The essay analyses the depth of the Communist Manifesto written
by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. The document demonstrates an ideology which
was completely different from the social and political concepts that prevailed
at that time. This document provides an implicit picture of the social and
cultural changes in 1850s Europe. “in the manifesto for the communist league,
they laid out many of the central principles that would guide Marxist
revolution in the future: they insisted that all history is shaped by class
struggle and that in future revolution working class would overthrow the middle
class, and replace capitalism and private property with a communist state in
which all property is collective rather than individually owned” (Hunt, 2012,
708). The Communist Manifesto effectively changed the ideology of people and
manipulated the political changes to form a social and a communist state in

 The 1850s was marked by
the nation-state disruption in Europe. The better-informed Europeans started to
protest the policies of the states and the transforming nature of the economy.
The growth of factories led the artisans to lose their jobs. The political
theorists like Karl Marx and Engels, not only criticized the social system, but
also analyzed the reason behind this upheaval. Their ideologies influence those
citizens that were unhappy leading “Pierre-Joseph Proudhon to urge workers to
form producers’ association so the workers could control the work process and
eliminate profits made by capitalists” (Hunt, 2012, 707). They demanded a
permanent solution for the atrocities of the government as well as the
employers. The people of Paris also demanded the Paris Commune that will be a
seat without self-interested politicians and Bearcats. The thought that Karl
Marx and Friedrich Engels presented inspired the normal lower-class people. The
effect of the document was so deep that soon after it was published, Paris
erupted in revolt for overthrowing king Phillippe. The expansion of government,
rising of business was opposed by those enraged citizens, therefore, the middle
as well as upper-class people, political powers of the states were sensing the

 Most of the outspoken
labor revolutionaries were the artisans who were struggling for survival in
this growing economy dominated by new factories. Their chief concern was the
unbalanced and the unequal distribution of wealth. This was the class struggle
with which Communist manifesto opens. “Marx and Engels always placed more
emphasis on class struggle than the state that would result from the ensuing
revolution” (Hunt, 2012, 708). Marx describes his thought of history that
identifies the two classes proletarians and bourgeois.  (Hunt, 2012, 708). The bourgeois capitalists
increased their own capital and the small business owners and artisans failed
to compete with them. Thus, their situation became more deteriorated and this
created a revolutionary element in the minds of the weaker section for
destroying the supremacy of their bourgeois autocrats. The people were so
dissatisfied that the society was going towards anarchy. “As the nation-state
expanded its power, workers were also drawn to anarchism, which maintained that
the existence of the state was the root of social injustice” (Hunt, 2012, 746).
The concept of ‘Proletariats and Communists’ describes that the interests of
the communists are not different from that of the proletarians. Their main
purpose was the abolition of private property, thus equal power and the end of
abuse. “Capitalism would be overthrown by these workers — the proletariat — who
would then form a socialist society” (Hunt, 2012, 746). Marx demanded that the
communist thinkers want a social change through a revolution so, that the
balance and equality can be established. There will be a protest as well as a
revolutionary movement whenever there will be any disorder in social and
political balance and the interests of the proletarians will be at stake. No
revolutionary movement address the property question and free oppressed from
dominance as the Marxism does.

 In the conclusion, Marx thunders
that proletarians have nothing to lose except their chains.  Marxism has an enormous impact on the lives of
the contemporary people as well as future social revolutions. Marxism believes
that culture is the cause of inequality in the society. To Marx, it is the main
cause of perceived deterioration of humanities, social science, culture as well
as civilization, therefore, it needs to be corrected by means of politics. The
concept of Marxism supports the liberal idea which dated back to the
seventeenth century, John Locke and Marx through the mathematical calculations,
production, and profit proved the need for social equality. According to the
text, “Marx held that the fundamental organization of any society, including
its politics and culture, derived from the relationships arising from work or
production” (Hunt, 2012, 746).  Marxism
focuses on the economic inequalities as well as economic classes where there
are divisions based on race, religion, family structure, gender, and ethnicity.
This ideology places huge importance on the analyses to control a change of the
popular culture, discourse, language as well as the mass media. To Marx,
culture has a considerable amount of subconscious influences on the people that
creates as well as sustain inequalities. Marxists around the globe have tried
to eliminate such disparity by having control or restriction on cultures.
Different countries like Russia, China, Cuba and Vietnam that aimed to change
their social superstructure by abolishing inequality among the people formed
institutions for controlling social culture for creating a new culture. This
ideology assures that this will permanently bring the revolutionary changes,
but need no bloodshed or without taking resort to any kind of political
violence. Though these changes, the impact of the revolution became more
permanent as well as deep-rooted. The social evolution that was brought about
by the revolt, get sustenance through cultural transformation.


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