study is being conducted as part of a graduate student project at Webster University.

There are no known risks if you decide to participate in this research study. There are no costs to you for participating in the study. The information you provide will identify aging in prison and its impact on prisoners 50 years old and older, the correctional institution and society. The questionnaire will take about 30-60 minutes to complete. The information collected may not benefit you directly, but the information learned in this study should provide more general benefits. This survey is anonymous.

Do not write your name on the survey.No one will be able to identify you or your answers, and no one will know whether or not you participated in the study. Individuals from Webster University and the Institutional Review Board may inspect these records.

Should the data be published, no individual information will be disclosed. Your participation in this study is voluntary. By completing the survey, you are voluntarily agreeing to participate. You are free to decline to answer any particular question you do not wish to answer for any reason. Ellen Tetlow (Institutional Review Board) has reviewed my request to conduct this project.If you have any questions about the study, please contact Wanda Jones, Spring 2 semester, Please place an X on the following line to indicate your informed consent ___________________________________________________________. If you have any concerns about your rights in this study, please contact 314-583-5092 or Wanda Jones at [email protected] edu This survey is to assess the needs or those aging in prison and the need for a gerontologist (a specialist in aging) in correctional facilities to better service the aging inmates.

Instructions: Please read the following questions carefully and place a v to the left of your choice which best applies to you and your experience with Aging in Prison. 1. What is your age? (Check one) _____Under 50 _____50-54 _____55-59 _____60-64 _____65-69 _____70-79 _____80-89 _____90-99 _____100 and over 1. 2.

What is your sex? (Check one) 2. Female_____ Male_____ 3. What is your marital status? (Check one) Married_____ Widowed_____ Divorced_____ Single_____ 4.

What is your Ethnicity? (Check one) _____Asian _____Bi-Racial _____Black / African descent _____Hispanic / Latino ____Multi-Racial _____Native American _____Non-Hispanic / Latino _____White / European descent _____Other Instructions: Please read the following questions carefully and place a v to the left of your choice which best applies to you and your experience with Aging in Prison. 5. Are you currently working in the prison system? (Check one) Yes_____ No_____ 5a. If yes, how many hours per week (Check one) _____30-40 hours _____20-29 hours _____10-19 hours _____Less than 10 hours a week 6. Please choose your highest level of education completed. (Check one) _____Less than High school ____GED or High School Diploma _____Vocational/Technical _____Some College _____Bachelor Degree _____Advanced Degree (completed a Master or Doctorate) 7. Are you classified as a first time offender (never been in the criminal system)? _____Yes______No 8. Your crime was classified as (check all that apply) _____theft and handling of stolen goods _____Rape _____other sexual offences _____Murder _____Assault _____other violence _____drugs 9.

Did your sentence included: (Check all that apply) _____Mandatory sentence _____Three Strike 10. How many years were you sentenced to serve in prison? _________ 11. How many years have you already served in prison? __________ 12. Do you expect to be released before your time is up? _____Yes _____No 13. For the following statements below concerning your general health, please circle one answer that best describes your general health.

Listed below are the choices. Strongly Agree (SA)Agree (A)Disagree (D)Strongly Disagree (SD) My physical health is good. SAADSD My mental health is good. SAADSD My emotional health is good. SAADSD My concentration is good. SAADSD My memory is good. SAADSD My decision making is good. SAADSDMy attitude is positive serving time.

SAADSD 14. Do you feel generally safe in prison? _____Yes ______No 15. Do you have any chronic diseases? (Check all that apply) _____Cancer _____Arthritis _____Cardiovascular (Heart Disease) _____HIV/AIDS _____Kidney failure _____High Blood Pressure _____Diabetes _____Depression (Manic, Clinical or _____Liver failure _____Other _____________________ _____Other _____________________ Instructions: Please read the following questions carefully and place a v to the left of your choice which best applies to you and your experience with Aging in Prison. 6. Do you fear getting sick in prison? _____Yes _____No 17.

Do you fear dying in prison? _____Yes _____No 18. For the following statements below concerning prison, please circle one answer that best describes your feelings. Listed below are the choices.

Strongly Agree (SA)Agree (A)Disagree (D)Strongly Disagree (SD) Medical treatment is adequate. SAADSD The staff is caring. SAADSD The staff is cold and uncaring. SAADSD Good Programs for Rehabilitation. SAADSD To remain in the general population. SAADSD Allowed to live with dignity.SAADSD 19.

For the following statements below concerning prison, please circle one answer that best describes your general feelings. Listed below are the choices. Strongly Agree (SA)Agree (A)Disagree (D)Strongly Disagree (SD) I feel depressed. SAADSD I feel guilty. SAADSD I worry. SAADSD I am stressed. SAADSD I am sorry for my crime. SAADSD I feel remorse.

SAADSD I feel anxious. SAADSD Instructions: Please read the following questions carefully and place a v to the left of your choice which best applies to you and your experience with Aging in Prison. 20.I need help with: (Check all that apply) _____Counseling_____Employment Assistance _____Educational Opportunities_____Volunteer Opportunities _____Legal_____Health and Wellness programs _____Support Groups_____Activities of Daily Living Instructions: Please read the following questions carefully and place a v to the left of your choice which best applies to you and your experience with Aging in Prison. 21. My religious affiliation is: (Check all that apply) _____Baptist _____Church of God _____Catholic _____Christian _____Atheists _____No religious/spiritual affiliation ____Other 22. Are you currently on medication for ‘mood’? _____Yes _____No 23.

Are you currently on medication for ‘nerves’? _____Yes _____No 24. For the following statements below concerning Religiousness/Spirituality, please circle one answer that best describes your general feelings. Listed below are the choices. Strongly Agree (SA)Agree (A)Disagree (D)Strongly Disagree (SD) I believe in God. SAADSD I believe in a Higher Power. SAADSD I worship daily. SAADSD I pray daily.

SAADSD I read the Bible daily. SAADSD I read other religious literature daily. SAADSDI say grace before eating daily. SAADSD I know God has forgiven me. SAADSD I feel God has abandoned me.

SAADSD A hasten death would free me. SAADSD I attend religious services often. SAADSD I use my faith to cope in prison. SAADSD I have forgiven myself for my crimes. SAADSD I do not want to die in prison. SAADSD Instructions: Please read the following questions carefully and place a v to the left of your choice which best applies to you and your experience with Aging in Prison. 25. Which inmates do you think with the following conditions are a threat to society? Check all that apply) _____Alzheimer _____Dementia _____Vegetative State _____Terminal Cancer _____Cirrhosis of the liver 26.

Do you have or will have an advocate to work on your behalf for a compassionate release if you become eligible? (Check one) _____Yes ______No 27. Write in your own words what the staff at your correctional institute could do to allow you to serve your time with dignity and released rehabilitated. (Assistance is available if you need it to write your statement(s). Thank you for your time and assistance in participating in this survey. Data Collection MethodVarious types of data will be collected. Statistical data on correctional facilities will be collected from several government websites, 2000 Bureau of Justice Statistics Census of State and Federal Adult Correctional Facilities, National Institute of Correction, Department of Rehabilitation and Correction, and The Department of Corrections (DOC) from each state. A questionnaire survey will be mailed out to the administrator in charge of each correctional facility.

A survey will be sent to all prisoners aged 50 and over to invite them to participate in the study.Aged inmates that agree to participate in the study would be scheduled an appointment with one of the four the clinical psychologist to be interviewed. The interview would last between 30 and 60 minutes to ensure proper completion of the survey. Face to face interviews will be done at one male and one female correctional center. A total of 600 aged prisoners are set to be interviewed, 300 female and 300 male. Analysis Reviews of surveys were documented. The data from the surveys were electronically computed and to reveal the issues of the prison facilities and staff, the aged inmates, and the medical staff.

The unit of analysis was aged prisoners. The independent variables were being age and self-reported health. The dependent variables included anxiety, depression and desire for hastened death. The unit of analysis is from the Bureau of Justice Census of State and Federal Audit Correctional Facilities. Instead of reviewing prisons, a review of institutional level features was done. The analysis will be on state correctional facilities were inmates are allowed to leave the facility less than 50% or not at all.

Independent variables were the two questions ask, does the facility have a geriatric unit or do the facility provide geriatric care?The dependent variables were the non-geriatric medical services for physical care and mental health care. Schedule The study will be done over the course of seven months. August 1-30, 2012 – Review online government data. September 15, 2012 – A survey would be sent out to all participants, aged prisoners and correctional facilities.

September 16- October 31, 2012 – obtain and compile prison data on prison population, correctional facilities programs, and compassionate releases. November 1-December 31, 2012 – Aged inmate interviews. February 8, 2013 – Workshop for correctional facility staff on aged adults at male prison.February 15, 2013 – Workshop for correctional facility staff on aged adults at female prison. February 28, 2013 – Release data on final comments from the workshop Budget Personnel Position/TitleAnnual Salary%of time assigned to projectCost Clinical Psychologist$70,000 25%$17,500 Clinic Psych Student$10,000100%$10,000 Clinic Psych Student$10,000100%$10,000 Clinic Psych Student$ 8,000 50%$ 4,000 Total Personnel$41,500 Fringe Benefits Position/TitleFringe Benefit RatePersonnel Cost TotalFringe Benefit Cost Clinical Psychologist20%$17,500$3,500 Clinic Psych Student10%$10,000$1,000Clinic Psych Student10%$10,000$1,000 Clinic Psych Student10%$ 4,000$ 400 Total Fringe Benefits$5,900 Travel Purpose of TravelLocationItemComputationCost Mailing Post OfficeVehicle1 person x 20 miles X . 555$ 11 Prison InterviewsMale PrisonVehicle4 people x 125 miles X 2 x . 555$ 550 Prison InterviewsFemale PrisonVehicle4 people x 250 miles X 2 x . 555$1,100 Prison WorkshopMale PrisonVehicle4 people x 125 miles X 2 x .

555$ 550 Prison WorkshopFemale PrisonVehicle4 people x 250 miles X 2 x . 555$1,100 Total Travel$3,311 Supplies Gen. Office(copier paper, file folders for reports, markers, etc. $1,500 Printing cost(aged Inmates 1200 surveys x . 05)$ 60 Printing cost(correctional facilities 1900 surveys x . 05)$ 95 Printing cost(final reports)$ 550 Postage(aged inmates 1200 stamps x .

75)$ 900 Postage(correctional facilities 1900 stamps x . 50)$ 450 Total Gen. Office$3,555 EquipmentCost Projector$1,200 Projector screen$ 300 Total Equipment$1,500 Total Project Cost$55,766 Institutional Review Board This is a class project and the research will not be implemented, so the form, research plans and data collection instrument will not be submitted


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