## FTCE K- 6 Science & Technology

What are the 4 physical properties of matter? mass, volume, density, and chemical change
Mass, volume, density, and chemical charge are the 4 physical properties of _________________.

Matter
Matter takes up ________ and has _________. space (volume), mass
Matter not only involves molecules and atoms, but also subatomic particles such as ________ and _________. protons and electrons
Matter not only involves ___________ and _________, but also subatomic particles such as protons and electrons.

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molecules and atoms
The measure of the Earth's pull of gravity on an object is called ____________. weight
The amount of cubic space that an object occupies is called ____________. volume
How is density defined? Density is the the ratio of total mass to total volume. D=M/V
Density defines how closely the _________ are packed together. molecules
________ defines how closely the molecules are packed together. Density
An object's buoyancy is directly related to its __________. density
An object will ________ in liquid or gas if it is denser than the liquid or gas that surrounds it.

sink
An object will ______ in liquid or gas if the density is less than the density of the liquid or gas that surrounds it. float
Matter is in constant __________. change
Does a physical change produce a new substance? No, it just changes in shape or size such as freezing or melting.

A chemical change or reaction produces one or more ____________. substances
Melting, bending, and cracking are all examples of _______ changes. physical
Burning, rusting, and digestion are examples of ________ changes. chemical
True or false: A physical change reaction produces one or more substances? False, a physical change does not produce a new substance. A chemical reaction does.
Which type of reaction produces one or more substances? Chemical
Ture or False: A glass broken into pieces is an example of a physical change. True
What are the 4 classifications of matter? elements, compounds, mixtures, and solutions
Elements, compounds, mixtures, and solutions are the 4 classifications of _________________. Matter
An element is a substance that consists of only one type of atom.

An element can not be broken down into other substances of that element.
An atom is the smallest particle of an element, which retains the properties of that element.
The atom is the basic building block of all matter.
When can an atom be spilt? Under atomic reactions
When an atom is split it changes the number of protons and neutrons of an atom.
Atomic reactions may take place in the sun, nuclear power reactors, nuclear bombs, and radioactive decay.
Atoms are made of three components of subatomic particles, the _________, _________, and _________. protons, neutrons, and electrons
___________ are made of three components of subatomic particles, the protons, neutrons, and electrons.

Atoms
The ______ and _______ are in the nucleus part of the atom. protons and neutrons
____________ are in the outer apart of the atom. electrons
A _______________ is the smallest particle of substance that may exist independently and still maintain all the properties of the substance. molecule
A molecule is the smallest particle of substance that may exist independently and still maintain all the __________ of the substance. properties
The molecules of most elements are made of _______ atom. one
The molecules of oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and chlorine are made of ________ atoms each. two
The three main states or phases of matter are __________,_____________, and _____________. gas, liquid, and solid
Gas, liquid, and solid are the three main states of __________.

matter
_________ has no definite volume or shape. gas
A mixture is any combination of two or more substances, not chemically combined and without and definite weight proportions. mixture
What is a mixture? A mixture is any combination of two or more substances, not chemically combined and without and definite weight proportions.
In a ___________ the substances keep their own chemical properties. mixture
In a mixture the substances keep their own _________ properties. chemical
Homogeneous mixtures are called _______________.

Solutions
_______________ is a substance that consists of only one type of atom. element
An element is a substance that consists of only one type of _______. atom
A ___________ is matter that combines atoms chemically in definite weight proportions. Compound
____________ is a phase change that involves changing from a liquid to a solid. Freezing
___________ happens when the temperature of a solid is raised enough and the result is a liquid. Melting
The transition between water and steam of phase change due to the effect of temperature is ___________. boiling
_________________ is a measure related to the average kinetic energy of the molecules of a substance Temperature
_________________ is not energy, but it is a number that relates to the kinetic energy possessed by the molecules of a substance. temperature
Temperature is a measure related to the average ___________ energy of the molecules of a substance kinetic
Temperature is not energy, but it is a number that relates to the ______________ energy possessed by the molecules of a substance.

kinetic
Temperature is not energy, but it is a number that relates to the kinetic energy possessed by the ______________ of a substance. molecules
In the Fahrenheit scale water freezes at ________ degrees and boils at _________ degrees. 32, 212
In the Celsius scale water freezes at ___________ degrees and boils at __________ degrees. 0,100
________ energy is made up of the kinetic and the potential energies of the molecules of the substance. total
___________ is the measurement of the total energy in a substance. Heat
Heat is the measurement of the total ____________ in a substance.

energy
The ___________ the molecules are moving, the hotter the temperature becomes. faster
The faster the ______________ are moving, the hotter the temperature becomes. molecules
Total energy is made up of the ___________ and the __________ energies of the molecules of the substance. kinetic, potential
Total energy is made up of the kinetic and the potential energies of the _____________ of the substance. molecules
____________________ is a measurement of the total energy in a substance. Heat
______________ is a measure related to the average kinetic energy of the molecules of a substance temperature
True or False: The concepts of heat and temperature define the same thing? False.
____________ is the branch of mechanics that studies the relationship between motion and the forces affecting motion of bodies. Dynamics
___________ is a pull or push upon an object that results from the objects interaction with another object.

force
What are the two main types of forces? Contact force and at a distance force
What is contact force? Requires physical contact
What is at a distance force? Non-contact force such as gravitational, magnetic, and electrostatic forces.
What type of force: Non-contact force such as gravitational, magnetic, and electrostatic forces. At a distance force
An object's _______ gives the object a reluctance to change its current state of motion and a measure of its resistance to acceleration. mass
An object's weight on Earth is the ________ that Earth's gravity exerts on an object with a specific mass. force
_____________ is the force involved when surfaces that touch each other have a certain resistance to motion. Friction
__________ force is the application of force to bend, dent, scratch, compress, or break something. Mechanical
___________ forces result even when the interacting objects are not in physical contact, but they exert a push or pull despite their physical separation.

At a distance
__________ forces are the result of the physical interaction between objects Contact force
___________ forces are involved in the application of force to bend, dent, scratch, compress, or break something. Mechanical
Which is faster the speed of light or the speed of sound? Light
Light waves can go through ________ materials such as air, water, and clear glass, but can not go through ________ materials such as a brick wall, and can only travel partially through _____________ material such as frosted glass. transparent (see through), opaque (such as a brick wall), translucent (frosted glass)
Rough surfaces tend to scatter lightwaves in _________ direction(s). many
Smooth surfaces tend to scatter lightwaves in _________ direction(s). one
____________ occurs when light passes through a transparent material like water at a slant angle, the ray of light bends or changes direction.

refraction
Light always travels in a _________ ___________. straight line
_______________ occurs when a ray of light bends around the edges of an object. diffraction
___________ is a branch of physics that studies the physical properties of light.

optics
Optics provides information about the behavior and properties of light and its interaction with __________. matter
______________ provides information about the behavior and properties of light and its interaction with matter. Optics
A ___________ is a piece of transparent and curved material. lens
_____________ lenses are thicker in the middle and are used as magnifying glasses and to help correct the vision of nearsighted people. convex
A _________ is a transparent object with flat polished surfaces that refracts or diffuses light. prism
_________ is a branch of physics that studies the physical properties of matter. optics
A type of energy that has a comparatively low level of physical weight or density is called ___________.

light
A ______ is a piece of transparent and curved material. lens
______________ is a physical occurrence related to stationary and moving electrons and protons. electricity
Electricity is a physical occurrence related to stationary and moving ______________ and ______________. electrons and protons
Electrical energy is made by the flow of an electric charge through a _______________. conductor
A ______________ allows electricity to flow freely through it. conductor
An ______________ such as glass, rubber, and air, does not allow electricity to flow freely through it.

insulator.
____________ may transmit electrical energy. Atoms
Atoms may transmit ____________ energy. electrical
_______________ atoms contain an equal number of protons and neutrons because they cancel each other out and provide no net charge. Neutral
Neutral atoms contain an equal number of _________ and _________ because they cancel each other out and provide no net charge.

protons and neutrons
Neutral atoms contain an equal number of protons and neutrons because they cancel each other out and provide no _________ charge. net
Atoms with a ____________ charge contain more electrons than protons. negative
Atoms with a negative charge contain __________ electrons than protons.

more
Atoms with a ____________ charge contain fewer electrons than protons. positive
Atoms with a positive charge contain ____________ electrons than protons. fewer
Electric current is the flow of electricity through a _____________. conductor
______________ circuits use only one electrical path. Series
Series circuits use _________ electrical path(s). One
___________ circuits use several electrical path(s). Parallel
Parallel circuits use __________ electrical paths. Several
___________ can produce static electricity.

friction
Friction can produce _____________ electricity. static
__________ electricity refers to the accumulation of excess electrical charge in a region that has poor electrical conductivity, it is the build up of electrical charge on the surface of an object(s). static
Static electricity refers to the accumulation of excess electrical charge in a region that has __________ electrical conductivity, it is the build up of electrical charge on the surface of an object(s).

poor
____________ charges repel one another. LIke
Like charges _________ one another. repel
______________ charges attract one another. opposite
Opposite charges ____________ one another. attract
A ___________ is a closed loop through which electrical charges can continuously move. circuit
The accumulation of electrical charge in a region that has poor electrical conductivity is called __________ electricity. static
A ______________ allows electricity to flow freely through it.

conductor
energy can be created or destroyed, but it can be __________ from one form of energy to another. transformed
A person uses ________ energy to clap producing sound energy. mechanical
A person uses mechanical energy to clap producing __________ energy. sound
The sun provides ___________ energy to help plants produce chemical energy. light
The sun provides light energy to help plants produce __________ energy.

chemical
The _____________ energy used to rub our hands together is transformed into heat or thermal energy. mechanical
The mechanical energy used to rub our hands together is transformed into heat or ____________ energy. thermal
The wind provides ______________ energy, which can be transformed into electrical energy. mechanical
The wind provides mechanical energy, which can be transformed into _______________ energy. electrical
A battery is _______________ energy that becomes electrical energy in a CD player, the CD player emits sound energy. chemical
A battery is chemical energy that becomes electrical energy in a CD player, the CD player emits ______________ energy. sound
_______________ energy is transformed into heat energy in an oven. Electrical
Electrical energy is transformed into heat energy in an oven.

heat
Wood provides ____________ energy, which changes to light energy and heat energy in a fire. chemical
Wood provides chemical energy, which changes to light energy and _____________ energy in a fire. heat
A plane uses _____________ energy from gasoline to fly, producing mechanical energy.

chemical
A plane uses chemical energy from gasoline to fly, producing ________________ energy. mechanical
A person uses _____________ energy from food to ride a bike, producing mechanical energy. chemical
A person uses chemical energy from food to ride a bike, producing _____________ energy. mechanical
A car transforms ___________ energy from gasoline to mechanical energy. chemical
A car transforms chemical energy from gasoline to ______________ energy.

mechanical
A man uses _____________ energy to ring the doorbell, producing sound energy. mechanical
A man uses mechanical energy to ring the doorbell, producing ______________ energy. sound
__________ energy is considered the most internal of objects, which is created by vibration and movement. thermal
___________ or_________ energy is energy in the form of mechanical waves transmitted through materials like plastic or air. They can be audible or in waves. sound or acoustic
__________ energy is from the sun. solar
Solar energy is from the sun and may be converted into ________ or _________ energy.

thermal or electrical
___________ or light energy is transmitted int eh form of electromagnetic waves or radiation. X-rays are an example. radiant
_________ energy is present in the nucleus of the atom. nuclear
__________________ energy is the sum of potential energy and kinetic energy. Mechanical
Mechanical energy is the sum of ________ energy and ________ energy. potential energy and kinetic energy
Energy of motion is known as ___________ energy. Kinetic
Energy that is stored is known as ____________ energy.

potential
The combustion of gasoline provokes a reaction that releases ____ energy. chemical
___________ energy is considered the most internal energy of objects, which is created by vibration and movement. thermal
Daylight is a result of ___________ energy solar
True or False: The motion of all bodies is governed by the same basic rules. True
_____________ forces do not cause a change in motion, they are opposite in direction and equal in size. Balanced
Balanced forces do not cause a change in motion, they are ______________ in direction and equal in size. opposite
____________ forces always cause a change in motion.

Unbalanced
______________ forces can be in the same direction and in opposite directions. Unbalanced. Examples: A game of Tug of War (Opposite) and when a car breaks down and people have to push it (The same direction the force of the people are pushing the car)
True or False: Balanced forces do not cause a change in motion. True
When working with balances and unbalanced forces, the strength of forces moving in the same direction are combined by ________ them. adding
Earth Science encompasses all aspects of knowledge of _____ and the Earth.

geology
The earth is divided into three main layers, the ___________, _____________, and the ___________. Core, mantle, and crust
What is the innermost layer of the Earth? core
The core of the earth is approximately _________ miles below the surface of the earth. 1800
The core of the earth is made up of __________ and _________. iron and nickel
The core of the earth is divided into two sections, the _________ and the ___________.

inner core and outer core
The ___________ core is solid and approximately 780 miles thick. inner
The inner core is solid and approximately _________ miles thick. 780
The ________ core is made up of iron, nickel, and other light elements. inner
The inner core is made up of ______, _______ and other light elements. iron, nickel,
The pressure of the _______________ core is so great that despite high temperatures it will not melt.

inner
The ___________ core is always molten, or melted. outer
The __________ core is made up mostly of iron with some nickel and other elements and makes up the remainder of the core, approximately 1300 miles. outer
The outer core is made up mostly of iron with some nickel and other elements and makes up the remainder of the core, approximately ____________ miles. 1300
It is a given that the Earth rotates, however the ______ core rotates while the _______ core does not due to its solid nature, thus it creates Earth's magnetism.

outer, inner
It is a given that the Earth rotates, however the outer core rotates while the inner core does not due to its solid nature, thus it creates Earth's ______________. magnetism
The layer above the core is called the ___________. mantle
The mantle begins about ______ miles under the ocean's crust and is 19 miles below the continent's crust. 6
The ___________ begins about 6 miles under the ocean's crust and is 19 miles below the continent's crust. mantle
The mantle begins about 6 miles under the ocean's crust and is 19 miles below the _______________ crust.

continent's
The _____________ makes up the majority of the Earth's volume. mantle
The top layer of the earth is called the ___________. crust
The crust is the hard outer shell of the earth and is the ______________ layer of the Earth. thinnest
The _____________ is the hard outer shell of the earth and is the thinnest layer of the Earth.

crust
The crust floats on the mantle and is ___________ material. solid
There are two types of crust, the _________ crust and the ___________ crust. oceanic crust and the continental crust.
The _____________ crust is that part of the crust under the oceans. oceanic
The ocean crust is about __________ miles thick.

4-7
The rock in the ocean crust is generally ___________ and consists mainly of basalt. younger
_________ % of the Earth's surface is oceanic crust. 71
The ____________ crust, makes up 29% of the Earth's surface.

continental
The continental crust, makes up _________ % of the Earth's surface. 29
The continental crust is the part of the Earth's surface that makes up our __________________. continents
There are six continents what are they? Eurasia (Europe and Asia), Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, and Australia.
The inner core is __________ and approximately 780 miles thick. solid
It is a given that the Earth rotates, however the outer core rotates while the inner core does not due to its _________ nature, thus it creates Earth's magnetism. solid
The crust floats on the _________ and is solid material.

mantle
The rock in the ocean crust is generally younger and consists mainly of ___________. basalt
71% of the Earth's surface is ____________ crust. oceanic
Because the Earths core is so hot, heat develops a current which radiates to the Earth's crust through ________ currents. convection
Convection currents cause the plates of the Earth's crust to move, which is called ________ __________. plate tectonics
Igneous rocks are form from the cooling of ________. magma
Examples of igneous rock are ________ and _________. granite and basalt
Granite and basalt are two examples of what type of rock? igneous
_____ rocks cover igneous rocks with loose sediment.

Sedimentary
__________ rocks are created when layers of debris or sediment, are compacted or fuse together. Sedimentary
What are the three types of sedimentary rocks? Clastic, chemical, and organic
Clastic, chemical, and organic are the three types of ________ rocks. sedimentary
__________ rocks are basic sedimentary rocks and are accumulations of broken pieces of rocks. clastic
___________ rocks are formed when standing water evaporates and leaves dissolved minerals behind. chemical
_______ rocks are formed form materials such as shells, bones, and teeth. organic
____________ rocks form when a pre-existing rock is moved into an environment in which the minerals that make up the rock become unstable, often burial. The rock changes as it seeks to regain equilibrium, forming a new rock.

Metamorphic
What are examples of common metamorphic rock? Slate, gneiss, marble
Slate, gneiss, marble are examples of ___________ rock. metamorphic
Soil is formed by the weathering of __________ and __________. rocks and minerals
__________ is formed by the weathering of rocks and minerals.

soil
Is water a renewable resource? No
What are the four steps of the water cycle? Evaporation, condensation, precipitation, and collection
_________ occurs when the sun heats up the water on the surface of the Earth. evaporation
____________ occurs when the water vapor in the air cools and changes back into liquid, forming clouds. condensation
___________ occurs when the amount of water that has condensed in the air is too much for the air to hold. precipitation
________________ occurs when the water returns to the surface of the Earth and falls back into water sources like oceans, lakes, or rivers. collection
What are the five types of air masses? Continental arctic, Continental Polar, Maritime Polar, Maritime Tropical, and Continental Tropical
__________ is the horizontal movement of air.

wind
The equator receives direct rays from the sun. The moist air is heated and rises, leaving low-pressure regions called _________. Doldrums
What is a doldrum? A low pressure region of little steady air movement.
When doldrums move north and south of the equator, they begin to sink and cool, some of that air moves back toward the equator forming __________ __________. trade winds
What are the four main types of clouds? Stratus, cumulus, cirrus, and nimbus
________ clouds are horizontal, layered clouds that appear to blanket the sky. They form where warm, moist air passes over cool air.

stratus
___________ clouds are puffy and look like cotton balls. They generally form when warm, moist air is forced upward. As the air rises it cools.

The size of the cloud depends on the force of upward movement. They produce thunderstorms.

Cumulus
________ clouds are wispy and feathery. They only form at high altitudes and are composed of ice crystals.

cirrus
_____ clouds produce precipitation. Nimbus
These types of clouds form only at high altitudes and are composed of ice crystals. cirrus
What is percolation? The downward movement of water through the soil and rock in the ground.
The downward movement of water through the soil and rock in the ground is known as ______________? percolation
What is leaching? The process by which materials in the soil are transferred into the water.
The process by which materials in the soil are transferred into the water is known as _____________.

leaching
What is an aquifer? A formation that transmits water under the surface of the Earth.
A formation that transmits water under the surface of the Earth is known as a(n) ______________. aquifer
What are the three ways that heat is transferred through the Earth's system? radiation, conduction, and convection
Radiation, conduction, and convection are three ways that _______ is transferred through the Earth's system.

heat
____________ is when heat is transferred through electromagnetic waves. radiation
________________ occurs when heat transfers through molecular movement. Conduction
________ occurs through the movement of masses, either air or water. convection
What are the four stages of the water process? evaporation, condensation, precipitation, and collection
True or False: Trade winds form at the poles? False, trade winds form at the equator.
What are three methods of heat transfer? radiation, conduction, and convection
What is the name of our Solar System? The Milky Way
What is the smallest planet? Mercury
Does Mercury have any moons? If so how many? none
What planet is most like the moons surface? Mercury
Is Venus hot or cold? Hot due to the thick gases in the atmosphere causing a greenhouse effect.
Which planet is nicknamed the "Red Planet"? Mars because it is covered with a rusty colored soil.

Does Mars have any moons? If so how many? Yes, two. Phobos and Diemos
What is the largest planet? Jupiter
Which three planets have rings? Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus
Which planet has a large red spot. Jupiter
What is the second largest planet? Saturn
Does Jupiter have any moons? If so how many? None
Does Saturn have any moons? If so how many? Yes, 20.

What is the third largest planet? Uranus
Which planet has blue-greenish gasses made up of hydrogen, helium, and methane? Uranus
Which planet has five large moons and ten small moonlets? Uranus
Which planet has poles that point sideways and has an angle of 98 degrees? Uranus
The planets orbit around the _________. Sun
The tilt of the Earth's axis accounts for the ___________. seasons
___________ are bodies in space made up of rocks, frozen water, frozen gases, and dust. Comets
____________ are made up of metal, rock, or ice and are like planets in that they orbit the sun. Asteroids
A belt of ____________ exists between Mars and Jupiter and separates the planets. astroids
_________ are objects that rotate around the sun but are too small to be called asteroids or comets. They are made up of bits and pieces of the solar system that have fallen into Earth's atmosphere. Meteors
___________ are made up entirely of gases and are mostly made up of hydrogen.

stars
Stars are made up entirely of __________ and are mostly made up of hydrogen. gases
Stars are made up entirely of gages and are mostly made up of _____________. hydrogen
The mass of a stars depends upon what? Color, temperature, and size
The color, temperature, and size of a star determines its _________.

mass
Moons are ______ of planets. satellites
Moons generally orbit around a __________. planet
What are the phases of the moon a result of? The sunlight hitting the moon's surface and then reflecting it towards the Earth.
Does the moon create its own light? No, it is reflected from the sunlight hitting the moon's surface.
When does a FULL moon occur? When the moon and sun are on opposite sides of the earth, giving a full reflection of the moon's surface.

When does a NEW moon occur? When the moon and sun are on the same sides of the Earth, giving no reflection of the moon's surface toward the Earth.
What is the time between full moons? Approximately 29 days
When did space exploration begin? In 1914 when Robert Goddard received two patents for rockets.
Space exploration begin in ________ when Robert Goddard received two patents for rockets. 1914
Space exploration begin in 1914 when _______ _________ received two patents for rockets. Robert Goddard
Space exploration begin in 1914 when Robert Goddard received two patents for ____________. rockets
________ _________ begin in 1914 when Robert Goddard received two patents for rockets.

Space exploration
In ___________, Robert Goddard successfully applied his rocketry theories and launched the first liquid fueled rocket in Massachusetts. 1926
In 1926, Robert Goddard successfully applied his rocketry theories and launched the first _________ fueled rocket in Massachusetts. liquid
In 1942 __________ launched the first rocket to reach sub-orbital spaceflight.

Germany
In __________ Germany launched the first rocket to reach sub-orbital spaceflight. 1942
In _________ the US launched an American made rocket in White Sands, NM. 1946
In 1946 the US launched an American made rocket in ____________.

White Sands, NM
In ___________ the Soviet Union launched Sputnik, the first satellite to be placed into orbit. 1957
In 1957 the Soviet Union launched ___________, the first satellite to be placed into orbit. Sputnik
In 1957, Sputnik transmitted _______ _________ back to Earth for a short time. radio signals
In _________, Sputnik transmitted radio signals back to Earth for a short time. 1957
In _________ the Soviet Union launched Sputnik 2, which housed a dog contained in a pressurized container with food supplies and an atmosphere; this showed it was possible to survive in space. 1957
When Sputnik 2 was launch by the Soviet Union, what did it contain and why? In 1957 the Soviet Union launched Sputnik 2, which housed a dog contained in a pressurized container with food supplies and an atmosphere; this showed it was possible to survive in space.
In ________ the US launched the first satellite, Explorer 1.

1958
In 1958 the US launched the first ________, Explorer 1. satellite
In _______ the US created NASA. 1958
What does the abbreviation NASA represent? National Aeronautics and Space Administration
In _________ the Soviet Union Cosmonaut Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin became the first human in space; he made one complete orbit around the Earth and his flight lasted 1 hour and 48 minutes. 1961
In 1961 the Soviet Union Cosmonaut ____________ became the first human in space; he made one complete orbit around the Earth and his flight lasted 1 hour and 48 minutes. Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin
In _________ US astronaut Alan Shepard was launched into space and completed a sub-orbital flight of 15 minutes 1961
In 1961 US astronaut ________________ was launched into space and completed a sub-orbital flight of 15 minutes Alan Shepard
In 1958 the US launched the first satellite, ___________. Explorer 1
In ___________ US astronaut John Glenn became the first American to orbit the Earth; he made three orbits. 1962
In 1962 US astronaut ______________ became the first American to orbit the Earth; he made three orbits.

John Glenn
In 1962 US astronaut John Glenn became the first American to orbit the Earth; he made _______ orbits. three
In __________ the Soviet Union followed by the United States, landed an unmanned spacecraft on the moon. 1966
In 1966 the Soviet Union followed by the United States, landed an ___________ spacecraft on the moon. unmanned
What was the first country to land an unmanned spacecraft on the moon.

Soviet Union, but the US followed in the same year, 1966.
In _________ Apollo 11 lands on the moon; Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin Jr, become the first human beings to walk on the moon. 1969
In 1969 ___________ lands on the moon; Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin Jr, become the first human beings to walk on the moon. Apollo 11
In 1969 Apollo 11 lands on the moon; ______________ and ___________, become the first human beings to walk on the moon. Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin Jr
In ________ the first space station, Salyut 1, is placed into orbit, by the Soviet Union. 1971
In 1971 the first space station, ___________, is placed into orbit, by the Soviet Union. Salyut 1
In 1971 the first space station, Salyut 1, is placed into orbit, by the __________.

Soviet Union
In ________ the Apollo 15 astronauts became to first to drive a rover on the surface of the moon. 1971
In 1971 the _________ astronauts became to first to drive a rover on the surface of the moon. Apollo 15
In ____________ the first US Space Station, Skylab, was placed into orbit. 1973
In 1973 the first US Space Station, ____________, was placed into orbit.

Skylab
In __________ the first Space Shuttle, Columbia, was launched. 1981
In 1981 the first Space Shuttle, __________, was launched. Columbia
In _________ Space Shuttle Challenger makes its first mission. 1983
In 1983 Space Shuttle ____________ makes its first mission. Challenger
Who was the first woman astronaut in space? Sally Ride
In what year did Sally Ride become the first woman launched into space? 1983
In 1983 Space Shuttle Discovery makes its first mission. 1983
In 1983 Space Shuttle ________ makes its first mission. Discovery
In 1985 Space Shuttle Atlantis launches its first mission.

1985
In 1985 Space Shuttle ________ launches its first mission. Atlantis
In _________ Space Shuttle Challenger explodes during liftoff. 1986
In 1986 Space Shuttle ____________ explodes during liftoff. Challenger
The Space Station Mir was launched by what country? Soviet Union (Russia)
In what year was the Mir Space Station successfully launched by Russia? 1986
What is the Hubble Space Telescope used for? To image space
In what year was the Hubble Space Telescope deployed? 1990
In ___________ the US launched the Space Shuttle Endeavor on its first mission. 1992
In 1992 the US launched the Space Shuttle __________ on its first mission.

Endeavor
In what year did the Space Shuttle Atlantis rendezvous with the Space Station Mir? 1992
In what year did the US complete the 100th space walk? 2001
In __________ the US Space Shuttle Columbia breaks up in the atmosphere over Texas on re-entry. 2003
In 2003 the US Space Shuttle _____________ breaks up in the atmosphere over Texas on re-entry. Columbia
What are the four phases of the moon? New Moon, First Quarter Moon, Full Moon, Last Quarter Moon
How many phases of the moon are there? 4
What two space shuttles were destroyed during missions? Challenger and Columbia
In which Apollo mission did Armstrong and Aldrin walk on the moon? Apollo 11
Why is Apollo 11 mission so remarkable? It was the mission in which Armstrong and Aldrin walked on the moon.
In order to be considered a living thing, what 6 criteria must be met? Made up of cells, obtain and use energy, grow and develop, reproduce, respond to stimuli in environment, adapt to environment.

Define: Taxonomy The classification of living things into categories based on physical characteristics.
What are the 8 taxonomical classifications? Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species, Domain
What are these known as? Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species, Domain The 8 taxonomical classifications
How many Domains are there? What are they? 3: Archaea, Bacteria, Eukarya
How many Kingdoms are there? What are they? 6: Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, Protists, Fungi, Plants, Animals
Archaea, Bacteria, Eukarya are the three different types of _______________. Domains
Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, Protists, Fungi, Plants, Animals are the six different types of __________________.

Kingdoms
All living things are made up of _________. cells
_________ are the smallest unit of living things. cells
Cells come in many shapes and sizes and can perform different functions, but they all have what 4 things in common? All cells contain cell membranes, cytoplasm, organelles, and DNA.
What is the cell membrane? The cell membrane surrounds the cell and provides a protective layer that covers the surface of the cell and acts as a barrier to its environment. It controls what goes in and out of the cel.
What controls what goes in and out of the cell? The cell membrane.

What provides a protective layer that covers the surface of the cell? The cell membrane.
Inside the cell is fluid; this fluid is known as the _____________. cytoplasm
What is cytoplasm? The fluid inside of the cell
Within cells are _______________, which carry out the life process within the cell. organelles
What carries out the life process within the cell? The organelles
Organelles perform specific functions within the cell and different cell types have ____________ organelles. different
Are all organelles within the cell the same? No, organelles perform specific functions within the cell and different cell types have different organelles.

All cells contain ___________, the genetic material that contains information needed to make new cells. DNA
___________ is passed from parent cells to new cells and determines the type and function of the cell. DNA
In some cells the ______________ is enclosed inside an organelle called the nucleus; these cells are called eukaryotes. DNA
In some cells the DNA is enclosed inside an organelle called the ________________; these cells are called eukaryotes. nucleus
In some cells the DNA is enclosed inside an organelle called the nucleus; these cells are called _______________. eukaryotes
In some cells the DNA is enclosed inside an ______________ called the nucleus; these cells are called eukaryotes.

organelle
In some cells the DNA is enclosed inside an organelle called the nucleus; these cells are called eukaryotes. In other cells, a nucleus does not exist. These cells are called _____________. prokaryotes
Cells that do not contain a nucleus are called _____________. prokaryotes
Cells that do not contain a ____________ are called prokaryotes.

nucleus
______________ cells, cells in which the DNA is enclosed in the nucleus, have cell walls, which are a rigid structure that gives support to the cell. Eukaryotic
Eukaryotic cells, cells in which the DNA is enclosed in the nucleus, have cell walls, which are a rigid structure that does what? gives support to the cell
Eukaryotic cells, cells in which the DNA is enclosed in the nucleus, have ______ _________, which are a rigid structure that gives support to the cell. cell walls
The ________ __________l is the outermost part of the cell. cell wall
The cell wall is the ___________ part of the cell. outermost
Cells walls in plants and algae are made up of ___________, a complex sugar that animals cannot digest without help. cellulose
Cells walls in __________ and algae are made up of cellulose, a complex sugar that animals cannot digest without help. plants
Cells walls in plants and __________ are made up of cellulose, a complex sugar that animals cannot digest without help.

algae
Cells walls in plants and algae are made up of cellulose, a complex _____________ that animals cannot digest without help. sugar
Cells walls in plants and algae are made up of cellulose, a complex sugar that animals cannot ___________ without help. digest
What causes a plant to droop? THe cell walls allow the plant to stand up. When the cells lack water, the cell walls collapse and the plant has no support so it droops.
In cells _________ a cell wall, the cell membrane is the outermost part of the cell.

without
In cells __________ a cell wall, the cell membrane is just inside the cell wall. with
In cells without a cell wall, the cell membrane is the _____________ part of the cell. outermost
In cells with a cell wall, the cell membrane is __________ the cell wall. just inside
The cell membrane of ___________ cells contains proteins, lipids, and phospholipids. eukaryotic
The cell membrane of eukaryotic cells contains ________, lipids, and phospholipids. proteins
___________ and ___________ control the movement of larger materials into and out of the cell. Proteins and lipids
Proteins and lipids control the movement of larger materials into and out of the ___________. cell
Small nutrients and water move into the cell while wastes move out of the cell by _____________.

diffusion
Small nutrients and water move ________ the cell while wastes moves _________ of the cell by diffusion. into, out
The web of proteins inside the cytoplasm is called the _______________. cytoskeleton
The ________________ acts as both muscles and a skeleton for the cell. cytoskeleton
The cytoskeleton acts as both __________ and a skeleton for the cell. muscles
The ______________ keeps the cell membrane from collapsing and helps cells move. cytoskeleton
The cytoskeleton keeps the cell membrane from ___________ and helps cells move.

collapsing
The cell membrane of eukaryotic cells contains proteins, __________, and phospholipids. lipids
The cell membrane of eukaryotic cells contains proteins, lipids, and ________________. phospholipids
The cell membrane of eukaryotic cells contains ____________, _____________, and _____________. proteins, lipids, and phospholipids
____________ and lipids control the movement of larger materials into and out of the cell. proteins
Proteins and ___________ control the movement of larger materials into and out of the cell. lipids
What controls the movement of larger materials into and out of the cell. proteins and lipids
The web of ______________ inside the cytoplasm is called the cytoskeleton.

proteins
The cytoskeleton acts as both muscles and a _________ for the cell. skeleton
The cytoskeleton acts as both ___________ and as a ____________ for the cell. muscles and a skeleton
The cytoskeleton keeps the cell membrane from collapsing and helps cells ____________. move
Eukaryotic cells contain a _____________, a large organelle containing the cell's DNA. nucleus
Eukaryotic cells contain a nucleus, a large organelle containing the cell's ___________. DNA
The cell's _________ contains the information on how to make the cell's proteins. DNA
The proteins are not made in the nucleus; instead the instructions for making the protein are copied from the ___________ and sent out through the pores in the nucleus.

DNA
The proteins are not made in the nucleus; instead the instructions for making the protein are copied from the DNA and sent out through the pores in the ____________. nucleus
The nucleus of many cells contains the ____________, a dark area in which the cell begins to make ribosomes. nucleolus
The nucleus of many cells contains the nucleolus, a dark area in which the cell begins to make _____________.

ribosomes
_________ are the smallest of all organelles. Ribosomes
Ribosomes are the ____________ of all organelles. smallest
Some ribosomes ___________ in the cytoplasm, while others are attached to the membranes or the cytoskeleton.

float
Some ribosomes float in the cytoplasm, while others are attached to the membranes or the ______________. cytoskeleton
Ribosomes are not covered by a membrane. membrane
The power source of the cell is the _____________, the organelle in which sugar is broken down to produce energy. mitochondria
In ALL cases, ______________ build proteins which are made of amino acids. All cells need proteins to live so ALL cells have ribosomes. ribosomes
In ALL cases, ribosomes build proteins which are made of ___________ ____________.

All cells need proteins to live so ALL cells have ribosomes.

amino acids
_____________ reactions take place in a cell, many of which take place on the endoplasmic reticulum, or ER, a system of folded membranes in which proteins, lipids, and other materials are made. Chemical
Chemical reactions take place in a cell, many of which take place on the __________ _________, a system of folded membranes in which proteins, lipids, and other materials are made. endoplasmic reticulum
The folded membranes of the _________ ____________ contain many tubes and passageways for delivering substances to different parts of the cell.

endoplasm reticulum,
The folded membranes of the endoplasm reticulum, contain many tubes and passageways for delivering substances to different parts of the ___________. cell
There are 2 types of endoplasm reticulum, ____________ and __________. smooth and rough
There are 2 types of ______________ ____________, smooth and rough. endoplasm reticulum
_____________ ER is covered in ribosomes and is usually found near the nucleus.

Rough
Rough ER is covered in ______________ and is usually found near the nucleus. ribosomes
_____________ ER does not contain ribosomes, but makes lipids and breaks down toxic material that could damage the cell. Smooth
Smooth ER does not contain _______________, but makes lipids and breaks down toxic material that could damage the cell. ribosomes
In ALL cases, ribosomes build proteins which are made of amino acids. All cells need ____________ to live so ALL cells have ribosomes. proteins
In ALL cases, ribosomes build proteins which are made of amino acids.

All cells need proteins to live so ALL cells have ____________.

ribosomes
The power source of the cell is the mitochondria, the organelle in which ____________ is broken down to produce energy. sugar
Chemical reactions take place in a cell, many of which take place on the endoplasmic reticulum, or ER, a system of folded membranes in which ___________, ___________, and other materials are made.

proteins, lipids
The folded ___________ of the endoplasm reticulum, contain many tubes and passageways for delivering substances to different parts of the cell. membranes
Rough ER is covered in ribosomes and is usually found near the _______________. nucleus
Smooth ER does not contain ribosomes, but makes __________ and breaks down toxic material that could damage the cell. lipids
Smooth ER does not contain ribosomes, but makes lipids and breaks down ___________ material that could damage the cell.

toxic
The power source of the cell is the mitochondria, the organelle in which sugar is broken down to produce ____________. energy
_____________ are covered by two membranes, the outer membrane and the inner membrane. Mitochondria
Mitochondria are covered by _______ membranes. 2, the outer membrane and the inner membrane
__________________ make a substance called ATP, the form of energy that cells can use. Mitochondria
Mitochondria make a substance called __________, the form of energy that cells can use. ATP
Where is ATP produced at? (Be specific) The INNER layer of the mitochondria
The inner layer of the mitochondria produces __________. ATP
The organelle that packages and distributes proteins is called the ___________ ____________. Golgi Complex
The organelle that packages and distributes ___________ is called the Golgi Complex.

proteins
The _________ ___________ looks like smooth ER, but its job is to take the lipids and the proteins made from the ER and deliver them to other parts of the cell. Golgi Complex
The Golgi Complex looks like smooth ER, but its job is to take the __________ and the ____________ made from the ER and deliver them to other parts of the cell. lipids and the proteins
The Golgi Complex might modify ____________ and _________ to do different jobs. lipids and proteins
The final product of the Golgi Complex is enclosed in a piece of the Golgi's Complex membrane that then pinches off in a small bubble called a ______________, which transports the lipids and proteins to other p