Notes on Final Exam: Practice Exams 1-4 are open for practice Final Exam consists of 100 questions Red cantors required Equal amount of questions from last 3 chapters covered.
Wasn’t enough time to cover everything, so don’t JUST study this! DO NOT FORGET – Exam 4 due Monday at noon! Endocrine System Hormones: functions, where they’re secreted from, etc. Adrenal Glands: Cortex: Zoon Salesrooms mineralogist’s – Lodestone Zoon Fasciculate sociolinguistics – Cortical (synergies), allows clangor to work – sugar-preserving hormone Zoon Reticulates contradistinctions – Androgen’sMedulla: Catecholamine: stress hormones Epinephrine Morphogenesis Osteoporosis – reduction in the mass of the bone – Lots of questions! Calcium regulation – Lots of questions! PATH ; Calculation responsible for calcium regulation in the body * Calcium important for nerve transmission, muscle contraction (esp.. Heart), cell division * Lodestone – primary hormone responsible for water regulation NAP – antagonist to lodestone – Rennin-Negotiation-Lodestone-System: LOTS of questions!Rennin: Converts anesthesiology to negotiation Increases thirst, reapportion of sodium, DAD Negotiations – vasoconstriction – act on hypothalamus – make you thirsty Type 1 – secrete ACE – defect that damaged type 1 cells? Hypertension, increased urine production Type 2 – secrete surfactant – detect collapse Same function, different mechanisms: that damaged type 2 cells?Lung Lodestone: Increases sodium reapportion in proximal convoluted tubule decreasing urine output DAD: By insertion of aspirins in collecting ducts, decreasing urine output Clangor – Increases blood sugar – produced by alpha cells of the pancreas – needs cortical to work (permissiveness! ) Insulin – Decreases blood sugar – produced by beta cells Review pathology in endocrine – Hypo/hypertension – GHZ, HTH, etc.
: GHZ dependent on what age pathology occurs – know them all! C cells – secrete calculation – decrease calcium in circulation (Includes Vessels, Blood, etc. ) LOTS of C.V. questions on exam!Driving force of blood = pressure gradient Factors that will increase blood flow to a particular region: Temperature pH Dissociation Curve – know what will make the curve shift CO retention = decreased pH = acidosis Blood Pressure regulated by Medulla Obbligato; preceptors located in carotid inns and aortic arch – microprocessors Pressures! Lots of questions! Pulse pressure – difference between systolic and diastolic – driving force of vascular in blood Diastolic – pressure by which you return blood back to the circulation Systolic – pressure by which you eject blood from the ventricle Etc. Know what they all are Action potentials – 2 tough questions! In order for excitation to occur (in cardiac muscle) , deportation depends upon O important ions: 1) INFLUX to sodium.
2)Calcium contributes to plateau phase of deportation! Concentration of calcium inside cell is normally zero. INFLUX of calcium during deportation very important! Revitalization depends upon the EFFLUX of potassium. EGG: Understand EVERY SINGLE segment of the EGG. Electrical event always followed by mechanical event!P: Trial deportation followed by trial contraction SIRS: Ventricular deportation followed by ventricular contraction T: Ventricular revitalization followed by ventricular relaxation Must be very clear about the definitions of isoperimetric contraction ; isoperimetric relaxation and what happens during these events: Valves that remain open during isoperimetric contraction = NONE!!! Explosives = volume stays the same! Pressure not high enough to open the valves, so volume in the heart stays the same. Isoperimetric relaxation – Just ejected the blood – amount remaining in heart at the end of contraction= ESP.!EDP = amount of blood heart receives during diastole AKA preloaded EKE – couple of questions Edema: Most important factor: heart failure * Review Frank Starling Law: make sure you review the section in book – few questions at least! If you stretch the heart before it contracts, you increase its contractile (force of contraction) Increase of Venous return or preloaded will lead to an increase in the force of contraction Protein used to transport iron in the circulation: Transferring Review Orb’s – from production to destruction, spleen’s role, retrospection, etc.Review ALL the steps, what happens to the hemoglobin, how you eliminate all the building blocks of Hub, etc. Chloride Shift – takes place in Orb’s: review sequence of exchanges Also takes place in kidney tubules and parietal cells Cardiac cycle and sequence of events: * Make sure you are very clear – sequence will be Jumbled and will have to place in correct order * 3 MAP = Data,’P + * EDP-ESP.
Review groups! Know which types nave which antibodies and antigens, know the donating and receiving capabilities of each.At least 2 or 3 questions. Homeostasis – how to stop bleeding – couple questions! Activation of clotting factor: promoting to thrombi. Review sequence for blood clotting etc Main factor affecting peripheral resistance = DIAMETER Aorta first branch – coronary arteries Review structure of hemoglobin – 4 chains of protein linked together – two beta – hem in the middle – iron in middle of hem Go over plasma proteins and what they contribute to.
Most abundant UP: Albumin! Review Immune Cells: INK cells: two alpha, Surveillance!Searches body for virus and cancer-infected cells T-helper cells B cells Lantern’s AKA dendrites cells – monocot’s that became macrophages and became stationary in different parts of the body. Plasma cell = activated B cell: secrete antibodies – humeral immunity Make sure you know the differences between types of immunity and their subdivisions! Acquired Active: you make Passive: someone else made Natural: placenta/breastwork Passive artificial – toxin, ii snake antivenin Questions asked on quizzes will be asked again!Know the lymphatic ducts and where they empty: Thoracic duct supplies % of body – empties into left civilians Right lymphatic duct supplies right side of upper body and right side of the head – empties into right civilians Know the functions of the lymphatic system: Cleaning up after the C.V.: fluid that leaked out is swept up by lymphatic system and returned to circulation Mussolini’s: Gig, IGMP, etc! Go through the table in book! Mast cell: Bags of histamine and heparin – basis for inflammation When they rupture = inflammation