fall of mughal

Fall of Mughal Empire I need content key events, reasons,consequences etc.  Time Line of Mughal EmpireMUGHAL EMPIRE ….

….…1526 – 1540, 1555-1857Babar ..

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…1526- 1530 ADHumayun …..

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.1530-1540, 1555-1556 ADAkbar …….

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…….1556 – 1605 ADJahangir .

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.1605 – 1627 ADShahjahan ..

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1628-1658 ADAurangazeb ……

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…1658 – 1707 ADBahadurshah I……………………….1707-1712 ADJahandar Shah…………………………1712-1713 ADFarrukhsiyar…………………………….1713-1719  ADMuhhamad Shah…………………….

1719-1748  AD Decline  Of Mughal EmpireCauses of the Decline of the Mughal Empire·      Deterioration of land relations·       Emergenceof regional powers as successor states·       Selfishstruggle of nobles at the court·       Lack ofinitiative in modern weapons·       Lack ofcontrol over the bankers of the state and above all ·       Aurangzeb’s Deccan campaign Existing means of communication and theeconomic and political structure of the country made it difficult to establisha stable centralized administration over all parts of the countryPolicies of Aurangzeb ·      Created too many enemies .·      Destroyed main pillar of strength of Mughalsi.e. Relations with Rajputs·      Absence from north for 25 years leaddeterioration in administration, defying of central authority by localofficials·      Jat and Sikh uprisings were not large butsignificant because of popularity – peasants form their backbone·       Religious orthodox andpolicy towards Hindu rulers·      Imposing the jaziya, destroying many of theHindu temples in the north, and·      Putting certain restrictions on the Hindus.·      While Akbar, Jahangir, shahjahan tried toestablish a secular state and followed policy of non-interference withreligious beliefs while Aurangzeb policies led to widen the gulf between theHindu and Muslim upper classes·      In his eagerness for further expansion,Aurangzeb exposed to incessant raiding districts in the Deccan that wereformerly secure from outside attack. Unlike Emperor Akbar, who assimilatedRajputs within his kingdom.·       Aurangzebwas unable to effectively assimilate the Maratha, Bedar, Gond or Telugu warriorchiefs .

·      Although they were stationed in the Deccan, theMughals failed to defeat the Marathas.After Aurangzeb·      Neither the Hindus nor the Muslims formed ahomogenous community at that time.·      As Aurangzeb left the Empire with many problemsunsolved, the situation was further·      worsened by the ruinous wars of succession.·      Civil wars loosened the administrative fabric ofthe Empire.·      After Bahadur Shah, the upcoming Emperor doesn’tpossess required capabilities.

·      Most of were worthless, weak-willed and luxury-loving kings while rulers like·      Aurangzeb was neither weak nor degenerated. Helives simple and austere life.Deterioration in character of nobles.

i.e. they were no longer loyal,efficient and alert·      The Mughal courtconsisted of four groups of nobles, the Turanis, the Iranis, the Afghansand the Indian born Muslims·      Fondof Excessive luxury·      Theytook their families with themselves when they go out to fight·      Manywere poorly educated·      Monopolizingof offices by making them hereditary and depriving the ablest person·      Fightingwith each other·      Formedgroups and factions against each other and even against the king·      Lackof public virtue and political foresight·       Selfishness and lack of devotion to state gave birth to corruption in administration·      Reasonfor this was paucity of jagirs and the reduced income of the existing jagirs ata time when no. of nobles and their expenditures was increasing·      Reducedtheir expenditure by not maintaining full quota of troops and thus weakened thearmed strength of Mughal·      Tobalance their own budgets, appropriated khalisah (crown) lands, thus intensifyingthe financial crisis of the central GovernmentStagnation and deterioration in agriculture and impoverishment of peasants·      Burden of land revenue increasing from Akbar’stime·       Constant transfer ofnobles from their jagirs also led to great evil. They tried to extract as muchfrom a jagir as possible in the short period of their tenure as jagirdars.·      They made heavy demands on peasants and cruellyoppressed them·      Rise of new class of revenue farmers and talukdarswhose extortions from peasants formed no bounds Impoverishment of peasants Resulted in:·      Discontent increased·      In some instances, peasants left the land toavoid paying of land revenue·      Discontent found outlet in series of uprisings(the Satnamies, the Jats, the Sikhs, etc.

) which eroded the empire’s stability·      Some ruined peasants formed roving bands ofrobbers and adventurers undermining the law and order and efficiency of empire·      Trade and agriculture was alternative but theyalso faced stagnation·      Bad communications hampered the growth of tradeand commerce·       Nonew advances in science and TechnologyNeglect of overseas trade and navyAbsence of spirit of political nationalism among people·      Existing character of the Indian economy, socialrelations, caste structure, and political institutions was such that the timewas not yet ripe for the unification of Indian society or for its emergence asa nation took little interest in the politic of empireAdministrative Reasons·      Rapid decline in the administrative efficiencyof Mughal empire·      Law and order broke down in many parts of thecountry.·      Unruly Zamindars openly defied centralauthority.·      Even the royal camp and Mughal armies on themarch were often plundered by hostile elements.·       Corruption and bribery,indiscipline and inefficiency, disobedience and disloyalty prevailed on a largescale among officials at all levels.

Financial Causes·       The Central Governmentwas often on the verge of bankruptcy.·      The old accumulated wealth was exhausted whilethe existing sources of incomewere narrowed.·       Many provinces failed toremit provincial revenues to the centre.·      The area of the khalsah lands was graduallyreduced as Emperors tried to placate friendly nobles by granting jagirs out ofthese lands.·      The rebellious Zamindars regularly withheldrevenue.·       Efforts to increaseincome by oppressing the peasantry produced popular reaction.

 Army·       Mughal army lackeddiscipline and fighting morale during 18th century·       Lack of finance made itdifficult to maintain a large army·      Its soldiers and officers were not paid formonths.·      Since soldiers were mere mercenaries, they wereconstantly disaffected and often verged on a mutiny. Foreign invasion·      Attacks by Nadir Shah and Ahmad Shah Abdalidrained the Empire of its wealth, ruined its trade and industry in the North,and almost destroyed its military power.·      British challenge took away the last hope of therevival of the crisis-ridden Empire.Consequences of Decline of Mughal Empire?·       None of the Indian powersrose to claim the heritage of the Grand Mughals for they were strong enough todestroy the Empire but not strong enough to unite it or to create anything newin its place.

·       They could not create anew social order which could stand up to the new enemy from the West. All ofthe powers which were against Mughals were suffering from same weakness whichMughals suffered.·       Degenerated state ofMughals invited Europeans to knock at the gates of India.·       They had the benefit ofcoming from societies which had evolved a superior economic system and whichwere more advanced in science and technology.·       The centuries-oldsocio-economic and political structure of the country was replaced it with acolonial structure.·       The stagnation of Indiansociety was broken and new forces of change emerged.·       Because the motives ofEuropeans were colonial they brought extreme misery, national degradation,economic, political, and cultural backwardness.

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