Foundations of Behavior Essay

The field of psychological science is spread outing and recognition is due to the legion research surveies being conducted. These research surveies utilize different methods and each method has its ain advantages and disadvantages. In this paper. five popular research methods will be compared based on their features. aims. strengths and failings. research techniques. cogency. and dependability. These research methods are instance survey. realistic observation. study research. correlational research. and the experimental method.

The instance survey is a focussed survey on a individual or a specific group or a peculiar state of affairs. Its research design involves five constituents. which are the survey inquiries. the propositions. the units of analysis. the logic associating the information to the propositions. and the standards for construing the findings ( Tellis. 1997 ) . Case surveies have changing intents. Some instance surveies are conducted to either confirm or dispute an bing theory. while others are carried out to depict either a particular or an utmost instance.

A instance survey obtains information from paperss ( letters and newspapers ) . archival records ( service records. study informations ) . interviews. direct observation ( done when field visits are needed ) . participant-observation. and physical artefacts ( instruments and tools ) . One of the most constituted techniques in instance surveies is called pattern-matching. in which the information is linked to propositions. The dependability of instance surveies is comparatively high. particularly when protocols are established. However. cogency. particularly construct cogency. sometimes becomes questionable because the research worker might be subjective in his determinations and readings.

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This can be minimized by using multiple beginnings. by puting up a concatenation of grounds. and by inquiring major sources to reexamine a bill of exchange of the instance survey. The common unfavorable judgment against instance surveies is that its consequences can non be used to get at generalisations. But the greatest strength of instance surveies is that it can show an in-depth and holistic cognition about a peculiar state of affairs. group. or individual. The realistic observation is alone from all other types of observation in that the research worker does non impede. disrupt or act upon the environment being studied.

One of the critical things to see in carry oning realistic observation is to enter as much item as possible. which includes odor. sound. gustatory sensation. clip. topographic point. figure of participants. and feelings. This is why diaries and a assortment of composing stuffs are utilised. But the usage of any recording device. such as picture cameras. is non allowed because it violates the privateness of the ascertained person. The dependability of this research method relies on the truth of observation. One technique of increasing dependability is to hold several perceivers ( Hesse. 2003 ) .

The greatest advantage of realistic observation is that it is well less expensive than other methods. But. the topics being studied may move otherwise because of their consciousness of the presence of the perceiver. This will significantly cut down the cogency of the consequences ( Piercy. 2007 ) . The study research is characterized by its major agencies of roll uping information. The research worker normally goes out and asks inquiries. The inquiries can be unwritten or in written signifier. And the respondents can be chosen in many ways. Some respondents are chosen at random while others must possess certain features.

For illustration. if a study research is about simple instructors. so a high school instructor will non be asked to reply the questionnaire. The techniques involved in study research prevarication in the analysis of the collected information. The dependability and cogency of study research are affected by several factors. such as the quality of the sets of inquiries or the questionnaire. the sum of informations collected. and the truth in utilizing steps of cardinal inclinations and variableness. Ideally. the questionnaire must be standardized. Greater dependability and cogency is achieved if the sample represents a greater portion of the entire population.

One advantage of the study method is that it is comparatively inexpensive and easy. Unfortunately. it is besides capable to human mistake and prejudices ( Government of Saskatchewan. 2002 ) . The correlational research is basically the find of a relationship between two variables. Unlike the antecedently described methods. correlational research is quantitative in nature. The different techniques used in a correlational research are arrested development and anticipation. multiple arrested development. factor analysis. and systems analysis ( Davis. 2004 ) . The greatest advantage of utilizing this method is that its consequences can be used to explicate anticipations and generalisations.

This is due to the nature of the research techniques. But the greatest danger of this method is to over-generalize. It must be remembered that an established relationship between two variables does non intend a cause-effect relationship between them. If a research worker wanted to set up a cause-effect relationship. so the research method to utilize is the experimental method. Similar to the correlational research. it is concerned with variables. which can be either independent or dependent variables. The independent variables are normally manipulated so that there will be two groups being studied. the experimental group and the control group.

These two groups have the same features except for that one variable which is being tested. The difference between these two groups can be found in the dependant variable. The dependability of this method is increased by carry oning the same experiment for several times. Its cogency lies in the truth of the processs and the careful handling and analysis of consequences. The greatest advantage of the experimental method is that it can show an account to a certain phenomenon. But it takes great accomplishment and experience on the portion of the research worker in order to carry on a good research experiment.

One job of experimental method is the issue of moralss in carry oning experiments utilizing human topics. Any of these research methods can be utilized to analyze an issue or phenomenon in psychological science. The footing of pick normally depends on the end of the research. The undertaking of the research worker is to maximise the advantages and minimise the disadvantages of the chosen method.


Davis. J. ( 2004 ) . Correlational research methods. Retrieved October 12. 2007 at hypertext transfer protocol: //clem. mscd. edu/~davisj/prm2/correl1. html Government of Saskatchewan. ( 2002 ) . Psychology 20: Social Psychology: A Curriculum Guide for the Secondary Level.

Retrieved October 12. 2007 at hypertext transfer protocol: //www. sasked. gov. sk. ca/docs/social/psych20/support_materials/faqnaturalistic_observation. htm Hesse. B. E. ( 2003 ) . Issues in realistic observation. Retrieved October 12. 2007 at hypertext transfer protocol: //psyc. csustan. edu/bhesse/psy2020/Lectures/Fall03/p2020U2L5. pdf Piercy. J. ( 2007 ) . Research methods. Retrieved October 12. 2007 at hypertext transfer protocol: //courses. cvcc. vccs. edu/Psychology_Piercy/research_methods1. htm Tellis. W. ( 1997 ) . Introduction to instance survey. The Qualitative Report. 3 ( 2 ) . Retrieved October 12. 2007 at hypertext transfer protocol: //www. nova. edu/ssss/QR/QR3-2/tellis1. hypertext markup language


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