The essay analyses the depth of the Communist Manifesto writtenby Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. The document demonstrates an ideology whichwas completely different from the social and political concepts that prevailedat that time. This document provides an implicit picture of the social andcultural changes in 1850s Europe. “in the manifesto for the communist league,they laid out many of the central principles that would guide Marxistrevolution in the future: they insisted that all history is shaped by classstruggle and that in future revolution working class would overthrow the middleclass, and replace capitalism and private property with a communist state inwhich all property is collective rather than individually owned” (Hunt, 2012,708). The Communist Manifesto effectively changed the ideology of people andmanipulated the political changes to form a social and a communist state inEurope. The 1850s was marked bythe nation-state disruption in Europe.
The better-informed Europeans started toprotest the policies of the states and the transforming nature of the economy.The growth of factories led the artisans to lose their jobs. The politicaltheorists like Karl Marx and Engels, not only criticized the social system, butalso analyzed the reason behind this upheaval. Their ideologies influence thosecitizens that were unhappy leading “Pierre-Joseph Proudhon to urge workers toform producers’ association so the workers could control the work process andeliminate profits made by capitalists” (Hunt, 2012, 707). They demanded apermanent solution for the atrocities of the government as well as theemployers. The people of Paris also demanded the Paris Commune that will be aseat without self-interested politicians and Bearcats. The thought that KarlMarx and Friedrich Engels presented inspired the normal lower-class people. Theeffect of the document was so deep that soon after it was published, Pariserupted in revolt for overthrowing king Phillippe.
The expansion of government,rising of business was opposed by those enraged citizens, therefore, the middleas well as upper-class people, political powers of the states were sensing thethreat. Most of the outspokenlabor revolutionaries were the artisans who were struggling for survival inthis growing economy dominated by new factories. Their chief concern was theunbalanced and the unequal distribution of wealth. This was the class strugglewith which Communist manifesto opens. “Marx and Engels always placed moreemphasis on class struggle than the state that would result from the ensuingrevolution” (Hunt, 2012, 708). Marx describes his thought of history thatidentifies the two classes proletarians and bourgeois. (Hunt, 2012, 708).
The bourgeois capitalistsincreased their own capital and the small business owners and artisans failedto compete with them. Thus, their situation became more deteriorated and thiscreated a revolutionary element in the minds of the weaker section fordestroying the supremacy of their bourgeois autocrats. The people were sodissatisfied that the society was going towards anarchy. “As the nation-stateexpanded its power, workers were also drawn to anarchism, which maintained thatthe existence of the state was the root of social injustice” (Hunt, 2012, 746).The concept of ‘Proletariats and Communists’ describes that the interests ofthe communists are not different from that of the proletarians. Their mainpurpose was the abolition of private property, thus equal power and the end ofabuse.
“Capitalism would be overthrown by these workers — the proletariat — whowould then form a socialist society” (Hunt, 2012, 746). Marx demanded that thecommunist thinkers want a social change through a revolution so, that thebalance and equality can be established. There will be a protest as well as arevolutionary movement whenever there will be any disorder in social andpolitical balance and the interests of the proletarians will be at stake. Norevolutionary movement address the property question and free oppressed fromdominance as the Marxism does. In the conclusion, Marx thundersthat proletarians have nothing to lose except their chains.
Marxism has an enormous impact on the lives ofthe contemporary people as well as future social revolutions. Marxism believesthat culture is the cause of inequality in the society. To Marx, it is the maincause of perceived deterioration of humanities, social science, culture as wellas civilization, therefore, it needs to be corrected by means of politics. Theconcept of Marxism supports the liberal idea which dated back to theseventeenth century, John Locke and Marx through the mathematical calculations,production, and profit proved the need for social equality.
According to thetext, “Marx held that the fundamental organization of any society, includingits politics and culture, derived from the relationships arising from work orproduction” (Hunt, 2012, 746). Marxismfocuses on the economic inequalities as well as economic classes where thereare divisions based on race, religion, family structure, gender, and ethnicity.This ideology places huge importance on the analyses to control a change of thepopular culture, discourse, language as well as the mass media. To Marx,culture has a considerable amount of subconscious influences on the people thatcreates as well as sustain inequalities. Marxists around the globe have triedto eliminate such disparity by having control or restriction on cultures.Different countries like Russia, China, Cuba and Vietnam that aimed to changetheir social superstructure by abolishing inequality among the people formedinstitutions for controlling social culture for creating a new culture. Thisideology assures that this will permanently bring the revolutionary changes,but need no bloodshed or without taking resort to any kind of politicalviolence.
Though these changes, the impact of the revolution became morepermanent as well as deep-rooted. The social evolution that was brought aboutby the revolt, get sustenance through cultural transformation.