Envio Facts 2001, Girardet 1996 Sample Essay

The negative effects of urbanization outweigh the positive. To what extent do you hold with this statement? About urbanization. possibly different academic circles have different perceive. they depends their specialised features to definition. But in general status. urbanization probably the addition in the proportion of people populating in towns and metropoliss. And the definition of urbanization is ‘Urbanisation is the procedure by which big Numberss of people become for good concentrated in comparatively little countries. organizing metropoliss. Internal rural to urban migration means that people move from rural countries to urban countries. ’ ( Long1998 ) ‘In this process. Numberss of people augment in metropoliss than in countryside. If the population growing in metropoliss more than small town. the natural addition of urbanization will be happen.

However this status is infrequence. When more than 50 % of population lives in the state. it will be regard to urbanised. ’ ( Long1998 ) . Greatest urbanization occurs in developing states. As Anthony and Overman ( 2005 ) points out that ‘Rapid urbanization is a major characteristic of developing states. Some 2 billion more people are likely to go metropolis occupants in the following 30 old ages. yet urbanization has received small attending in the modern development economic sciences literature. ’ This essay will explicate why negative effects of urbanization outweigh the positive. and effort to suggest some ground which can back up this point of view.

Urbanization has a long history. and began with the industrial revolution. A survey by Potter and Lloyd-Evan ( 1998: PP. 3-11 ) indicate that ‘In history. Industrialization and urbanization happened together. but the relation has lasted for 600 old ages. since the first town appeared. has a radically alteration over the past four decennaries. ’ ‘In the 19th and early twentieth centuries. urban growing was happening chiefly in the developed states. The ground for this was the spread of industrialisation and the associated rapid addition in the usage of fossil fuels. These yearss the urbanisation is much faster than those yearss and it is most rapid in the Third World states. Today the largest and fastest turning metropoliss are in developing states. of the new urban-industrial development ( Envio Facts 2001. Girardet 1996 ) .

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‘People life in the state frequently see the metropolis as a more desirable topographic point to populate. whether they are populating in developing or developing states. ’ Lynch ( 2004:134 ) ‘Migration to metropoliss is commonplace. peculiarly in topographic points where traditional rural life styles are altering quickly. and where population growing. alterations inland term of office and pulls people off the land. ’ Girardet ( 1999 ) But why people migrate from rural countries to metropoliss? There are two sorts of grounds possibly can explicate that why rural people explore for metropolis life. The first factor is urban pull factor. The people who live in the state are dreamed for higher rewards. better lodging. public services and installations. better school and infirmary. more occupations chance. and more experience when they live in large metropolis.

The 2nd one is urban push factor. It is true that most of state adult male is husbandmans. without higher degree of instruction. handiness of media. or installations that they need. Then they might be stimulated to travel to urban countries. because of metropolis has better wellness attention. instruction installations. higher criterion of life. conveyances and communicating systems. ‘Development besides pulls people into metropoliss. As they grow. their impact on next rural communities increases as new urban employment chances and the enlargement of conveyance and communications systems attract people from outlying countries. ’ ( Satterthwaite 1996 )

With people migrate in urban country. it will hold many impacts. urbanisation brings with it several effects both inauspicious and good. They impact on societal and environmental countries. Some impacts are common to both developing and developed states. but some are more specific to developed states. because there are facts of people who hope to migrate to the town. As consequence of urbanization. metropoliss have more jobs to get the better of such as pollution. overpopulation. congestion. offense. and so on. One of biggest job is overpopulation. it appear in developing state and developed state. but in developing state. overpopulation job is more serious. China is a underdeveloped state with the biggest population in the universe. Nowadays. the urbanisation in China is turning rapid ‘Some 300 million people –a one-fourth of China’s population will be traveling to metropoliss. change overing from peasant agriculture and craft-based life to urban-industrial life styles. ’ Girardet ( 1999 ) First. China have to undertake the job of the deficit of infinite. the land in China is limited.

More people means smaller portion of infinite for single. Especially metropoliss will go more crowded. Second. abundant of nutrient and stuffs are needed to feed. warm and shelter this big population. so many resources are used up at a flooring velocity. and China’s ecological environment is declining. As a consequence. people’s life quality will be negatively affected. moreover. since so many people are fighting for the limited opportunities to have the higher instruction and for the limited occupations. some people will surely be kept out of the colleges or go unemployed. which may convey Forth nonreaders or semi-literates among the younger coevals or do the fiscal job to some households. Besides eating and educating. a good direction of such a large population may go really hard. On the other manus. overpopulation besides will do offense rate lifting. A batch of people from the countryside pour into metropolis. it will do occupation. nutrient and house deficit. some people can non happen occupation and no house to populate. in order to last. they had to take the manner of offense.

Unemployment and poorness force people into anti-social activities. it will go a genteelness land for condemnable activities. ‘As the metropolis life pulls in all kinds of people. and allows for all kinds of activities to boom. felons. excessively. happen their portion of chances here. ’ ( Charlie2012 ) Of class. lifting degrees of pollution is besides deserving to attending. Urbanisation brings job of planetary heating. moreover it besides causes air population and H2O issues jobs. Increasing figure of abodes and tower block flats and industries. makes temperature additions drastically. Factories and cars are symbols of urbanisation. Because of the harmful emanations of gases and fume from mills and vehicles. they can do air population. Urbanization need built more mills. dumping of sewerage from mills in H2O organic structures. H2O pollution occurs which can take to eruptions of epidemics. ‘Huge metropoliss create tremendous sums of waste. and the urban life style includes creative activity of waste that is largely non-biodegradable. thanks to the generous usage of plastic wares.

This leads to an unprecedented addition in the refuse that stays in our landfills. fouling the dirt for old ages to come. ’ ( Charlie2012 ) Urbanization is frequently viewed as a negative tendency. but there are besides has some positives include convenience and betterments in economic system. Peoples can entree to instruction. wellness. societal services and cultural activities in metropoliss easy than in state. and metropoliss are much more advanced. sophisticated and comfy. and besides have advanced communicating and conveyance webs. these substructure provides people with convenient. In add-on. many of people into the metropolis can construct town and better the economic. so the life criterions will be better and many productions that people can non afford in the past clip can be owned in today. Although urbanization has some positive consequence. the negative consequence is more impotent and serious.

Urbanization besides class many jobs in rural countries. ‘It is a fact that people move to metropolis make depopulation of countryside and a 2nd effect or consequence of this. is cut down in nutrient production and in the provide of nutrient to the state as a whole. This is bend can besides take to a rise in pieces because of the jurisprudence of supply and demand. ’ Lynch ( 2004:134 )

In the decision. Urbanization happens because of the addition in the extent and denseness of urban countries. and ever occurred with industrialisation. people live the countryside to the metropolis that wants a better life. There are many negative effects of urbanization on metropoliss and on rural countries. and some positive effects on metropoliss. ‘It is obvious that negative effects outweigh positive effects. Between 1960 and 2025. a period of some 75 old ages. the overall degree of universe urbanization will hold increased from 29 to 61 per cent. ’ Potter and Lloyd-Evans ( 1998 pp. 3-11 ) Government should make their best to do a good program to urbanization and bettering the environment pollution. besides need assist the people who can non happen the occupation and house.


Lynch. T. ( 2004 ) Study Listening. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Girardet. H. ( 1999 ) Making sustainable metropoliss. Bristol: The Schumacher Society Potter. R. B and Lloyd-Evans. S. ( 1998 ) The metropolis in the underdeveloped universe. Harlean carpenter: Pearson Education Charlie. S. ( 10/11/2012 ) Challenges of urbanisation. [ on-line ] . Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. buzzle. com/articles/challenges-of-urbanization. hypertext markup language H. G. Overman and A. J. Venables. ( Dec 2005 ) Cities in the underdeveloped universe. [ on-line ] . Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www2. lse. Ac. uk/geographyAndEnvironment/research/Researchpapers/102 % 20overman. pdf


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